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TRADE is a fluctuating thing; it passed from Tyre to REMAINS OF THE ANCIENT CHURCH IN Alexandria, from Alexandria to Venice, from Venice to
DOVER CASTLE. Antwerp, from Antwerp to Amsterdam and London, the English rivalling the Dutch, as the French are now rival- Kent is an interesting county. In richness, ferling both. All nations almost, are wisely applying them tility, and natural beauty, it may in many parts disselves to trade, and it behoves those who are in possession pute the claim of South Devon, to be considered the of it, to take the greatest care that they do not lose it. It
“Garden of England;" whilst to the lover of history is a plant of tender growth, it requires sun and soil and fine and antiquities it presents a field, certainly unrivalled seasons to make it thrive and flourish. It will not grow in this island. Here was the chief theatre of the like the palm-tree, which, with the more weight and pressure, rises the more. Liberty is a friend to that, as that is Roman power in Britain ; though of their magnifia friend to liberty. But the greatest enemy to both, is licence nothing now remains but a few scattered and centiousness, which tramples upon all law and lawful autho- mouldering ruins. Here the beams of Christianity rity, encourages riots and tumults, promotes drunkenness first illuminated the darkness of paganism in the and debauchery, sticks at nothing to support its extravagance, north; and here was the principal and almost only and will in the end ruin liberty itself. Neither kingdoms seat of our maritime greatness and foreign trade. nor commonwealths, neither public companies nor private There is, indeed, scarcely a town on its coast, that persons, can long carry on a beneficial and flourishing trade was not once celebrated in our naval annals; and in without virtue, and what virtue teacheth-sobriety, in- our military history the bowmen of Kent were predustry, frugality, modesty, honesty, punctuality, humanity, eminently distinguished. Its antiquarian treasures charity, the love of our country, and the fear of God.
are almost unnumbered. The princely fortress at BISHOP NEWTON.
Dover was long regarded as “ the key and barrier of As the mind must govern the hands, so in every society is the finest specimen of Norman architecture yet
the whole kingdom.” The keep of Rochester castle the man of intelligence must direct the man of labour.DR. JOHNSON.
remaining; and there is not a district in the county
which does not possess either a castellated structure For all the blessings which Almighty God in his mercy or ecclesiastical relic of another age. The ponderous bestows upon us, he expects and requires to be thanked. Cromlech, called “ Kits-Cotty House," is one of the He bestows them for the promotion of his glory, and he most perfect remains of Druidical times existing, would have us give glory to him. In the volume of his either in England or Wales. Canterbury and its book, are noted, both the mercies which we receive, and the antiquities are of other celebrity. manner in which we receive them. Let us receive all his mercies, especially let us receive his greatest, his spiritual
We have been led into this train of thought by mercies, with thankful and obedient hearts : lest, notwith- contemplating the subject of our engraving—the aged standing the promise of the forgiveness of sins, our iniqui- and mouldering church which stands near the Roman ties be at last visited upon our heads; and that be realized | Pharos, or watch-tower, on the upper part of the upon us, which was pronounced in righteous judgment hill, within Dover Castle. From many concurring upon the family of the aged Eli, “ Wherefore the Lord God
circumstances, we are almost disposed to assign this of Israel saith, I said indeed that thy house, and the house of thy father, should walk before me for ever: but now the
structure to a more remote period than the church Lord saith, Be it far from me: for them that honour me I of St. Martin, near Canterbury, which is generally will honour, and they that despise me shall be lightly considered to have been the earliest place of Christian esteemed."_BISHOP Mant.
worship in Great Britain. Referring the reader to
our account of Dover*, we may remark that little Religion, whether, natural or revealed, has always the doubt can exist that the site of Dover Castle was same beneficial influence on the mind. In youth, in health, and prosperity, it awakens feelings of gratitude,
a British hill-fortress long previously to the invasion and sublime love, and purifies at the same time that which of Cæsar, and the subsequent conquest of this island it exalts : but it is in misfortune, in sickness, in age, that by the Roman arms. It is certain that it was one its effects are most truly, and beneficially felt: when sub- of the first places fortified by that people, of which mission in faith, and humble trust in the divine will, from the watch-tower previously mentioned presents an duties become pleasures, undecaying sources of consola- existing evidence. tion; then it creates powers, which were believed to be extinct, and gives a freshness to the mind which was
Many antiquaries are of opinion that the church supposed to have passed away for ever, but which is now
in Dover Castle was founded by Lucius, a British renovated as an immortal hope. Its intluence outlives all prince, who possessed the eastern parts of Kent, earthly enjoyments, and becomes stronger, as the organs under the Romans, in the second century. It is decay, and the frame dissolves; it appears, as that evening impossible to do more than guess at the correctness star of light, in the horizon of life, which we are sure is to
of this fact, though, as in St. Martin's church, at become, in another season, a morning star, and it throws Canterbury, Roman tiles have been used in conits radiance through the gloom, and shadow of death.Sir HUMPHRY DAVY.
structing the walls, especially the tower. It is, how
ever, not impossible, that Lucius, who is said to When I look into my garden, there I see first a small spire have been converted to Christianity about A. D. 172, look out of the earth, which in some months' time, grows might have erected this structure in honour of his into a stalk; then after many days' expectation, branches
new religion. But for some centuries afterwards, forth into some leaves; at last appears the hope of a flower, the blessings of the Christian religion were not which; ripened with many suns and showers, arises to its fully extended to Britain ; which may partly be acperfection, and at last puts forth its seed for a succeeding counted for by the conquest of the country by the multiplication.
If I look into my orchard, I see the well-grafted scions Saxons, after its abandonment by the Romans, in vield at first a tender bud ; itself after many years is bodied the fifth century. It was not until the close of the to a solid stock, and under patience of many hard winters, following century, when St. Augustine landed in spreads forth large arms; at last being grown to a meet
Kent (A.D. 596), that Christianity may be said to have age of vegetation : it begins to grace the spring with some
taken firm root in our island. St. Augustine, full fair blossoms, which falling off kindly, give way to a weak embryo of fruit; every day now adds something to the of holy zeal, soon converted the Saxon king, Ethelgrowih, till it attains in autumn its full maturit. The bert, to the true faith; and, moved by his repreGreat God of Heaven who can do all things in an instant, sentations, that prince immediately assigned the hath thought good to produce all the effects of natural church within Dover Castle, which, from the security agency, not without a due succession of time. Bishop HALL
* Sco Saturday Magazine, Vol. III., p. 154,
of its situation, was then admirably adapted for such a of its erection, till our mind becomes fixed on the purpose, to himself and his followers, for the celebra- great Author of our blessed Religion ; and whilst tion of the offices of religion. Divine service having we have outward demonstration before us of the been previously performed within its walls, the church truth of the preacher's saying, “That one generation was re-consecrated, and dedicated by St. Augustine passeth away, and another generation cometh, but to the Virgin Mary. The mission of Augustine seems all is vanity in this lower world, we are the more for some time to have proceeded slowly : Eadbald, forcibly struck with the importance of securing that the son of Ethelbert, on succeeding to the throne, better world which is promised to the faithful. relapsed into Paganism. He was, however, soon Of the existing state of the church, our engraving re-converted, when, as some atonement for his errors, furnishes an accurate illustration. Its design was he founded a college for twenty-four priests within cruciform ; the tower, which was originally higher the castle, as an appendage to the Church. But than at present, is supported by four arches, of lofty these ecclesiastics did not long retain possession; proportion; the pilasters on their north and south for in 690, Withred, King of Kent, removed the sides consist of squared stone, with a bead embracing foundation to a new structure, which he had erected the front of an elliptic arch. The latter is of a much for the purpose in the adjacent town; considering more recent date than the other arches, which, inthat religious pursuits jarred with the din and con- cluding their pilasters, are composed of tiles, in the fusion of military life. It is probable that the college method practised by the Romans. The roof of the in the castle was demolished at the same period, as building, which extends to a length of about sixty no trace of its existence remains, nor has it ever been feet, is entirely destroyed. The tower is quadranalluded to in any of the subsequent accounts of the gular, each side measuring about twenty-eight feet. place. Three chaplains, who wore the prebendal The most cursory observer of this structure must costume, in virtue of the rank and antiquity of the remark that it has undergone, at various periods, establishment, continued, however, to be attached extensive changes. The original roof appears to have to the church, and officiated until the period of the been flat; on its removal, the windows of the church Reformation, when their number was reduced to were greatly enlarged and elevated, the roof being
Since 1690, principally in consequence of the rendered loftier. Subsequently, a still more ele. dilapidated state of the structure, religious service vated roof, although more horizontal in its plan than has been wholly discontinued there.
the preceding, was raised, which remained until the It is impossible to behold the aged and time-worn last century. Various marks may be traced on the ruins of this little Christian temple, surrounded as south-west side of the turret, which denote these it is with all the “ pomp and circumstance" of mili- changes, and it has been observed by an accurate tary power and defence, without feelings at once topographer, that the triple columns in the angles of forcible and affecting. Whilst contemplating its the tower, and the voussures extending from their shattered wall and crumbling tower, fast falling to capitals, also prove that part of the alterations were decay, under the influence of the great destroyer, effected subsequently to the introduction of Gothic Time, we are led back to reflect on the circumstances architecture into this country.
A PERSIAN STORY.
AHMED, THE COBBLER.
my dear mistress, by a vile astrologer.” She then
related what she had seen and heard. In the city of Isfahan lived Ahmed, the cobbler, an The jeweller's wife went in search of the astrologer, honest and industrious man, whose wish was to pass and throwing herself at his feet, cried, “ Spare my through life quietly: but he had married a handsome honour and my life, and I will confess all.” wife, who was far from being contented with his “What can you have to confess to me?" exclaimed humble sphere. Sittàra, such was her name, was Ahmed, in amazement. ever forming foolish schemes of riches and grandeur; *Oh! nothing with which you are not already and though Ahmed never encouraged them, she acquainted. I stole the ruby to punish my husband, continued to persuade herself that she was certainly who uses me cruelly, and I thought to obtain riches destined to great fortune.
for myself, and to have him put to death. I beg One evening, while in this temper of mind, she only for mercy, and will do whatever you command." went to the Hemmâm, where she saw a lady retiring Ahmed assumed much solemnity, and said, “Wodressed in a magnificent robe, covered with jewels, man, it is fortunate for thee that thou hast come and surrounded by slaves. On making inquiry, she to confess and to beg for mercy. Return to thy learned it was the wife of the chief astrologer to the house, put the ruby under thy husband's pillow, and king. With this information she returned home. thy guilt shall never be suspected.” Ahmed followed Her husband met her at the door, but was received her home, and told the jeweller that the ruby was with a frown; nor could all his caresses for several lying under the pillow of his couch. The jeweller hours obtain a smile or a word: at length, she said; thought Ahmed must be crazy, but he ran to his “Cease your caresses, unless you are ready to give couch and found the ruby in the place described. He me a proof that you really love me.”
came back to Ahmed, called him the preserver of “What proof,” exclaimed poor
Ahmed, can you his life, and gave him the two hundred pieces of gold, desire, which I will not give?” “Give over cobbling," declaring he was the first astrologer of the age. said she," turn astrologer; your fortune will be made, These praises conveyed no joy to the poor cobbler, and I shall be happy.
who returned home more thankful for his preAstrologer," cried Ahmed; “ have you forgotten
“ have you forgotten servation, than elated by his good fortune. His who I am, that you want me to engage in a profes- wife ran up to him, and exclaimed, "Well, my dear sion which requires so much skill and knowledge ?" astrologer! what success?" There,” said Ahmed
“ I neither think nor care about your qualifications,” very gravely,“ are two hundred pieces of gold! I said the wife: “all I know is, that if you do not turn hope you will be satisfied now, and not ask me again astrologer, I will be divorced from you.”
to hazard my life.” Sittára, however, saw nothing The cobbler remonstrated, but in vain. The figure but the gold which would enable her to vie with the of the astrologer's wife had taken possession of chief astrologer's wife. “Courage, my dear husband, ” Sittâra's imagination. She dreamt of nothing else. she said, “this is only your first labour in your noble What could poor Ahmed do? He was dotingly fond profession. Go on, and we shall become rich and of his wife; so he sold his little stock, and bought an happy.” In vain Ahmed remonstrated. She accused astrolabe, an almanack, and a table of the signs of him of not loving her, and ended with her usual the zodiac. He then went to the market-place, threat of leaving him. Ahmed's heart melted, and crying, “ I am an astrologer; I know the sun, the he agreed to make another trial. Accordingly, next moon, the stars; I can calculate nativities; I can morning, he sallied forth, exclaiming, as before. A foretell every thing that is to happen."
crowd again gathered round him, but it was now A crowd soon gathered round him. “ What, with wonder, not ridicule; for the voice of fame had friend Ahmed,” said one, “have you worked till converted the poor cobbler into the most learned your head is turned ?"
“Are you tired of looking astrologer of Isfahan. down at your last,” cried another, “ that you are now While every body was gazing at him, a lady passed looking up at the planets?" and a thousand other by veiled, having just lost at the Hemmâm a valuable jokes assailed his ears.
necklace and ear-rings. She was in great alarm, but The king's jeweller, having lost the richest ruby being told the story of the famous astrologer, she belonging to the crown, looked forward to death as went up to Ahmed, saying, "Find my jewels, and I inevitable. In this state he reached the crowd, and will give you fifty pieces of gold.” The poor cobbler asked what was the matter. Ahmed, the cobbler," was confounded, and looked down, thinking only said one, " is become an astrologer.” The jeweller no how to escape a public exposure of his ignorance. sooner heard this, than he went up to Ahmed, and The lady had, in the crowd, torn the lower part of said, “If you understand your art, you must be her veil. He noticed this, and wishing to inform able to discover the king's ruby. Do so, and I will her of it in a delicate manner, he whispered, “ Lady, give you two hundred pieces of gold. But if you look down at the rent.” Ahmed's speech brought at fail, I will take measures to have you put to death as once to her mind how her loss could have occurred, an impostor.”
and she exclaimed with delight, “ Stay here, thon Poor Ahmed was thunderstruck. He stood long great astrologer, I will return immediately with the without being able to move, grieving that the wife reward thou so well deservest.” She did so, carrying whom he so loved, had, by her envy and selfishness, in one hand the jewels, and in the other a purse. brought him to such a fearful alternative; at length “ There is gold for thee," she said, “ thou wonderful he exclaimed aloud, “Oh woman, woman, thou art man, to whom all the secrets of nature are revealed. more baneful to the happiness of man than the When thou desiredst me to look at the rent, I recolpoisonous dragon of the desert."
lected the rent near the bottom of the wall in the The ruby had been secreted by the jeweller's wife, bath-room, where I had hid them. I can now go who, disquieted by those alarms which ever attend home in peace, and it is all owing to thee.” guilt, had sent one of her female slaves to watch Ahmed returned to his home, again thankful to her husband. This slave, when she heard Ahmed | Providence for his preservation, and fully resolved compare a woman to a poisonous dragon, was never again to tempt it; but his handsome wite satisfied that he must know everything. She renewed her entreaties and threats, to make her fond ran to her mistress, and cried, you are discovered, I husband continue his career as an astrologer.
About this time the king's treasury was robbed of, but it was determined to send two men the next forty chests of gold and jewels. The officers of night, at the same hour. They reached the house state used all diligence to find the thieves, but in just as Ahmed received the second date, and heard vain. The king sent for his astrologer, and declared him exclaim, “ To-night there are two of them.” that if the robbers were not detected by a stated | The astonished thieves fled, and told their still intime, he, as well as the principal ministers, should be credulous comrades what they had heard. Three put to death. Only one day remained. All their men were consequently sent the third night, four the search had proved fruitless, when the astrologer was fourth, and so on. On the last they all went; and advised to send for the cobbler, who had become so Ahmed exclaimed aloud, “ The number is complete! famous for his discoveries. “ You see the effects of To-night the whole forty are here.” your ambition,” said Ahmed to his wife ;
All doubts were now removed. Even the captain king's astrologer has heard of my presumption, and yielded, and declared that it was hopeless to elude will have me executed as an impostor.”
a man thus gifted. He therefore advised that they On entering the palace, he was surprised to see should make a friend of the cobbler, by bribing him the chief astrologer come forward to receive him, and with a share of the booty. His advice was approved not less so to hear himself thus addressed : “ The of; and an hour before dawn, they knocked at ways of heaven, most learned Ahmed, are unsearch- | Ahmed's door. The poor man jumped out of bed, able ; the high are often cast down, and the low are and supposing the soldiers were come to lead him to
it is my turn now to be depressed by fate, execution, cried out, “I know what you are come it is thine to be exalted by fortune." This speech for. It is an unjust and wicked deed.” was interrupted by a messenger from the king, who “ Most wonderful man !" said the captain, desired the attendance of Ahmed. When he came are convinced that thou knowest why we are come: into the king's presence, he bent his body to the Here are two thousand pieces of gold, which we ground, and wished his majesty long life and pro- will give thee, provided thou wilt say nothing more sperity. “Tell me, Ahmed,” said the king, "who has about the matter." Say nothing about it !” said stolen my treasure ?" “ There were forty thieves Ahmed. “Do you think it possible I can suffer concerned," answered Ahmed. “ Who were they,” | such gross wrong and injustice, without making it said the king, “and what have they done with my known to all the world ?" “ Have mercy on us ! gold and jewels" These questions,” said Ahmed, exclaimed the thieves, “ only spare our lives, and we “ I cannot now answer; but I hope to satisfy your will restore the royal treasure.' majesty, if you will grant me forty days to make my The cobbler started, rubbed his eyes, and being calculations." “ I do so,” said the king, “ but when satisfied that he was awake, and that the thieves they are past, if my treasure is not found, your life were really before him, he said in a solemn tone, shall pay the forfeit."
Guilty men! ye are persuaded ye cannot escape Ahmed returned to his house well pleased, for he from my penetration, which knows the position of resolved to fly from a city where his fame was likely every star in the heavens. Your repentance has to be his ruin. On imparting this resolution to his saved you. But ye must restore all that ye have wife, she said to him with scorn, “Hear me, Ahmed! stolen. Go straightway, carry the forty chests I am determined thou shalt not escape; and shouldst exactly as ye found them, and bury them a foot thou attempt to run away, I will inform the king's deep, under the southern wall of the old ruined officers, and have thee put to death, even before the Hemmâm. If ye do this punctually, your lives are forty days are expired. - Thou knowest me too well spared: if ye fail, destruction will fall upon you and to doubt my keeping my word. So take courage, your families.” and endeavour to make thy fortune.” The poor cob- The thieves promised obedience and departed. bler was dismayed at this speech. Well,” said he, About two hours after, the royal guard came, and “your will shall be obeyed. You know I am no desired Ahmed to follow them. Without imparting to scholar, and have little skill in reckoning; so there his wife what had occurred, he bade her farewell affecare forty dates: give me one of them every night after tionately, and she exhorted him to be of good cheer. I have said my prayers, that I may put them in a jar, A reward suited to their merits awaited Ahmed and by counting them, may always see how many and his wife. The good man stood with a cheerful are gone of the few days which I have to live." countenance before the king, who, on his arrival,
Meanwhile, the thieves had received accurate in- immediately said, “Ahmed, thy looks are promising; formation of every measure taken to discover them. hast thou discovered my treasure ?" One of them was among the crowd when the king majesty require the thieves, or the treasure ? The sent for Ahmed, and hearing that he had declared stars will only grant one or the other,” said Ahmed; their exact number, he ran to his comrades and “I can deliver up either, not both." I should be exclaimed, “We are all found out! Ahmed has told sorry not to punish the thieves," answered the king: the king that there are forty of us." “ There needed “ but if it must be so, I choose the treasure.” no astrologer to tell that,” said the captain. “ Forty you give the thieves a full and free pardon?" "I chests having been stolen, he naturally guessed that do, provided I find my treasure untouched.” “Then,” there must be forty thieves : that is all: still it is said Ahmed, “if your majesty will follow me, the prudent to watch him. One of us must go to-night treasure shall be restored.” to the terrace of his house, and listen to his con- The king and all his nobles followed the cobbler versation with his wife: he will, no doubt, tell her to the ruins of the old Hemmâm. There, casting what success he has had in his endeavours to de- his eyes toward Heaven, Ahmed muttered some tect us," Soon after nightfall, one of the thieves sounds, which were supposed by the spectators to be repaired to the terrace, just as the cobbler had magical conjurations, but which were, in reality, the finished his prayers, and his wife was giving him the prayers and thanksgivings of a sincere and pious first date. "Ah !” said Ahmed, as he took it, “there heart for a wonderful deliverance. He then pointed is one of the forty.” The thief, hearing these words, to the wall, and requested his majesty would order hastened to the gang and told them, that the moment his attendants to dig there. The work was hardly he took his post, Ahmed said to his wife, that one begun, when the forty chests were found with the of them was there, The spy's tale was not believed, treasurer's seal still unbroken.
« Does your
The king's joy knew no bounds: he immediately chief astrologer's wife at the Hemmam; thereby appointed Ahmed his chief astrologer, assigned to affording a salutary lesson to those who admit envy him an apartment in the palace, and declared that into their bosoms, and endeavour to obtain their ends he should marry his only daughter. The young by unreasonable and unjustifiable means. princess was not dissatisfied with her father's In the mean time the good cobbler had been nomichoice; for her mind was stored with virtue, and nated vizier; and the same virtue which had obtained she had learnt to value the talents which she him respect in the humblest sphere of life, caused believed Ahmed to possess. The royal will was him to be loved and esteemed in the high station carried into execution as soon as formed, and to which he was elevated. the change did not alter the character of Ahmed.
[Abridged from Sketches of Persia.] As he had been meek and humble in adversity, he was modest and gentle in prosperity. Conscious of Happy were it for us all, if we bore prosperity as well and his own ignorance, he continued to ascribe his good wisely as we endure an adverse fortune. The reason fortune solely to the favour of Providence. He wherefore it is not so, I suppose to be, that the same dispo became daily more attached to the beautiful and sition which in the one state ferments into pride, in the virtuous princess whom he had married; and he other is refined into fortitude; and that the cares, which could not help contrasting her character with that of eat the heart, are less injurious to our spiritual nature, than his former wife, whom he had ceased to love, and of vanities that inflate it and corrupt it. --Southey. whose unreasonable and unfeeling vanity he was now Every sensual pleasure, and every day of idleness and fully sensible.
useless living, lops off a branch from our short life.Sittàra saw with despair that her wishes for his ad- JEREMY TAYLOR. vancement had been more than accomplished, but that all her own desires had been entirely frustrated. Her The cares, and toils, and necessities, the refreshments and husband was chief astrologer; he was rich enough to delights, of common life, are the great teachers of common
sense: nor can there be any effective school of sober reason, enable his wife to surpass all the ladies of Isfahan, where these are excluded. Whoever, either by elevation whenever she went to the Hemmâm: but he had of rank, or peculiarity of habits, lives far removed from this married a princess, and his former cruel and un- kind of tuition, rarely makes much proficiency in that principled wife was, according to the custom of excellent quality of the intellect. A man who has little or the country, banished from his house, and con- nothing to do with other men, on terms of open and free demned to live on whatever pittance she might equality, needs the native sense of five, to behave himself receive from a man whose love and esteem she had with only a fair average of propriety.—History of
Enthusiasm. forfeited. These thoughts distracted her, and she now became anxious only for his destruction. An It hath been observed by wise and considering men, that opportunity of attempting to indulge her revengeful wealth hath seldom been the portion, and never the mark feelings was not long wanting. Her designs, how to discover good people; but that Almighty God, who ever, were discovered, but her guilt was pardoned. denied it (He only knows why) to many whose minds he
disposeth all things wisely, hath of his abundant goodness She was left with a mere subsistence, a prey to dis- hath enriched with the greater blessings of knowledge and appointment; for she continued to the last to sigh virtue, as the fairer testimonies of his love to mankind:for that splendour she had seen displayed by the Izaak Walton.
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