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tion ; and not upon the stiff artificial manner, which is acquir. ed from reading books according to the common punctuation. It will by no means be sufficient to attend to the points used in printing, for these are far from marking all the pauses which ought to be made in reading. A mechanical attention to these resting places, has perhaps been one cause of monoto. ny, by leading the reader to a similar tone at every stop, and a uniform cadence at every period. The primary use of poinis, is, to assist the reader in discerning the grammatical construction ; and it is only a secondary object, that they regu. late bis pronunciation. On this head, the following direction may be of use : “ Though, in reading, great attention should be paid to the stops, yet a greater should be given to the sense ; and their correspondent times occasionally lengthened beyond what is usual in com:non speech.
To render pauses pleasing and expressive, they must not on. Jy be made in the right place, but also accompanied with a proper tone of voice, by which the nature of these pauses is inti. mated ; much more than by the length of them, which can sel. dom be exactly measured. Sometimes it is only a slight and simple suspension of voice that is proper ; sometimes a degree of cadence in the voice is required ; and sometimes that peculiar tone and cadence which denote the sentence to be finished. In all these cases, we are lo regulate ourselves by attending to the manner in which Nature teaches us to speak, when engaged in a real and earnest discourse with oth.
The following sentence exemplifies the suspending and the closing pauses : “ Hope, the balm of life, soothis us under every missortune." The first and second pauses are accompanied by an inflection of voice that gives the hearer an expectation of something further to complete the sense ; the in. flection attending the third pause, signifies that the sense is completed.
The preceding example is an illustration of the suspending pause, in its simple state ; the following instance exhibits that pause with a degree of cadence in the voice : “ If content cannot remove the disquiet'ides of mankind, it will at least al. leviate them."
The susperding pause is often, in the same sentence, attend. ed with both the rising and the falling inflection of voice ; as will be seen in this example ; " Moderate exercise, and habitual temperance, strengthen the constitution."
As the suspending pause may be thus attended with both the rising and the falling infection, it is the same with regard to the ciosing pause ; it admits of both. The falling inflec. tion generally accompanies it ; but it is not unfrequently con
* The rising inflection is denoted by the acute ; the falling, by the grave accent.
nected with the rising inflection. Interrogative sentences, fo: instance, are often ter.ninated in this manner : as, “Am I ungraietul !” “ Is he in earnest ?'
But where a sentence is begun by an interrogative pronoun or adverb, it is commonly terminated by the talling inflection : as “ What has he gained by his folly ?”. "Who will assist him ?” “ Where is the nuessenger ?” • When did he arrive ?"
When two questions are united in one sentence, and con. nected by the conjunction or, the first takes the rising, the second the falling inflection : as “ Does his conduct support discipline, or destroy it !"
The rising ard falling inflections must not be confounded with emphasis. Though they may often coincide, they are, in their nature, perfectly distinct. Emphasis sometimes controls those infectious.
The regular application of the rising and falling in flections, confers so much beauty on expression, and is so necessary to be studied by the young reader, that we shall insert a few more examples to induce him to pay greater attention to the subject. In these instances, all the inflections are not marked. Such only are distinguished as are most striking, and will best serve to show the reader their utility and importance.
" Manufactures, trade, and agriculture, naturally employ more than nineteen parts in twenty, of the human species."
" He who resigns the world has no temptation to envy, hatred, malice, anger ; but is in constarit possession of a serene mind : he who follows the pleasures of it, which are in their very nature disappointing, is in constant search of care, solici. lude, remorse, and confusion."
“ To advise the ignorant, relieve the needy, comfort the af. flicted, are duties that fall in our way almost every day of our lives.''
" Those evil spirits, who, by long custom, have contracted in the body habits of lust, and sensuality; malice, and revenge : an aversion to every thing that is good, just, and landable, are naturally seasoned and prepared for pain and mistøy."
“I am persuaded, that neither death, nor life ; nor angels, nor principalities, nor powers ; nor things present, nor things to come ; nor height, nor depth ; nor any other creature, shall be able to separate us from the love of God."
The reader who would wish to see a minute and ingenious investigation of the nature of these inflections, and the rules by which they are governed, may consult Walker's Elements of Elocution.
Manner of reading terse.
difficulty in making the pauses justly. The difficulty arises from the melody of verse, which dictates to the ear pauses or rests of its own; and to adjust and compound these properly with the pause of the sense,so as neither to hurt the ear or offend the understanding, is so very nice a matter that it is no wonder we so seldom ineet with good readers of poetry. There are two kinds of pauses that belong to the melody of verse ; one is, the pause at the end of the line ; and the other, the cæsural pause, in or near the middle of it. With regard to the pause at the end of the line, which marks that strain or verse to be finished, rhyme renders this always sensible: ind in some measure compels us to observe it in our pronunciation. In respect to blank verse, we ought also to read it, so as to make every line sensible to the ear; for, what is the use of melody, or for what end has the poet composed in verse, if in reading his lines, we suppress his nuinbers, by omitting the final pause; and degrade them, by our pronunciation, into fere prose? At the saine time that we attend to this pause, every appearance of sing-song and tone, must be carefully guarded a. gainst. The close of the line, where it makes no pause in the meaning, ought not to be inarked by such a tone as is used in finishing a sentence; but, without either fall or elevation of the voice, it should be denoted only by so slight a suspension of sound, as inay distinguish the passage from one line to another, without injuring the meaning.
The other kind of melodious pause, is that which falls somewhere about the middle of the verse, anil divides it into two hemistichs ; a pause, not so great as that which belongs to che close of the line, but still sensible to an ordinary ear. This, which is called the cæsural pause, may fall, in English heroic verse, after the 4th, 5th, 6th or 7th syllable in the line.
Where the verse is so constructed, that this cæsural pause coincides with the slightest pause or division in the sense, the line can be read easily : as in the two first verses of Pope's Messiah,
“ Ye nymphs of Solyma! begin the song :
But if it should happen that words which have so strict and intimate a conrexion, as not to bear even a momentary separation, are divided from one another by this cæsural pause, we then feel a sort of struggle between the sense and the sound, which renders it difficult to read such lines harmoniously. The rule of proper pronunciation in such cases, is, to regard only the pause which the ser.se formos ; and to read the line accordingly. The neglect of the cæsural pause may make the line sound somewhat unharmoniously ; but the effect would be much worse if the sense were sacrificed to the sound. For iostance, in the follow. ing line of Milton,
What in me is dark, Illumine : what is low, raise and support. the sense clearly dictates the pause after illumine, at the end of the third syllable, which, in reading, ought to be made accordingly : though, if the melody only were to be regarded, illumine should be connected with what follows, and the pause not made till the fourth or sixth syllable. So in the following line of Pope's Epistle to Dr. Arbuthnot,
I sit, with sad civility I read :" the ear plainly points out the cæsural pause as falling after sad, the fourth syllable. But it would be very bad reading to make any pause there, so as to separate sad and civility. The sense admits of no other
pause than after the second syllable sit, which therefore must be the only pause inade in reading this part of the septence.
There is another mode of dividing some verses, by introducing what may be called demi-cæsui as, which re. quire very slight pauses ; and which the reader should manage with judgement, or he will be apt to fall into an affected sing-song mode of pronouncing verses of this kud. The following lines exemplify the demi-cæsura :
" Warms in the sun, refreshes in the breeze,
“ Spreads undivided, and operales unspent." Before the conclusion of this introduction, the Conpiler takes the liberty to recommend to teachers; to exercise their pupils in discovering and explaining
the emphatic words, and the proper tones and pau. ses of every portion assigned them to read, previously to their being called out to the performance. These preparatory lessons, in which they should be regularly examined, will improve their judgement and taste ; prevent the practice of reading without attention to the subject ; and establish a habit of readily discovering the meaning, force, and beauty of every sentence they peruse.