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varieties afforded by this genus are almost innumerable, for the causes are peculiarly diversified. Hereditary disease, long-continued sorrow, incessant study, habitual gluttony, the abuse of pleasures of various kinds, and a thousand other circumstances, may equally become sources of this distressing condition, under some shape or other. And perhaps Le Clerc is correct in regarding it, in his Natural History of Man, as in every instance a morbid affection, rather than a natural and primitive constitution.

The character of Tiberius, of Louis XI., and of Pygmalion, as drawn by the nice hand of Fenelon in his Telemachus, give striking elucidations of this temperament in its moral bearings. M. Richerand has also pointed out examples in Torquato Tasso, Pascal, Gilbert, and Zimmerman; but perhaps the most perfect picture that has been furnished to the world is to be found in the life of the celebrated Jean-Jaques Rousseau.

IV. Let us pass on to the fourth temperament—the PHLEGMATIC, LYMPHATIC, PITUITOUS, or WATERY, for the terms are all synonymous, and by all these terms it has been denominated. The proportion of fluids is here too considerable for that of the solids, or, in other words, the excernent system which secretes them from the general mass of the blood is in peculiar activity; and the result is, that the body obtains an increased bulk from the repletion of the cellular texture. The fleshy parts are soft; the skin fair; the hair flaxen or sandy; the pulse weak and slow; the figure plump, but without expression; all the vital actions more or less languid; the memory little tenacious, and the attention wavering; there is an insurmountable desire of indolence, and aversion to both mental and corporeal exercise.

It is not to be wondered at, therefore, that, among the illustrious lives of Plutarch, we do not meet with an individual of this character. They are for the most part a good-natured group, not formed for the transaction of public affairs, who have never disturbed the earth by their negotiations or their conquests, and are rather to be sought for in the bosom of private life than at the helm of states. The Emperor Theodosius may, perhaps, be offered as an example of earlier times; and in our own day the deposed Charles IV. of Spain, who resigned himself altogether into the hands of the infamous Godoy, surnamed Prince of the Peace; Augustus king of Saxony, who resigned himself equally into the hands of Buonaparte; and Ferdinand of Sicily, who in a lucky hour, but of too short duration, at length surrendered the government of his people to our own country.

V. The last temperament I have noticed is the NERVOUS OF IRRITABLE, as it has been sometimes, but incorrectly denominated. In this constitution the sentient system, or that susceptible to external impressions, is predominant over all the rest. Like the melancholic, it is seldom natural or primitive, but morbid and secondary, acquired by a sedentary life, reiterated pleasures, romantic ideas excited by a long train of novel or other fictitious and elevated histories; and peculiarly distinguished by a promptitude but fickleness of determination, vivacity of sensations, small, soft, and wasted muscles, and generally, though not always, a slender form. The diseases chiefly incident to it are hysterical and other convulsive affections.

Let us close with two brief remarks upon the general survey before us. The first is, that these temperaments or generic constitutions are pepetually running into each other; and consequently, that not one of them, perhaps, is to be found in a state of full perfection in any individual. Strictly speaking, Mr. Pitt and Mr. Fox belonged equally in the main to the second of them: there was the same ardour, genius, and comprehen

sive judgment in both: but the former had the bilious temperament, with a considerable tendency to the sanguineous; and hence, with more irritability, had more self-confidence, audacity, and sanguine expectation : the latter, while possessing the same general or bilious temperament, was at the same time more strongly inclined to the lymphatic; and hence his increased corporeal bulk; and with less bold and ardent expectation, he possessed one of the sweetest and most benevolent dispositions to be met with in the history of the world. The first was formed to be revered the second to be beloved; and both to be admired and immortalized.

The closing remark I have to submit is, that each of these temperaments, how widely soever they may differ from each other, is capable of being transmuted into any of the rest. Galen has particularly dwelt upon this most important fact, and has especially observed that a man of the most elevated and sanguineous constitution, may be broken down into a melancholic habit by a long series of anxiety and affliction; while, on the other hand, the most restless and audacious of the bilious or choleric genus may be attuned to the sleek quiet of the phlegmatic temper by an uninterrupted succession of peaceful luxury and indulgence. Of what moment is this well-established fact in the nice science of education! The temperaments of boys may be born with them; but they are capable of alteration, nay, of a total reversion, both in body and mind, each of which may be made to play upon the other; the one by a discipline of gymnastic exercises, and the other by a discipline of intellectual studies. The Greeks were thoroughly aware of this mutual dependence; and hence, as we have already seen,* made gymnastic games a regular part of the tuition of the academy; thus rearing at one and the same time, and rearing too, in the self-same persons, a race of heroes and of sages, and turning the wild and savage luxuriance of nature to the noblest harvests of wisdom and virtue.

LECTURE XII.

ON PATHOGNOMY, OR THE EXPRESSION OF THE PASSIONS.

In our last lecture, we examined how far the state of the body has an influence upon that of the mind in the study we are now entering upon we shall take the opposite side of the question, and examine how far the state of the mind has an influence upon that of the body.

This influence, if it exist, may be either instantaneous or permanent : it may be produced by some sudden affection or emotion of the mind, exciting an abrupt change in the features, the muscles, or other soft and flexible parts of the body; or it may result from the habitual character of the moral propensity, slowly and imperceptibly operating on parts that are less pliant, and giving them a fixed and determinate cast. The former constitutes the study of Pathognomy, or of the signs, language, or expression of the passions: the latter, the study of physiognomy, or of the signs, language, or expression of the genius or temper.

*Ser. II. Lect.XI.

Let us investigate each of these in the order in which I have now stated them; and devote our present attention to the former of the two.

Suppose a man of a mild but courageous disposition, reclining at ease, and alone, beneath some overspreading forest tree, on a summer's evening, should be suddenly surprised by the attack of a ruffian, who should attempt to rob or murder him ;-what would be the change of feelings and of figure he would undergo? The tranquillity of his mind would be transmuted into horror, rage, and probably revenge, or an attempt to retaliate; while the negligent ease of his posture, the relaxed muscles of his face, the natural vermeil of his cheeks, his half-opened lips, half-closed eyelids, and easy breathing, would suddenly start into tension, energy, suffusion: he would be instantly on his feet, in an attitude of determined resistance; still trembling with fear, he would collect all his soul into a strong and desperate effort to overcome the wretch: his muscles would swell with violent rigidity; his heart contract with unusual force and frequency; his lungs heave powerfully; the whole visage become inflated, dark, and livid; the eye-balls roll and look wildly; the forehead be alternately knit, and worked into furrows; the nostrils would open their channels to the utmost; the lips grow full, stretch to the corners of the mouth, and disclose both rows of teeth, fixed and grinding upon each other; the hair stand on end, and the hands, spasmodically clenched, or grasping and grappling with the

assassin.

Now it has been made a question, whether these rapid and violent movements are instinctive signs of the passions prevailing in the mind, or voluntary muscular exertions, called for by the stress of the case, and constituting the means of resistance. Which opinion soever be adopted, it must be allowed to run parallel with the whole range of internal passions, and external expressions. And hence, the advocates for the latter principle contend, that the various transitions of feature, position, and attitude, which accompany the different emotions of the mind, and indicate their nature, are, in every instance, the effect of habit, or are suddenly called forth, to operate some beneficial purpose. It is from experience alone, we are told, that we are able to distinguish the marks of the passions; that we learn, while infants, to consider smiles as expressions of kindness, because they are accompanied by endearments and acts of beneficence; and frowns, on the contrary, as proofs of displeasure, because they are followed by punishment. So in brutes, it is added, the expression of anger is nothing more than movements that precede or prepare the animal for biting; while that of fondness is a mere fawning or licking of the hand. The glare of an enraged lion is the mere consequence of a voluntary exertion to see his prey more clearly; and his grin, or snarl, the natural motion of uncasing his fangs, before he uses them.*

I cannot readily adopt this hypothesis, as applied either to man or to quadrupeds. The power of expression possessed by the latter is, doubtless, far more limited, than that possessed by the former; but brutes still have expression, and that too, in the face, as well as in the general movements of the body; and expression, moreover, dependent upon the peculiar frame or feeling of the sensory, and therefore as strictly its genuine and specific symbols, as words are the symbols of ideas. In man, indeed, the changes of the countenance seem to proceed upon a systematic provision for this purpose; they constitute a natural language, and this so perfectly

* Essays on the Anatomy of Expression in Painting, by Charles Bell, p. 84. 4to. 1806.

that there is not an emotion in the mind which is without its appropriate sign; whilst we meet with various muscles in the face, which have no other known use than that of being subservient to this important purpose: particularly those that knit the eyebrow into an energetic and irresistible meaning; and those of the angle of the mouth, employed in almost every motion of this organ expressive of sentiment; but peculiarly and forcibly called into action in that arching of the lip which is the natural sign of contempt, hatred, or jealousy.

Mr. Charles Bell, to whom we are indebted for an elegant and admirable treatise on the anatomy of expression in painting, supports this last opinion; but rejects the doctrine of instinctive expression in the face of quadrupeds; contending, that even in the passion of rage, by far the most strongly marked on the countenance, the changes which take place in the features are nothing more than motions accessory to the grand object of opposition, resistance, and defence.* The inflamed eye, however, and fiery nostrils of the bull, can scarcely be ascribed to this cause; for they add nothing to the power of striking they may, indeed, be proofs or effects of the general excitement; but to say this, is to say nothing more than that they are proofs or effects of the passion they indicate; and consequently its natural language or expression. They are never employed on any other occasion. "In carnivorous animals," observes Mr. Bell," the eyeball is terrible, and the retraction of the flesh of the lips indicates the most savage fury. But the first is merely the excited attention of the animal, and the other a preparatory exposure of the canine teeth." Now if the first be merely excited attention, we must meet with it in every instance in which the mere attention of carnivorous animals, and nothing but the mere attention, is called forth. But is the glaring and terrible eyeball here alluded to a mark of simple attention? Has any one ever seen it so in any animal, whether carnivorous or graminivorous, quadruped, biped or footless? Has he ever seen it exhibited on such occasion, I will not say constantly and invariably, as upon this opinion it ought to be, but in a single case of simple attention? And in like manner, I may ask respecting the tremendous retraction of the flesh of the lips, and exposure of the teeth,-not merely of the canine teeth or tusks, as stated above, but of all the teeth of both jaws, as far as such retraction will allow-has any one ever witnessed this movement in the action of mere seizing or biting, as, for example, in the case of devouring food? Mr. Bell himself seems sufficiently to settle this point, by telling us, in the beginning of the passage I have just quoted, that the "retraction of the flesh of the lips indicates the most savage fury." And I may add, it indicates nothing else; it is not wanted, and is never made use of, in the muscular movement of mere biting, and consequently is an immediate symbol of the passion called into exercise. It commences with the commencement of this passion, and is limited to its continuance and operation.

What, then, it may be asked, is the use of external expression, in instances of this kind, if it do not add to the power of defence or resistance ? The proper answer must be found in the general object and intention of nature upon the whole of the case before us.

Man, by his constitution, is designed for society and mental intercourse. But what is to draw him to his fellows? to strip him of timidity and reserve, and fix him in communion and confidence? The language of ex

* Essays, &c. by Charles Bell, edit. 1. pp. 85, 86.

pression-the natural characters of the countenance-the softened check

the smiling lip-the beaming eye-the mild and open forehead-the magic play of the features in full harmony with each other;-which tell him, and, where artifice does not mimic nature, tell him infallibly, that the mind to which they belong, is all sympathy, benevolence, and friendship, and will assuredly return the confidence it meets with. But we have sufficiently seen in the last two lectures, that the mind is not always thus constituted; that at times it is the storehouse of rage, revenge, malevolence, suspicion, and jealousy; and that to confide in it would be misery and ruin. How is a man to be on his guard on such an occasion? He again looks at the countenance, and, instead of being attracted, he is instantly repelled the characters are now hideous; and the Almighty, as formerly upon Cain, has set a mark upon the forehead, that it may be known.

Such, then, is the real use of that instinctive language of the features which is perpetually interpreting the condition of the mind; a language of the highest importance, and of universal comprehension; and which, if ever disguised and fallacious, is almost infinitely less so than that of the lips or language. Its characters are most perfect in mankind; but they are occasionally to be traced in quadrupeds: below which class, however, the signs of the passions, whether sought for in the face, or in any other organ, grow gradually more indistinct; or, perhaps, from our knowing less of the manners and expression of the inferior classes, they appear so to ourselves, though not so in reality to others of the same kinds.

Nec ratione alia proles cognoscere matrem
Nec mater posset prolem ; quod posse videmus;
Nec minus, atque homines, inter se nota cluere.*

Hence alone

Knows the fond mother her appropriate young,
Th' appropriate young their mother, mid the brutes
As clear discern'd as man's sublimer race.

In contemplating, then, the passions, or other affections of the mind, us cognisable by external characters, they easily resolve themselves into two descriptions-the ATTRACTIVE and the REPULSIVE; the signs of which are to be sought for in man, and the nobler ranks of quadrupeds, chiefly in the face, but considerably also in the attitudes and motions of the body; while, in other animals, we are so little acquainted with these signs, as to be incapable of offering any very satisfactory or extensive opinion upon the subject.

In the ATTRACTIVE AFFECTIONS, the features, limbs, and muscles are uniformly soft and pliant-in the REPULSIVE, as uniformly tense, and for the most part rigid. The characters of the latter, therefore, are necessarily more marked and imposing than those of the former, though both are equally true to their purpose. And in more definitely answering the question, whether the characters in either case be the effect of habit or voluntary exertion to execute the feeling of the mind at the moment, or whether they be the mind's natural and instinctive symbols; it may be still farther observed, that in all instances they are the latter, and in a few instances both; for it by no means follows, that they are not instinctive symbols, because they serve at the same time to ward off our danger, or

* De Rer. Nat. ii. 349.

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