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cunning, and intellectual condition, is at once perceived, still more than at rest; as there is a steadiness in its manner of contemplating objects, a readiness, and aptitude to learn, and to seem to comprehend, when instructed, as is evident to all who have witnessed their exploits; even the common Ape,-a creature, much below the Orang-outang in intellectual endowments, an animal of the same genus, will do astonishing feats of horse-manship, and other imitations of human performances, at the word of command, or bare signal of its master, as is often witnessed in the menageries of the country.
Of this creature, the Orang-outang, naturalists relate, that in their native woods, in a wild condition, some of them are very large and strong, exceeding by a considerable amount, the crdinary size of men, being sometimes found full six feet in height, when stretched up erect, being very savage and fierce, often killing the negroes, when they happen to meet in the forests of Africa, and places where they are found. They are more than a match for the elephant, as they can hurl stones and clubs with great violence and precision, with infiiate grimmace and horrid gestures, so that the clephant is glad to escape so crafty an enemy. At the time when Alexander the Great was in India, where he had been led on by his love of war- he met a host, or small army of Orang-outangs, and from their formidable appearance, naked, hairy, horrible, and menacing attitudes, he was induced to make ready to give them battle, in case they came too nigh; but whether a fight took place, is not related by the historian. But Hanno, the Carthaginian general, having inet with a similar encounter, on an island near the coast of Africa, did in reality, not only make ready his men for the battle, but actually fought a small army of these creatures,-whose clubs and stones were found insufficient to cope with the spears, slings, and swords of Hanno's soldiers: fell therefore, in great numbers: and being frightened by the yells of the army, and sound of the drums and trumpets, fled to the forests, leaving to the Carthaginians the field and the victims. Several of these Hanno caused to be skinned, salted, sewed up, and stuffed with dry grass, and conveyed to Carthage, where they were placed in the temple of Juno, queen of heaven, and were found there, when that city was taken by the Romans. Amer. Erc. vol. 26, letters ORA.
From these accounts, we see this creature is capable of plotting and making resistance in defence of its native haunts, in a manner very much resembling the actions of men, even acting in coneert. No mere animal can ascend as high in cultivation as the Orang-outang, their memories being exceedingly retentive, much more so, than any other beast of the creation.
In proof of this, we give the following accounts. There was an Orang-outang, carried from some part of Africa, in a Dutch
vessel to Holland, which, while on board, fell sick. The physician of the ship, took it in his head to bleed the creature, the same as he would a man; after which, it grew better and soon recovered. But what was their surprise, when, before the voyage was finished, the Orang-outang, on again feeling itself in pain, from ill-health, went to the men, making signs to be again bled in its arm, remembering the case it experienced from the former operation. Is not this a proof, that the animal has in a wonderful degree, the power of reflecting, and of combining circumstances, so as to make deductions, approaching very near to that of man,-falling short however, of absolute moral capacity.
A traveller in the island of Java,-a tropical country, situate at the southern extremity of the Chinese sea,-relates, that he saw there, a female Orang-outang, which was so well educated, that it made its own bed, as a human being would, and then laid down upon it, with her head upon the pillow,--which was stuffed with straw, or dry grass,-covering up her body with the quilt; this she did at night, when she desired to sleep. When her head ached, she would tie a handkerchief round it, having been instructed to do so by the person who owned her.
Vosman gives an account of one of these animals, which was brought to Holland, in 1776, and presented to the Prince of Orange. It was about two and a half Rhenish feet high. In its manners, it was grave and melancholy. It was exceedingly fond of the company of man. When company-which often visited it—retired, so that it was left alone, it would throw itself on the ground, making lamentable cries, showing all the signs of grief and despair, a human being could-speech alone excepted. When the keeper appeard, it seemed comforted, and would make signs for him to come close by, shaking up, and spreading out the dry grass of its bed, for him to sit upon. It used the fork and spoon, in eating, in the same manner men do, to convey food to the mouth, as if it were a human being.
"There is even now, in the Museum of Natural History, in Paris, a young Orang-outang, brought from Sumatra. This not only possesses great docility, but seems to understand many of the feelings and actions of man; he is sensible of reproof, and sheds tears and pants when scolded, as a child would do. He imitates with great skill what he sees done, and even invents appropriate means, well fitted to attain his ends, when he meets with obstacles. For example, when he was unable to catch a little dog, more nimble than himself, which had been placed in his room as its companion, and found himself worsted in tho pursuit, he seized upon the end of a rope, suspended in the middle of the room, and swinging, leaped in every direction, till he caught the dog. At another time he tried to open the door, as his master had done, with the key: but having put the wrong
end of it into the lock, he soon however, perceived the mistake, took it out and put in the other end.
In the year 1817, there was brought by a Doct. Abel, from Java to England, an Orang-outang; the account of which, we here extract from the Penny Magazine, vols. 1 and 2, page 157, for the year 1832, as follows: "The Orang-outang, on his arrival in Java, was allowed to be entirely at liberty, till within a few days of being put on board the Cesar to be conveyed to England, and whilst at large, made no attempt to escape; but became violent, when put in a large railed bamboo cage, for the purpose of being conveyed from the Island. As soon as he felt himself in confinement, he took the rails of the cage in his hands, and shaking them violently, endeavored to break them in pieces, but finding that they did not yield, generally; he then tried them separately, and soon discovering one weaker than the rest, worked at it constantly, till he had broken it out and made his escape. He was again captured, and taken on board the ship, where an attempt was made to secure him to a strong staple by a cord, which he instantly untied with his fingers, as readily as a man could have done, and ran off with the chain dragging behind; but finding himself embarrassed by its length, he coiled it up and threw it over his shoulders. This feat he often repeated; and when he found it would not remain on his shoulders, he took into his mouth. They now allowed him freely to wander about the ship, as he showed no disposition to leap overboard, and soon became familiar with the sailors, greatly surpassing them in agility. They would often chase him about the rigging, which gave him frequent opportunity of displaying his ability in managing to get away from them. On first starting he would endeavor to outstrip his pursuers by mere speed, but when hard pressed, would elude them by seizing a loose rope, and swinging out of their reach. At other times he would patiently wait on the shrouds, or at the mast-head, till his pursuers almost touched him, and then suddenly lower himself to the deck by any rope, that was near him, or bound along the mainstay, from one mast to another, or swinging by his hands, moving them one over the other, the same as a man would do. When in a playful humor, he would often swing by some loose rope, within arms' length of his pursuer, and having struck him with his hand which was at liberty, would throw himself from him, with all the alertness and sport of a human being. He commonly slept at mast-head,-after wrapping himself in a sail; in making his bed, he would use the greatest pains to remove every thing out of his way, which might render the surface on which he intended to lie, uneven; and having satisfied himself with this part of his arrangement, would spread out the sail, and lying down upon it, drawing it over his body, with all
the signs of reason on the point, which seemed necessary for the occasion. Off the Cape of Good Hope, he suffered much from cold, especially early in the morning,-when he would descend from his sleeping place on the top of the mast, shudering with cold, and running up to any one of his friends, would climb into his arms, and clasping them closely, till he felt himself growing warm, screaming violently at any attempt to take him away. In his attempts to obtain food, while on board the vessel, he offered many opportunities of judging of his sagacity and disposition. He was always very impatient to seize it, when held out to him, and became passionate when it was not soon given up, and would chase a person all over the ship to obtain it. Sometimes, says Doct. Abel, I would endeavor to evade him by ascending to the mast-head, but was always overtaken or intercepted in my progress. But if he found it impossible to overtake, on account of my having somehow got the start of him, he would climb to a considerable height on the loose rigging, and then drop suddenly upon me, and rifle me of the food in my pockets. But if I, perceiving his intentions, attempted to descend, before he could alight upon me in that way, he would quickly slide down some rope, and meet me at the bottom of the shrouds, and then obtain his desirca. Sometimes I would fasten an orange at the end of a rope, and lower it from aloft to the deck, but as soon as he attempted to seize it, drew it rapidly up out of his reach. After being several times foiled in this way, by endeavoring to obtain it by direct means, he would then alter his plan, by appearing to care very little about it,-removing to some distance, and ascend some piece of rigging very leisurely for some time; then by a sudden spring, would catch the rope, to which it was fastened. But if defeated again, by my suddenly jerking it away, he would at first seem quite in despair, relinquish his efforts, and rush about the rigging, screaming violently; yet he would always return, to a renewed trial, till he could seize the rope,-disregarding the jerking, and allow it to run through one of his hands, till within reach of the orange, and thus obtain it. The animal neither practised the grimmace, nor antics of other monkies, nor possessed their perpetual proneness to mischief. Gravity approaching to mildness and melancholly, were sometimes strongly expressed in his countenance. When he first came among strangers, he would sit for hours with his hand upon his head, looking pensively at all around him.”
On board the same ship, there were several monkies, of which the Orang-outang would take no notice, when seen by any person; and if at any time he did allow them to play with him, it was by stealth; while with the boys and men of the ship, he would romp and play, freely and eagerly. At one time he was detected in an attempt to throw a cage of small monkies into the