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were, the tithes of our dwelling-places, unto thee,

&c."

.- Selden's History of Tithes, a violent invective against the clergy, had been the work of many hands; and was a plan of the Puritans to reduce the church to the wretched pittances of Geneva *. "It is no wonder that it inet with a warm reception

from the Taity, who gaped after the patrimony of "the church. "The arguinent chiefly 'turns on the "nature and extent of Jewish tithes; and of course

loses its whole interest and application, where "tithes are granted by the statute law of the land. -Phree divines assumed the weapons of controVersy; which they wielded so ably, that Sélden Was said to have been galled: by Tillesly, gagged by Montague, "and stung by Nettle. He had, however, a' more formidable opponent to encoun. ter, in the court of High Commission. But · though, in consequence of its citation, he' owned "his error at Lambeth, 28th January 1618;-hatred towards the clergy still tankled in his breast.

Tillesly, Archdeacon of Rochester, couched his - answer to Selden in the three following proposi

tionis : -First, that the fathers 'before the time of - Constantine, had held tithes to be due jure divino :

secondly, 'that after the ceasing of the Pagan persecutions, tithes were given to the clergy before any imperial laws or canons were enacted to en,

See Collier,' vof. ii. p: 712; Heylin, Hist. Presbyta

force their payment : and thirdly, that the imperial and ecclesiastical constitutions were only declarative of a divine, not merely introductive of a human right. :

.:: BURN XX. Among the acts connected with religion, passed in parliament during the course of the

foregoing transactions, were one for inflicting · penalties on Popish recusants not repairing to

church,-one against Popish burials,-one for observing the fifth of November, and another for enforcing other holidays. The privilege of sang

tuary in churches was taken away ; penalties for . drunkenness were appointed ; and forfeitures, di

rected for profaneness in stage-plays. ! ., so 1. XXI. Several fathers of sects or denominations

among Christians, flourished in the reign of James I. Arminius in Holland, a man of mild temper and excellent character, but much trąduced by his enemies, published his Latin Epistles which occasioned the synod of Dort; and has since given name to the Anti-Calvinists. The mystical works sent forth at the same time by Boehmen in Germany, inflamed, a century afterwards, the imagination of Emanuel Swedenburg. The “ Augustinus” of the French bishop Jansenius, created an inward schism in the Catholic church, by generating those Popish Calvinists who are called Jansenists after his name. Nearly at the same period, the younger Socinus, a Polish freethinker, became father of that daring family of self-named Christians, who may be said to have denied the Lord that bought them. Bellarmine's Treatise on the Power of the Pope is still esteemed as a standard work among the Catholics: and the Treatise of Grotius on the Evidences of Chris tianity, is an invaluable - treasure to the Christian world at large; a day-spring visiting with beams of light and cheerfulness, the mind that has been overwhelmed in the gloom of infidelity, or perplexed amidst the mists of doubt.

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1610.-Several Scotchmen having come into England, with the view of obtaining consecration as bishops, it was objected

by Andrews, the Bishop of Ely, that they must first become · deacons and priests : to which Spottiswoode represents Ban

croft as having replied, that in this case the ordination of pres·byters would suffice : but he, in fact, stated that Ambrose

and Nestorius were created, the one, Bishop of Milan, the other, Patriarch of Constantinople, without any first order, either of deacon pr of priest.-Heylin, Hist. of Dis. p. 382.

On this occasion, Spottiswoode, Hamilton, and Lambe, were consecrated bishops of Glasgow, Galloway, and Bre

chin ;--they were also, at the same time, made Lords of · Parliament; but Neale affirms, that they were hated by both · ministers and people.

Edward VI. had introduced the Reformation into Jersey and Guernsey; but in the reign of Mary these islands had reAlthough a petition of the inhabitants for making it general, miscarried, they of their own accord discarded the liturgy; while the Puritans dispatched Cartwright and Snape, to establish amongst them the classical discipline.--1576. This measure found connivance from the venal governors, to whom it served as a pretext for secularizing the church-lands, and Śweeping into their own coffers the revenues of the deapries: James, deceived by the Puritanis, who informed him that his predecessor had granted the petition, indulged these islanders in their beloved discipline for a short time. This boon was "granted.on his accession in 1603 ; but in 1623, the office of dean was revived, and the islands were brought back to conformity. In Ireland, likewise, tlie non-conformists found, in the avaricious lay governors, strenuous friends to their designs against the hierarchy. These obtained the plunder of various cathedrals: which occasioned the throwing together of several impoverished dioceses. As to the parishes, the tithes, having been mostly appropriated to religious houses, had fallen to the crown at the dissolution, under Henry VIII.; and, by conveyance, passed from that monarch to the reforming sharks, his courtiers. The vicarages sunk in their value to nothing ; in Connaught, to forty pounds a year ; and, the authority of bishops and clergy declining of course, the people followed their fancy in the choice of a religion, and relapsed into Popery. Thus stood matters at the death of Elizabeth. James, at the conference of Hampton Court, proposed. send. ing ministers to the sister, island; where he said he was but half a king; this, however; being neglected, Scotch colonists from the opposite coast, settled Calvinism in the province of Ulster. From hence it mingled every where with episcopacy; and the church, under Usher, established the Lambeth arthe power of absolution to be declarative SIMPLY; and the Pope to be Antichrist.--1615. These articles of the Irish convocation were ratified by the King, iņ 1615, who seeing equal danger from the Papists and Puritans, leant to the former at one time, and at another to the latter *.

lapsed into Popery.-Under Elizabeth, a body of Hugonots · arriving from France, introduced the discipline of Geneva.

ticles ;--and drew up a form of faith enjoining the strict : Sabbath, and inculcating the Calvinistic notion of Christ's

descent into hell; while it admitted abstinence from flesh on

political, but not on religious considerations; and asserted the • possibility of a lawful call without episcopal ordination ; 1624. This year, in presence of a vast concourse of people, Fisher, a Jesuit, disputed on the doctrines of Popery, with

1615. The Bishop of Raphoe and some others, ordaining the Scottish clergy who passed over into Ireland, consented to their abridging the service at their pleasure. This was an irregular proceeding, of which Usher, we are sorry to say, as proved. " And thus," adds the historian of the Puritans, “ things continued, till Archbishop Laud weakened the Protestants by di. viding them, and made way for that enormous growth of Popery, which ended in the massacre of almost all the Protestants in that kingdom." But if the established church had not thus debased itself, by unauthorized mixtures and Calvinistic absurdities, we may ask whether the growth of Popery would have been thus enormous. Mr. Neale is well acquainted with that historical chicanery which fathers upon one cause the effects of another. · Two heretics were burned in 1911; Legate for Arianism, and Wightman for no less than ten heresies. Their obstinacy in error was mistaken by the populace for constancy in supporting the truth; and thus their opinions, though professed in secrecy, gained ground.

* Under Usher was drawn up the Irish confession of faith. This instrument tock the English articles as a stock, on which it grafted Calvinism: thus showing that that formulary was not ascounted Calvinistic. Neale, that impartial historian, prints this document, with hands pointing to the Calvinistic parts; but no hand and no italics mark the eļeventh sec:ion of the first article, which pronounces, by a strange contradiction, that God's fore-ordination offers no violence to the will of reasonable creatures ; and that thereby neither the liberty nor the contingency of sccond causes is taken away; but that they are rather established. To this confession the Puritans appealed, until it was revoked in convocațion, in 1634, by the influence of Laud and Strafford.

VOL. II. ,

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