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Laud, Williams, and White, a day each. This contest alone would for ever acquit Laud of the charge of Popery.

Formerly ceremonies were objected to as inconvenient: but in the AERIDGMENT, published by the Lincolnshire ninisters, 1605, the surplice, the cross, and kneeling at the altar, were: condemned as $IGNIFICANT ceremonies ; as abused by Popery to idolatrous purposes; as burthens at once unreasonable and unlawful, by being more than God imposed; and as hindering edification and causing offence (Rom. xiv. 21; I Cor. x. 23-32). This Abridgment was answered by Bishop More. ton, and by Dr. Burgess, a reclaimed non-conformist.

These Brownists affirmed, that as the Catholics worshipped the beast, and Episcopalians the image of the beast, so they who obey the reformed presbytery of pastors, elders, and dea: cons, worship the shadow of the image. To avoid the severities of Bancroft, many passed into Holland. “And thus stood the brethren of the separation, 1606, when Smith published his book concerning their differences. But afterwards there arose another great dispute, between Ainsworth and Broughton, whether ihe colour of Aaron's linen ephod were a blue, or a sea-water green : which did not only trouble all the dyers in Amsterdam, but threw their several followers into sides and factions, and made good sport to all the world but themselves alone. By reason of which divisions and subdivisions, they fell into so many fractions, that one of them, in the end, bea came a church of himself; and not finding any one to join with him in opinion, rushed into the river Ley, and was the minise ter of his own baptism, whereby he received the name of a se-baptist; which no sectary or heretic had ever obtained be foret."

Bradshaw's Treatise on English Puritanism was published in 1605. From the abstract of it given in Neale's first vol. p. 447, it is found to be, in some points, much the same with the Abridgment; but in affirming, that each congregation, being in itself a visible church, cannot be censured by any

+ Heylin, Hist. Presbyt. p. 373.

other congregation or church, or spiritual officer, but can only be counselled, it manifests the independent principle; namely, that every congregation ought to choose its own pastors, and that these should bear rale over no other church. The Abridgment and Treatise are deserving of notice, as forming the connecting link between Brownism and Independence. The Treatise, indeed, fraught with the most unaccountablo contradictions, professes: submission to the hierarchy, and openly denies its power.

It is stated, that if a minister wishes to resign, he lays his reasons before the congregation ; and if they should be dissatisfied, he may appeal to the civil magistrate. The pastors of each congregation are the highest spiritual officers; there being no superior pastor except Jesus Christ ; much less any. diocesan, or provincial pastors, by divine institution. All ignoşant, and mere reading priests, were to be rejected; for the congregation ought only to choose such as can interpret and apply the word. In public worship the pastor is to be held the mouth, and the people were only to answer, Amen. The elders are lay assistants of the minister ; and to both the power of church censure is committed; and this not for reports, but on account of notorious crimes. They may punish with suspension from the sacrament, and, on the obstinacy of the delinquent, with expulsion from their congregation. If one withdraws, they have no further concern with him. The supreme civil magistrate enjoys power over all the churches in his dominions, and ought to be a member of one of them. The Pape is Antichrist by usurping the supremacy. As bishops, &c. hold their offices jure humano, the king may deprive them by virtue of his supremacy. Supremacy is inseparable from the king, even were he an infidel. The king may convoke synods, and therein make laws for the church ; and if in these, particular ministers see any thing contrary to the word of God, they are not to resist, but duly to forbear obedience, and to submit to the penalty “ All ecclesiastical jurisdiction is confined within one con. gregation : it is purely spiritual, and yested in the ministers and lay elders." Such is the sentiment of the petitioning Puritans, whom Neale represents as not hostile to the church establishment. ;“ We are content," say they, “ that the prelates shall enjoy their dignities, only that they shall npt be our judges” (vid. Petition). As it 'was impossible that ab episcopal church could embrace the holders of such opinions, dissent became the result; the doctrine was stripped of its ab, surd compliments to prelacy, and the sect of the Independents was soon after formed.

Prior to this period the term Puritans denoted such as dissented from the hierarchy in regard to church government and ceremonies. It is henceforward to be regarded as signifys. ing, mainly, the opponents of Arminian opinions *

It is worthy of remark, that Raynolds always complied with the ceremonies himself; and only urged the propriety of indulging the reg cusants.


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As it was by order of James 1. that the ex* cellent translation of the Seriptures now used in all our churches, was executed, it may not be deemed uninteresting or foreign to our subject, to take, in this place; a review of the various efforts made at different periods of the English history, to place the sacred volume in the hands of the common people. So far was the primitive English church from believing ignorance to be the mothed of derotion, that from the earliest periods, whena ever any change was effected by time or conquest in the vulgar tongue, new translations of the Scriptures were made, with the intent of keeping pace with each alteration. Adhelme and Egbert, bishops of Sherburne and Lindisfarne, translated the Psalter and Evangelists into the Saxon tongue, about the year 706. In the following version of the whole Bible was directed to be made by Alfréd the Great; who died when the pious labour was but half completed. This was pube

lished in quarto, A. D. 1640, with the Latin interlineary text, by John Spelman.

In Oxford there are three copies of an English translation of the Bible, bearing date A. D. 1299, nearly a century previous to the appearance of Wickliffe’s.-Wickliffe translated the Old and New Testaments, A. D. 1380, from the Latin Vulgate into the English of his own times: the Saxou tongue being then not commonly understood, by reason of its admixture with the Norman, introduced at the Conquest. : Though the Scribes and Pharisees, by false interpretations of Scripture, took away the key of knowledge from the Jews, they at no period removed the sacred text itself: an arbitrary measure, reserved only for times, 'in which conduct more liberal might have been expected. Archbishop Arundel, in the year 1407, restricted the people from the free use of the inspired writings, but more particularly of Wickliffe's translation : and his edict, being disregarded by great numbers, . was enforced with various severities.“- . ' i.

Tyndal, in the reign of Henry VIII. edited the first printed English translation of the New Tese tament, at Hamburgh or Antwerp, about the year 1526.-Attempts were made to suppress it: but the art of printing had now secured religion from being injured by the violence of such low resentment. A new edition was published in the following year : but the Popish clergy raising a


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