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THE REIGN OF CHARLES I. [17th Cent. wrong. Be this as it may, their sway was nearly despotic. While Henderson intermeddled more in northern politics than all the bench of Scottish bishops had formerly done, Burgess and Marshall possessed stronger influence over the two houses than Laud had ever boasted at court. Selden, Lightfoot, Cudworth, Pococke, Whichcote, and Arrowsmith, are enrolled by the Puritan historian, as attached to the parliament: but Warburton thinks, with higher probability, that they submitted in neutrality, and were not followers of the party. Lastly, a rabble joined the parliamentary force, having chosen their side, not through any ability to settle the question of right, but because they had heard the cavaliers swear for the King, and the roundheads PRAY AGAINST him. . .

Usher, Hall, Moreton, Westfield, Brownrigge, Prideaux, Hammond, Sanderson, all the bishops, in short, and many eminent divines, the fellows of both the universities, together with the cathedral and most of the parochial clergy, were gathered as satellites round the King. The royal army being unruly, and subsisting on their plunder, Charles, by a proclamation, forbade their excesses.

XXXVIII. In the mean time, the metropolis witnessed the removal of all open vices and ostensible indecorums. Public diversions ceased, though it seems an ordinance was requisite to stop them, and in their stead was established a monthly fast, THE REIGN OF CHARLES-I. 185 together with a seven o'clock in the morning lecture or exercise * “ You might walk through London on the evening of the Lord's day," says a writer, ” and not see one idle person, or hear any thing but the voice of prayers and praises from churches and private houses.” No barber would shave on Sunday; no ferryman would carry a passenger across the Thames ; nor could a man even sit undisturbed at his own door. We doubt not that in these devotions and decencies, there was much genuine piety, and so far they are worthy of our admiration ; but it is a melancholy truth that the heart may sing psalms, and yet be deceitful above all things ..

* The Parliament appointed also a weekly fast for every Wednesday, while that of the King was held every Friday : and thus, it was said, both parties called Alnighty God into the quarrel.

t On one occasion, S Aug. 1641, this same goldly parliament, pleading necessity, sate all Sunday for the dispatch of business. What would they have said, had this been done by the opposite party? How easily do we excuse in our own conduct the offences we condemn in that of our brethren!

THE CIVIL

CHAPTER XI.

FROM THE BREAKING OUT OF THE CIVIL WAR TO

THE MARTYRDOM OF CHARLES.

Contents.

I. Origin of the War.-II. Assembly of Divines.-III.

Attempt to alter the Thirty-nine Articles.--IV. The Covenant taken by the Parliament and Assembly.-V. Persecution of malignant Ministers who refused Subscription.-VI. Ordinance for defacing the Beauty of Churches.- VII. Abolition of the Hierarchy: Religious Parties : State of Religion.--VIII. The Directory for Public Worship and Assembly's Catechisms.IX. The triul of Laud.--X. His Execution and Clatacter.-XI. Treaty of Uxbridge.-XII. Rise of the Independents in the Army: Fanatical Lay Preachers.XIII. Debates among the religious Parties; and. Settlement of the Presbyterian Discipline.--XIV. The King surrenders himself to the Scols--Conduct of the Parliament.--XV. Charles's Controversy with Henderson relative to the Apostolical Institution of Episcopacy.—XVI. Proposals from the Parliament. XVII. The Scots sell the King to the Parliament.XVIII. Seizure of the King by the Army.XIX. His removal to Carisbrook Castle.—XX. Vote for no further Addresses to the King.-XXI. The Scots invade England.-XXII. Treaty of the Isle of Wight.

XXIII. Trial and Martyrdom of Charles.-XXIV. - His Character XXV. Miscellaneous Matters : Opinions on the Civil War-Conduct of Universities. --XXVI, Catholics.-XXVII. Acts of Parliament,

-XXVIII. Learned Divines.-- XXIX. Presbyterians.-XXX. Independents.

I. 1643.-Bishops Burnet and Kennett, furious against Popery, throw all the odium and blame of the civil war upon the Queen. But this is vulgar prejudice: ship-money had been given up; the Star-chamber and High Commissioncourt suppressed ; Strafford * executed; the episcopal votes abolished; the power of the Bishops in their courts retrenched; the triennial act passed; every reasonable denuand satisfied ; every fair concession made; and, in fine, every disposition to conciliation manifested. The origin of the war then was with the Puritans alone : it was their insatiable spirit of encroachment; it was their lawless invasion of the royal prerogative; it was, in short, their claim of the militia, and other unconstitutional demands, that ripped up the bo. som of their mother country.

* When Charles hesitated in signing the death-warrant of Strafford, Williams, it is said, gave him strange casuistical advice : “A king has a public and a private conscience : and he might do that as a king from his public conscience, which militated against his private conscience as a man."

This is the precise language of Sir Pertinax Macsycophant, ." There's twa sorts o consciences, Maister Sydney; the par:

liamentary conscience, and the common conscience," &c.

II. The attempt made in the treaty of Oxford to obtain the royal consent to the abolition of episcopacy having failed, an ordinance was passed in parliament for the meeting of learned and godly divines, who should take the Liturgy, government, and doctrines of the church, under consideration. This measure was adopted for the gratification of the Scots, who had demanded an uniformity in doctrine and discipline betwixt the two nations. The jealous Parliament however appointed that the assembly should be only a deliberative body, having no ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Its members were not less an object of attention : instead of being delegated by the beneficed clergy (for that would have been making the disteinpered patients their own physicians), they were elected by the knights and burgesses, two being returned for each county. Consequently, of 121 divines, a large majority were openly hostile to the doctrine and discipline of the establishment; men of mean learning, and many likewise of scandalous morals*. To these were added, thirty lay assessors; ten being lords and twenty commoners. The great proportion were favourers of the Presbyte

* Claren. vol. i. p. 530.-But Mr. Baxter, to whom Neale al ways acts handsomely the gentleman-usher, by introducing him as “ Mr. Baxter, who was much better acquainted with these things," will have it that they were all, all honourable men, of great learning, godliness, fidelity, and ministerial abilities.

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