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car ii : . ; '1'> ^ . APPENDIX TO THE REIGN OF CHARLES T.
ON THE QUINQUARTICULAR CONTROVERSY..
Eine Sim oantents i i. . : I. Calvinists: Supralapsarian and Sublapsarian ; high
and moderate.-II. Arminians.—III. The Five Points
eramined :- the first, absolute Predestination; the sea or.cond, partial Redemption; the third, the total Depra
vation of Man; the fourth, the special Call of the * Electį the fifth, the Perseverance of the Saints.-IV. • Were the early English Reformers, Calviniste ?..-V: 6. Are the 'Articles Calvinistic ?-VI. Is the Liturgy ?> F. VII. Are the Homilies ?-VIII. Were the Formularies • deemed Calvinistic at and after their Appearance ? 6. IX. Comparison of the Formularies with those of other
Churches, avowedly Calvinistic...... ? 1. The Protestants agreed, in general, in reject ing the Romish doctrines which related to the Papal, supremacy, the traditions of the church, transubstantiation, purgatory, penance, auricular confession, image-worship, invocation of saints, masses for the dead, 'monastic vows, "and the admission of more sacraments in the church than two. On other points, however, soon after the
Reformation, many of the reformed churches were at open variance : and no subjects were more warmly contested than those which involved the doctrines of predestination, faith, and spiritual influence. .'!' · As Zuinglius was the father of the doctrines and Calvin of the church discipline of Geneva, the term Calvinist was originally applied chiefly to the advocates of Presbyterian ordination and government; but since the synod of Dort, the name has been confined to all who embrace the views of the Gospel entertained by Calvin, and as a mark of opposition to the disciples of the Armirian school. - The Calvinists, however, were not wholly agreed amongst themselves. They were either sublapsau rians or supralapsarians: the former asserting that Adam was free to stand in paradise ; while the latter held that God had decreed his fall from all: eternity, and that he could not possibly have avoided his sin or its consequences. As this dispúte seems matter of mere speculation, and has little or no bearing on the characters, and fate of mankind, it needs not long arrest our'attention.
The sublapsarian scheme is, comparatively speaking, more favourable to the attributes of God, than the horrible hypothesis of the opposite party: but it is defective in analogy, by ascribing to Adam a free wilt, a moral agency, and to his posterity, none. The supralapsarians are more shocking, but more consistent, in their opinions,
by representing. Adam, and every son of Adam; as. all machines together. · Another distinction is drawn between high and moderate Calvinists: the former accompanying Calvin to the furthest extent of his positions, while the latter yield him only a partial accordance. The moderate Calvinists admit the doctrine of universal redemption, and by consequence of spiritual influence unlimited in regard to persons ; holding that every man may be saved, unless he is wanting to himself. It is clear, however, that this principle, if closely pursued, is totally incompatible with the whole of the five points. A moderate Calvinist is a contradiction in terms; it is an universal particularist; and too great an absurdity to stand the test of reason. Baxter, indeed, admitted the positive election of a certain number, and denied the absolute reprobation of any : meaning that the salvation of all the rest is contingent by depending on their voluntary improvement'or rejection of sufficient grace vouchsafed. This, however, strikes at the root of every one of the five points ; of the 1st, by omitting the passing-by system ; of the 2d, by asserting the universality of Christ's merits ; of the 3d, by :supposing some portion of inward rectitude in man; of the 4th, by inaking man himself, in part, the agent in the work of salvation; and of the 5th, by destroying all the others. Neither is this what is incant-precisely by moderate Calvinism in the
present times: which is a quibbling and unintelligible distinction between Christ's merits as uni
versally suFFICIENT, and as, in fact, universally • tendered. The - Arminians contend that these things are the same. The moderate Calvinists, if pressed upon their distinction, will shuffle and cut, and evade a determinate answer. They will speak of the presumption of prying further into mysteries. They will not go the length of the Arminians and Baxterians, by allowing distinctly that EvERY MAN MAY BE SAVED through Christ, and by grace, if he will.
. II. Arminius, the disciple of Beza, was, pastor at Amsterdam, and afterwards professor of divinity in Leyden. He had been educated in all the strict opinions of Calvin ; but on mature reflection, he began, in 1591, to express doubts as to the severe doctrines, of absolute election and partial redemption ; and gave his name to those Christians who opposed the five points of Calvinism discussed at the synod of Dort. The Arminians are called Remonstrants, because, in 1611, they stated their grievances in a remonstrance to the States General, and prayed for relief.
III. Having premised these observations, let us now proceed in order, to a consideration of the five points ; as they severally relate to absolute predestination, partial redemption, total depravation, involuntary conversion, and indefectible grace.
- i. It is held by the CALVINISTS, that God hath chosen, in Christ, a certain number of the fallen race of Adam, before or at the foundation of the world, to be heirs of everlasting felicity; accord. ing to his immutable purpose, and of his free grace and love, without respect to the faith, works, or other condition performed by the creature: and that the rest of mankind he was pleased to PASS BY, and to ordain them to dishonour and wrath for their sins.' In the former case his glory is promoted; in the latter, his justice is dis played *.
The ARMINIANS contend, that God from all eternity determined to bestow salvation on such as he foresaw would embrace the Gospel covenant, through faith working by love; and to inflict everlasting punishment on those, who, as he foret knew, should continue in unbelief, and in resistance of his tender of salvation : so that election and reprobation were alike conditional; although God had a sure prescience how every man would fulfil the conditions. This hypothesis they affirm to be strictly scriptural, and reconcilable with all the texts produced by Calvinists on the opposite side. :
* In the language of the synod of Dort, “ appointed by the same decree to eternal damnation, without any regard to their · infidelity or impenitency.”—The Lambeth articles are yet stronger : " The number of the predestinated can neither be augmented nor diminished; those not predestinated, shall be necessarily damned for their sins."