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To him will we prove loyal: till that time

Have we ramm'd up our gates against the world. K. John. Doth not the crown of England prove the king ? And if not that, I bring you witnesses,

274
Twice fifteen thousand hearts of England's breed,
Bast. Bastards, and else.
K. John. To verify our title with their lives.
K. Phi. As many and as well-born bloods as those-
Bast. Some bastards too.
K. Phi. Stand in his face to contradict his claim. 280
First Cit. Till you compound whose right is worthiest,

We for the worthiest hold the right from both.
K. John. Then God forgive the sin of all those souls

That to their everlasting residence,
Before the dew of evening fall, shall fleet, 285

In dreadful trial of our kingdom's king!
K. Phi. Amen, amen! Mount, chevaliers ! to arms!
Bast. Saint George, that swinged the dragon, and e'er

since
Sits on his horse back at mine hostess' door,

288, 289. Saint George . . . door] So Pope; the Folios end the first line at dragon.

276. Bastards, and else) Mr. Moore. The sign of “St. George and the Smith seems more accurate than Dragon ” must have been very comSchmidt in taking this to mean mon in Elizabethan times; indeed Bastards and otherwise" instead it is not uncommon nowadays. Comof “ Bastards and such-like.”

pare Lyly, Euphues (ed. Arber, p. 281. Compound] settle among your- 47, line 288): “St. George, who is selves. Compare The Taming of ever on horseback yet never rideth.” the Shrew, 1. ii. 27: “We will com. 288. swinged] thrashed, whipped. pound this quarrel.”

A.S. swingan, to beat. Compare 285. fleet] Ait. Compare The 2 Henry Iỹ. v. iv. 21:Merchant of Venice, iv. i. 135: “Even “I will have you swinged soundly from the gallows did his fell soul for this.”' fleet.

289. horse] Perhaps we ought to 288, 289. Saint George . . . door] read horse' to indicate the possessive. 290. some fence] literally “some 304. bleeding ground] Note the fencing.” Compare “An I thought transference of the adjective. he had been so valiant and cunning 308, 309. Upon the ... display'd] in fence(Twelfth Night, 111. iv. 312), Vaughan connects" triumphantly and the phrase "a master of fence.' display'd" with “French." Why

Teach us some fence! [To Aust.] Sirrah, were I at home,

290 At your den, sirrah, with your lioness, I would set an ox-head to your lion's hide,

And make a monster of you. Aust.

Peace! no more. Bast. O, tremble, for you hear the lion roar. K. John. Up higher to the plain; where we'll set forth 295

In best appointment all our regiments. Bast. Speed then, to take advantage of the field. K. Phi. It shall be so; and at the other hill Command the rest to stand. God and our right!

(Exeunt.

exc

Here after excursions, enter the Herald of France, with

trumpets, to the gates. F. Her. You men of Angiers, open wide your gates, 300

And let young Arthur, Duke of Bretagne, in,
Who by the hand of France this day hath made
Much work for tears in many an English mother,
Whose sons lie scattered on the bleeding ground:
Many a widow's husband grovelling lies,

305
Coldly embracing the discoloured earth;
And victory, with little loss, doth play
Upon the dancing banners of the French,

292. I would . . . hide] one more he should prefer this to the far more variation of the inevitable Elizabethan natural “ banners" does not appear. joke on the cuckold's horns.

Keightley inverts the line into

Who are at hand, triumphantly display'd,
To enter conquerors, and to proclaim

310 Arthur of Bretagne England's king and yours.

Enter English Herald, with trumpet.
E. Her. Rejoice, you men of Angiers, ring your bells;

King John, your king and England's, doth approach,
Commander of this hot malicious day:
Their armours, that march'd hence so silver-bright, 315
Hither return all gilt with Frenchmen's blood;
There stuck no plume in any English crest
That is removed by a staff of France;
Our colours do return in those same hands
That did display when we first march'd forth; 320
And, like a jolly troop of huntsmen, come
Our lusty English, all with purpled hands,
Dyed in the dying slaughter of their foes :

Open your gates and give the victors way.
First Cit. Heralds, from off our towers we might behold, 325
Of both your armies; whose equality
By our best eyes cannot be censured :
Blood hath bought blood and blows have answered

From first to last, the onset and retire 318. a staff] any staff Collier, ed. 2 (Collier MS.). “ Triumphantly display'd; who are To transfer dying to foes would at hand." This seems unnecessary. hardly be an improvement, and we

316. Hither ... blood] Compare are forced to believe that Shakespeare Macbeth, 11. iii. 118:

sacrificed sense a little for the sake of “Here lay Duncan playing with the sound. His silver skin laced with his 325. First Cit.] In the Folios the golden blood" ;

person here called the First Citizen is and Ford, 'Tis Pity, v. vi.: "gilt called Hubert. Mr. Knight retains with the blood of a fair sister and a this, identifying him with Hubert hapless father.” Compare also the de Burgh. Mr. Wright suggests phrase "red gold."

that the parts both of Hubert and of 318. staff] Here used as equivalent the Citizen were played by the same for the whole spear...

actor. In the Troublesome Raigne 323. Dyed ... dying] The play Hubert and the Citizen are two dis. upon words is obvious, and “ dying tinct persons. slaughter" may be compared with 326. retire] See line 253 and note. “bleeding ground," line 304 supra. supra.

blows;
Strength match'd with strength, and power confronted
power:

330 Both are alike; and both alike we like. One must prove greatest: while they weigh so even,

We hold our town for neither, yet for both.
Re-enter the two Kings, with their powers, severally.
K. John. France, hast thou yet more blood to cast away?

Say, shall the current of our right run on? 335
Whose passage, vex'd with thy impediment,
Shall leave his native channel, and o'erswell
With course disturb'd even thy confining shores,
Unless thou let his silver water keep

A peaceful progress to the ocean.
K. Phi. England, thou hast not saved one drop of blood,

In this hot trial, more than we of France ;

Rather, lost more. And by this hand I swear, 335. run] Ff 3, 4; runne F 2; rome F 1; roam Malone; foam Nicholson conj.

327, 328. whose equality . . . cen- i. 33) is not, however, convincing. sured] our best eyes cannot dis- An old dictionary (1696) by Coles tinguish between the two claimants, gives “Censure : to judge, give so equally matched are you. Malone sentence," and the meaning in to says, “Our author ought to have judge" seems sufficient for our written 'whose superiority,' or passage. whose inequality' cannot be cen. 335. shall ... run on] Compare sured.” Vaughan explains, whose v. iv. 56: “And calmly run on in equality is so exact that our best eyes obedience." In view of this there is can see no flaw in its completeness,” no doubt that run is the preferable and adds that “censure appears to be reading. a term specially applicable to the 344. climate] Here a portion of the discrimination of differences.” The sky. In Richard II. iv. i. 130 it is instance he quotes (Henry VIII. 1. used for a region of the earth (" That You equal potents, fiery kindled spirits ! 358. fiery kindled] fiery-kindled Pope ; fire-ykindled Collier, ed. 2 (Collier MS.); fire-enkindled Lettsom conj. in a Christian climate souls refined gives “to mouch” = “to eat up Should show as heinous ..."). greedily” (Linc.), and Coles, “to eat Cotgrave has "Climat : a clime, or up all.” climate ; a division in the skie, or 357. havoc !] The crying of portion of the world, between south “havoc 1" was the signal for indisand north” ; Coles (1696) “Climote criminate slaughter. Compare Julius (sic): clime, such a space of earth Cæsar, III. i. 273 :ibetween two parallel lines) as makes “Cry 'Havoc,' and let slip the half an hour's difference in the sun

340

That sways the earth this climate overlooks,
Before we will lay down our just-borne arms, 345
We'll put thee down 'gainst whom these arms we bear,
Or add a royal number to the dead,
Gracing the scroll that tells of this war's loss

With slaughter coupled to the name of kings.
Bast. Ha, majesty! how high thy glory towers, 350

When the rich blood of kings is set on fire!
O, now doth Death line his dead chaps with steel ;
The swords of soldiers are his teeth, his fangs;
And now he feasts, mousing the flesh of men,
In undetermined differences of kings.

355
Why stand these royal fronts amazed thus ?
Cry “havoc !” kings; back to the stained field,

dogs of war.” dials and length of days.”

The New Eng. Dict. quotes (1385) 350. towers) soars.' See v. ii. 149 Ord. War Richard II. in Black Bk. infra. A hawking term. A grouse Admiralty (Rolls), i. 455:that rises high before dropping after “Item, qe nul soit si hardy de being mortally struck is still said to crier havok sur peine davoir la “ tower.”

teste coupe.” 354. mousing] generally given as 358. equal potents] equally “ tearing, as a cat tears a mouse." matched powers. A much better sense is given by tak- 358. fiery kindled] See readings ing the more obvious meaning of in the variant, supra. I would suggnawing, nibbling as a mouse does. gest“ fury-kindled spirits.” Compare The “ Well moused, Lion!” of A Ēdward III. 11. iii. 113: “Or that Midsummer-Night's Dream, v. i. 274, enkindled fury turn to flame”; and will also bear this interpretation. It Richard II.1. 1.152: “ Wrath-kindled is perhaps worth noting that Halliwell gentlemen, be ruled by me."

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