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If the year 1848-"THE YEAR OF and the long-established order of REVOLUTIONS ” was one pre-eminent things is subverted-is nothing else among all others for the magnitude but the folly and wickedness of man and interest of the events it brought warring against the wisdom of nature. forth, the year which has just expired All history demonstrates that there is -THE YEAR OF REACTION—is still a certain order of things which is more worthy of serious reflection, and favourable to human felicity-under affords subjects for more cheering which industry flourishes, population meditation. If the first exhibited increases, the arts are encouraged, the whirlwind of anarchy let loose, agriculture improves, general happithe second showed the power by ness is diffused. The basis of such which it is restrained ; if the former a state of things is the security of filled every heart with dread at the property; the moving power which fierce passions which were developed, puts in motion the whole complicated and the portentous events which machine of society, is the certainty occurred in the world, the latter that every man will enjoy the fruits afforded reason for profound thank- of his toil. As clearly do past events fulness, at the silent but irresistible demonstrate, that there is a state force with which Omnipotence over- of things wherein the reverse of all rules the wickedness of men, and re- this takes place; when industry is pastrains the madness of the people. ralysed, population arrested, the arts 6 Celsâ sedet Æolus arce,

languish, agriculture decays, general Sceptra tenens, mollitque animos, et tem- misery prevails. The chief cause of perat iras.

such a state of things is to be found Ni faciat, maria ac terras cælumque pro- in the insecurity of property, the fundum

dread that industry will not reap its uippe ferant rapidi secum, verruntque appointed reward; but that external

per auras. Sed Pater Omnipotens speluncis abdidit violence or domestic spoliation may atris,

interfere between the labourer and Hoc metuens ; regemque dedit qui foedere the fruits of his toil. When such a Et premere et laxas sciret dare jussus ha- commotion, it is generally preceded

state of things arises from internal

by the warmest hopes, and the most The history of the world during unbounded anticipations of felicity. those periods of convulsion, happily It is universally characterised by a of very rare occurrence, when an resolute disregard of experience, and eruption of popular passions takes a universal passion for innovation place when thrones are overturned, in all the institutions of society, and



Æneid, i. 56.



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