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SCENE III-Another part of the field. Flou-That there's no hop'd-for mercy with the brothers, rish. Enter King Edward, in triumph; with* More than with ruthless waves, with sands, and Clarence, Gloster, and the rest. rocks.

'K. Edw. Thus far our fortune keeps an upward

course,

*

Why, courage, then! what cannot be avoided, * "Twere childish weakness to lament, or fear.

* Prince. Methinks, a woman of this valiant

spirit

Should, if a coward heard her speak these words, * Infuse his breast with magnanimity,

* And make him, naked, foil a man at arms.
queenFor, did I but suspect a fearful man,
'I speak not this, as doubting any here:

And we are grac'd with wreaths of victory. But, in the midst of this bright-shining day, 'I spy a black, suspicious, threat'ning cloud, 'That will encounter with our glorious sun, 'Ere he attain his easeful western bed: 'I mean, my lords, those powers, that the 'Hath rais'd in Gallia, have arriv'd our coast, 'And, as we hear, march on to fight with us. *Clar. A little gale will soon disperse that cloud, * And blow it to the source from whence it came : Thy very beams will dry those vapours up; *For every cloud engenders not a storm.

Glo. The queen is valu'd thirty thousand strong, 'And Somerset, with Oxford, fled to her : 'If she have time to breathe, be well assur'd, Her faction will be full as strong as ours.

K. Edw. We are advertis'd by our loving friends, That they do hold their course toward Tewksbury; "We having now the best at Barnet field,

Will thither straight, for willingness rids way;
• And, as we march, our strength will be augmented
In every county as we go along.-
Strike up the drum; cry-Courage and away.

[Exeunt. SCENE IV.-Plains near Tewksbury. March. Enter Queen Margaret, Prince Edward, Somerset, Oxford and soldiers.

* Q. Mar. Great lords, wise men ne'er sit and wail their loss,

But cheerly seek how to redress their harms.
"What though the mast be now blown over-board,
"The cable broke, the holding anchor lost,
'And half our sailors swallow'd in the flood?
Yet lives our pilot still: Is't meet, that he
Should leave the helm, and, like a fearful lad,
* With tearful eyes add water to the sea,
*And give more strength to that which hath too
much;

*Whiles, in his moan, the ship splits on the rock,
*Which industry and courage might have saved?
Ah, what a shame! ah, what a fault were this!
Say, Warwick was our anchor; What of that?
And Montague our top-mast; What of him?
"Our slaughter'd friends the tackles; What
these ?

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'He should have leave to go away betimes;
Lest, in our need, he might infect another,
And make him of like spirit to himself.
'If any such be here, as God forbid !
'Let him depart, before we need his help.

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And warriors faint! why, 'twere perpetual shame.-
Oxf. Women and children of so high a courage
O, brave young prince! thy famous grandfather
Doth live again in thee; Long may'st thou live,
To bear his image, and renew his glories!

Go home to bed, and, like the owl by day,
Som. And he, that will not fight for such a hope,
'If he arise, be mock'd and wonder'd at.
*Q. Mar. Thanks, gentle Somerset ;-sweet
Oxford, thanks.

* Prince. And take his thanks, that yet hath nothing else.

Enter a Messenger.

Mess. Prepare you, lords, for Edward is at hand, 'Ready to fight; therefore be resolute.

Orf. I thought no less it is his policy,
To haste thus fast, to find us unprovided
Som. But he's deceiv'd, we are in readiness.
Q. Mar. This chcers my heart, to see your for-
wardness.

Orf. Here pitch our battle, hence we will not
budge.

March.

Enter, at a distance, King Edward, Clarence, Gloster, and forces."

'K. Edw. Brave followers, yonder stands the thorny wood,

'Which, by the heavens' assistance, and your
strength,

Must by the roots be hewn up yet ere night.
* I need not add more fuel to your fire,
of* For well I wot,' ye blaze to burn them out:
*Give signal to the fight, and to it, lords.

"Why, is not Oxford here another anchor?
'And Somerset another goodly mast?
"The friends of France our shrouds and tacklings?
And, though unskilful, why not Ned and I
'For once allow'd the skilful pilot's charge?
'We will not from the helm, to sit and weep ;.
* But keep our course, though the rough wind say

-no,

*From shelves and rocks that threaten us with
wreck.

*As good to chide the waves, as speak them fair.
And what is Edward, but a ruthless sea?
*What Clarence, but a quicksand of deceit.?
*And Richard, but a ragged fatal rock?
*All these the enemies to our poor bark.

Say, you can swim; alas, 'tis but a while:
Tread on the sand; why, there you quickly sink:
*Bestride the rock; the tide will wash you off,
*Or else you famish, that's a threefold death.
*This speak I, lords, to let you understand,
* In case some one of you would fly from us,
(2) Unsay, deny,

(1) Know,

Q. Mar. Lords, knights, and gentlemen, what I should say,

My tears gainsay; for every word I speak, 'Ye see, I drink the water of mine eyes. "Therefore, no more but this :-Henry, your sovereign,

Is prisoner to the foe; his state usurp'd, 'His realm a slaughter-house, his subjects slain, His statutes cancell'd, and his treasure spent ; 'And yonder is the wolf, that makes this spoil. "You fight in justice: then, in God's name, lords, 'Be valiant, and give signal to the fight,

[Exeunt both armies.

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For Somerset, off with his guilty head. And men ne'er spend their fury on a child. Go, bear them hence; I will not hear them speak. What's worse than murder, that I may name it? Oxf. For my part, I'll not trouble thee with words. No, no; my heart will burst, an if I speak:'Som. Nor I, but stoop with patience to my for-* And I will speak, that so my heart may burst.tune. [Exeunt Oxf. and Som. guarded. 'Butchers and villains, bloody cannibals! Q. Mar. So part we sadly in this troublous world,* How sweet a plant have you untimely cropp'd! To meet with joy in sweet Jerusalem. 'You have no children, butchers! if you had, K. Edw. Is proclamation made,-that, who 'The thought of them would have stirr'd up re finds Edward,

* Shall have a high reward, and he his life?

* Glo. It is: and, lo,where youthful Edward comes. Enter Soldiers with Prince Edward.

K. Edw. Bring forth the gallant, let us hear him speak:

What! can so young a thorn begin to prick! 'Edward, what satisfaction canst thou make, 'For bearing arms, for stirring up my subjects, * And all the trouble thou hast turn'd me to? Prince. Speak like a subject, proud ambitious York? Suppose that I am now my father's mouth; Resign thy chair, and, where I stand, kneel thou, Whilst I propose the self-same words to thee, Which, traitor, thou wouldst have me answer to.

morse:

'But, if you ever chance to have a child, Look in his youth to have him so cut off, 'As deathsmen! you have rid this sweet young prince!

K. Edw. Away with her; go, bear her hence perforce.

Q. Mar. Nay, never bear me hence, despatch

me here;

Here sheath thy sword, I'll pardon thee my death:
What! wilt thou not ?-then, Clarence, do it thou.
Clar. By heaven, I will not do thee so much ease.
Q. Mar. Good Clarence, do; sweet Clarence,
do thou do it.

Clar. Didst thou not hear me swear, I would
not do it?

Q. Mar. Ah, that thy father had been so resolv'd!
Glo. That you might still have worn the petti-'Twas sin before, but now 'tis charity.

Q. Mar. Ay, But thou usest to forswear thyself;

coat,

And ne'er have stol'n the breech from Lancaster.
Prince. Let Esop' fable in a winter's night;
His currish riddles sort not with this place.
Glo. By heaven, brat, I'll plague you for that word.
Q. Mar. Ay, thou wast born to be a plague to men.
Glo. For God's sake, take away this captive scold.
Prince. Nay, take away this scolding crook-
back rather.

'K. Edw. Peace, wilful boy, or I will charm? your tongue.

Clar. Untutor'd lad, thou art too malapert. Prince. I know my duty, you are all undutiful: Lascivious Edward,-and thou perjur'd George,And thou misshapen Dick,-I tell ye all,

I am your better, traitors as ye are ;* And thou usurp'st my father's right and mine. K. Edw. Take that, the likeness of this railer here. [Stabs him. * Glo. Sprawl'st thou? take that, to end thy agony. [Glo. stabs him.

* Clar. And there's for twitting me with perjury. [Clar. stabs him.

Q. Mar. O, kill me too!
Glo. Marry, and shall.
'K. Edw. Hold, Richard,
done too much.

[Offers to kill her. hold, for we have

Glo. Why should she live, to fill the world with words?

'K. Edw. What! doth she swoon? use means

for her recovery.

Glo. Clarence, excuse me to the king my brother: 'I'll hence to London on a serious matter: 'Ere ye come there, be sure to hear some news. Clar. What? what?

'Glo. The Tower, the Tower!

[Exit.

'Q. Mar. O, Ned, sweet Ned! speak to thy mother, boy!

"Canst thou not speak?-O raitors! murderers!They, that stabb'd Cæsar, shed no blood at all, Did not offend, nor were not worthy blame, *If this foul deed were by, to equal it. 'He was a man; this, in respect, a child;

(1) The prince calls Richard, for his crookedness, Esop.

(2) i. e. I will compel you to be as silent as if you were deprived of speech by enchantment.

'What! wilt thou not? where is that devil's butcher, Hard-favour'd Richard? Richard, where art thou? Thou art not here: Murder is thy alms-deed; Petitioners for blood thou ne'er put'st back. 'K. Ed. Away, I say; I charge ye, bear her

hence.

Q. Mar. So come to you, and yours, as to this prince! [Exit, led out forcibly. K. Edio. Where's Richard gone? 'Clar. To London, all in post; and, as I guess, To make a bloody supper in the Tower.

K. Edw. He's sudden, if a thing comes in his

head.

Now march we hence: discharge the common sort With pay and thanks, and let's away to London, 'And see our gentle queen how well she fares; 'By this, I hope, she hath a son for me. [Exeunt. SCENE VI.-London. A room in the Tower. King Henry is discovered sitting with a book in his hand, the Lieutenant attending. Enter Gloster.

Glo. Good day, my lord! What, at your book so hard?

K. Hen. Ay, my good lord: My lord, I should say rather;

'Tis sin to flatter, good was little better: Good Gloster, and good devil, were alike,

And both preposterous; therefore, not good lord. * Glo. Sirrah, leave us to ourselves: we must confer. [Exit Lieutenant. *K. Hen. So flies the reckless shepherd from the wolf:

So first the harmless sheep doth yield his fleece, And next his throat unto the butcher's knife.What scene of death hath Roscius now to act?

Glo. Suspicion always haunts the guilty mind; The thief doth fear each bush an officer.

'K. Hen. The bird, that hath been limed in a

bush,

With trembling wings misdoubteth every bush, And I, the hapless male to one sweet bird, Have now the fatal object in my eye,

(3) Dispute, contention.

(4) She alludes to the desertion of Clarence. (5) Careless.

(6) To misdoubt is to suspect danger, to fear,

Where my poor young was lim'd, was caught and kill'd.

'Glo. Why, what a pcevish' fool was that of Crete,

Let hell make crook'd my mind to answer it. I have no brother, I am like no brother: And this word-love, which greybeards call divine Be resident in men like one another, And not in me; I am myself alone.Clarence, beware; thou keep'st me from the light; But I will sort a pitchy day for thee: For I will buzz abroad such prophecies, boy,That Edward shall be fearful of his life;

That taught his son the office of a fowl? And yet, for all his wings, the fool was drown'd. 'K. Hen. I, Dædalus; my poor boy, Icarus ; Thy father, Minos, that denied our course; The sun, that sear'd the wings of my sweet Thy brother Edward; and thyself, the sea, Whose envious gulf did swallow up his life. *Ah, kill me with thy weapon, not with words! 'My breast can better brook thy dagger's point, Than can my ears that tragic history.*But wherefore dost thou come? is't for my life? 'Glo. Think'st thou I am an executioner? K. Hen. A persecutor, I am sure, thou art; 'If murdering innocents be executing, "Why, then thou art an executioner."

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Glo. Thy son I kill'd for his presumption.

K. Hen. Hadst thou been kill'd, when first thou didst presume,

Thou hadst not liv'd to kill a son of mine. And thus I prophesy,-that many a thousand, 'Which now mistrust no parcel of my fear; And many an old man's sigh, and many a widow's,

And many an orphan's water-standing eye,Men for their sons, wives for their husbands' fate, 'And orphans for their parents' timeless death,'Shall rue the hour that ever thou wast born. The owl shriek'd at thy birth, an evil sign;

The night-crow cried, aboding luckless time; Dogs howl'd, and hideous tempests shook down trees;

The raven rook'd' her on the chimney's top,
And chattering pies in dismal discords sung.
Thy mother felt more than a mother's pain,
And yet brought forth less than a mother's hope;
"To wit,-an indigest deformed lump,
Not like the fruit of such a goodly tree.
Teeth hadst thou in thy head, when thou wast born,
To signify,-thou cam'st to bite the world:
And, if the rest be true which I have heard,
'Thou cam'st-

Glo. I'll hear no more;-Die, prophet, in thy speech; [Stabs him. For this, amongst the rest, was I ordain'd. K. Hen. Ay, and for much more slaughter after this.

O God! forgive my sins, and pardon thee! [Dies. Glo. What, will the aspiring blood of Lancaster Sink in the ground? I thought it would have mounted.

See, how my sword weeps for the poor king's death! O, may such purple tears be always shed 'From those that wish the downfal of our house!'If any spark of life be yet remaining, Down, down to hell; and say-I sent thee thither. [Stabs him again. I, that have neither pity, love, nor fear.Indeed, 'tis true, that Henry told me of; For I have often heard my mother say, I came into the world with my legs forward: Had I not reason, think ye, to make haste, And seek their ruin that usurp'd our right? The midwife wonder'd; and the women cried, O, Jesus bless us, he is born with teeth! 'And so I was; which plainly signifiedThat I should snarl, and bite, and play the dog. 'Then, since the heavens have shap'd my body so,

Childish.

No part of what my fears presage,

And then, to purge his fear, I'll be thy death.
King Henry, and the prince his son, are gone;
'Clarence, thy turn is next, and then the rest;
Counting myself but bad, till I be best.-
I'll throw thy body in another room,
And triumph, Henry, in thy day of doom. [Erit.
SCENE VII-The same. A room in the pal-

ace. King Edward is discovered sitting on his throne; Queen Elizabeth with the infant prince, Clarence, Gloster, Hastings, and others, near him.

K. Edw. Once more we sit in England's royal throne,

Re-purchas'd with the blood of enemies.
What valiant foe-men, like to autumn's corn,
Have we mow'd down, in tops of all their pride?
Three dukes of Somerset, threefold renown'd
For hardy and undoubted champions:
Two Cliffords, as the father and the son,
And two Northumberlands; two braver men
Ne'er spurr'd their coursers at the trumpet's sound:
'With them, the two brave bears, Warwick and
Montague,

That in their chains fetter'd the kingly lion,
And made the forest tremble when they roar'd.
Thus have we swept suspicion from our seat,
And made our footstool of security.-
Come hither, Bess, and let me kiss my boy:
Young Ned, for thee, thine uncles, and myself,
Have in our armours watch'd the winter's night;
Went all afoot in summer's scalding heat,
That thou might'st repossess the crown in peace,
And of our labours thou shalt reap the gain.

Glo. I'll blast his harvest, if your head were laid,
For yet I am not look'd on in the world.
This shoulder was ordain'd so thick, to heave;
And heave it shall some weight, or break my

back:

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And hither have they sent it for her ransom.
K. Edw. Away with her, and wait her hence to
France.

And now what rests, but that we spend the time
With stately triumphs, mirthful comic shows,
Such as befit the pleasures of the court?-
Sound, drums and trumpets!-farewell, sour annoy!
For here, I hope, begins our lasting joy. [Exeunt.

matter itself will defeat the artist. Of every author's works one will be the best, and one will be the worst. The colours are not equally pleasing, nor the attitudes equally graceful, in all the pictures of Titian or Reynolds.

Dissimilitude of style and heterogeneousness of sentiment, may sufliciently show that a work does not really belong to the reputed author. But in these plays no such marks of spuriousness are found. The diction, the versification, and the figures, are Shakspeare's. These plays, considered without regard to characters and incidents, merely as narratives in verse, more accurately finished, than those of King John, are more happily conceived, and Richard II. or the tragic scenes of King Henry IV. and V. If we take these plays from Shak speare, to whom shall they be given? What au thor of that age had the same easiness of expres sion and fluency of numbers?

The three parts of King Henry VI. are suspected, by Mr. Theobald, of being suppositious, and are declared, by Dr. Warburton, to be certainly not Shakspeare's. Mr. Theobald's suspicion arises from some obsolete words; but the phraseology is like the rest of our author's style, and single words, of which however I do not observe more than two, can conclude little. Of these three plays I think the second the best. Dr. Warburton gives no reason, but I suppose The truth is, that they have not sufficient variety him to judge upon deeper principles and more of action, for the incidents are too often of the same comprehensive views, and to draw his opinion from kind; yet many of the characters are well dis the general effect and spirit of the composition, criminated. King Henry, and his Queen, King which he thinks inferior to the other historical plays. Edward, the Duke of Gloucester, and the Earl of From mere inferiority nothing can be inferred; Warwick, are very strongly and distinctly painted in the productions of wit there will be inequality. Sometimes judgment will err, and sometimes the

VOL. II.

2 A

JOHNSON.

LIFE AND DEATH OF

KING RICHARD III.

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PERSONS REPRESENTED.

Sons to the king.

Brothers to the king.

Henry, earl of Richmond, afterwards king
Henry VII.

Cardinal Bouchier, archbishop of Canterbury.
Thomas Rotheram, archbishop of York.
John Morton, bishop of Ely.

Duke of Buckingham.

Duke of Norfolk; Earl of Surrey, his son.
Earl Rivers, brother to king Edward's queen:
Marquis of Dorset, and Lord Grey, her sons.
Earl of Oxford. Lord Hastings. Lord Stanley.
Lord Lovel.

Sir Thomas Vaughan. Sir Richard Ratcliff.

ACT I.

Sir William Catesby. Sir James Tyrrel.
Sir James Blount. Sir Walter Herbert.
Sir Robert Brakenbury, lieutenant of the Tower.
Christopher Urswick, a priest. Another priest.
Lord Mayor of London. Sheriff of Wiltshire.

Elizabeth, queen of king Edward IV.
Margaret, widow of king Henry VI.
Duchess of York, mother to king Edward IV.
Clarence, and Gloster.

Lady Anne, widow of Edward, prince of Wales, son to king Henry VI.; afterwards married to the Duke of Gloster.

A young Daughter of Clarence.

Lords and other attendants; two Gentlemen, a Pursuivant, Scrivener, Citizens, Murderers, Messengers, Ghosts, Soldiers, &c.

Scene, England.

And hate the idle pleasures of these days. Plots have I laid, inductions3 dangerous,

SCENE I.-London. A street. Enter Gloster. By drunken prophecies, libels, and dreams,

Gloster.

Now is the winter of our discontent
Made glorious summer by this sun of York;
And all the clouds that lower'd upon our house,
In the deep bosom of the ocean buried.
Now are our brows bound with victorious wreaths;
Our bruised arms hung up for monuments;
Our stern alarums chang'd to merry meetings,
Our dreadful marches to delightful measures.'
Grim-visag'd War hath smooth'd his wrinkled front;
And now, instead of mounting barbed steeds,
To fright the souls of fearful adversaries,-
He capers nimbly in a lady's chamber,
To the lascivious pleasing of a lute.
But I,-that am not shap'd for sportive tricks,
Nor made to court an amorous looking-glass;

I, that am rudely stamp'd, and want love's majesty,
To strut before a wanton ambling nymph;
I, that am curtail'd of this fair proportion,
Cheated of feature by dissembling nature,
Deform'd, unfinish'd, sent before my time
Into this breathing world, scarce half made up,
And that so lamely and unfashionable,
That dogs bark at me, as I halt by them ;-
Why I, in this weak piping time of peace,
Have no delight to pass away the time;
Unless to spy my shadow in the sun,
And descant on mine own deformity;
And therefore,-since I cannot prove a lover
To entertain these fair well-spoken days,-
I am determined to prove a villain,

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To set my brother Clarence, and the king,
In deadly hate the one against the other:
And, if king Edward be as true and just,
As I am subtle, false, and treacherous,
This day should Clarence closely be mew'd up;
About a prophecy, which says-that G
Of Edwards heirs the murderer shall be.

Dive, thoughts, down to my soul! here Clarence

comes.

Enter Clarence, guarded, and Brakenbury. Brother, good day: What means this armed guard That waits upon your grace?

Clar. His majesty, Tendering my person's safety, hath appointed This conduct to convey me to the Tower. Glo. Upon what cause? Clar. Because my name is-George. Glo. Alack, my lord, that fault is none of yours; He should, for that, commit your godfathers :O, belike, his majesty hath some intent, That you shall be new christen'd in the Tower. But what's the matter, Clarence? may I know? Clar. Yea, Richard, when I know; for I protest, As yet I do not: But, as I can learn, He hearkens after prophecies, and dreams; And from the cross-row plucks the letter G, And says-a wizard told him, that by G His issue disinherited should be; And, for my name of George begins with G, It follows in his thought, that I am he: These, as I learn, and such like toys* as these, Have mov'd his highness to commit me now. (3) Preparations for mischief. (4) Fancies.

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