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“With deep grief the Commanding-General announces to the army the death of Lieutenant-General Jackson, who expired upon the 9th, at 3.15 p.m. The daring skill and energy of this great and good soldier, by a decree of an All-wise Providence, are now lost to us; but while we mourn his death, we feel that his spirit lives, and will inspire the whole army with his indomitable courage and unshaken confidence in God as our hope and strength.

. “Let his name be a watchword for his corps, who have followed him to victory on so many fields. Let officers and soldiers imitate his invincible determination to do everything in the defence of our beloved country.”

CHAPTER VII.

CIVIL WAR IN AMERICA (continued).

Advance of the Confederate Army across the Potomac into Maryland—Battle of Gettysburg—The Confederates recross the Potomac-Riots at New York owing to the Conscription—Final Siege and Surrender of Wicksburg–Surrender of Port Hudson—President Davis proclaims a Conscription—Federal Attack on Charleston —Address of President Lincoln to Union Committee in Illinois–He suspends the Writ of Habeas Corpus—Withdrawal of the Confederate Commissioner from England–Confederate Victory at Chickamauga, in Tennessee—Operations in North Virginia—Battle of Chattanooga, in Tennessee–Message of President Lincoln to the Federal Congress—Message of President Davis to the Confederate Congress.

IN the middle of June the news fell like a thunderbolt on the North that the Confederate army, under General Lee, in imposing force had crossed the Potomac, and was established on the soil of Maryland. It was too true; and the motives which induced General Lee to march into the enemy's territory are stated by himself in an official despatch addressed to the Adjutant-General of the Confederate army. He said:— “The position occupied by the enemy opposite Fredericksburg being one in which he could not be attacked to advantage, it was determined to draw him from it. The execution of this purpose embraced the relief of the Shenandoah Valley from the troops that had occupied the lower part of it during the winter and spring, and, if practicable, the transfer of the scene of hostilities north of the Potomac. “It was thought that the corresponding movements on the part of the enemy to which those contemplated by us would probably give rise might offer a fair opportunity to strike a blow at the army therein, commanded by General Hooker; and that in any event that army would be compelled to leave Virginia, and possibly

to draw to its support troops designed to operate against other Y

parts of the country. . In this way it was supposed that the enemy's plan of campaign for the summer would be broken up, and part of the season of active exertions be consumed in the formation of new combinations and the preparations they would require. “In addition to these advantages, it was hoped that other valuable results might be attained by military success.” The movement began on the 3rd of June, and the Federals made several unsuccessful o: to stop the Confederate advance. The Shenandoah Valley was cleared of the enemy, and a great number of prisoners, and a large amount of military stores, with artillery, fell into the hands of the Confederates. At Winchester a whole Federal division, under General Milroy, was captured or dispersed. The main army of General Hooker withdrew from the line of the Rappahannock, following the road near the Potomac, but avoided crossing the river, although by the 17th of June a part of the Confederate force had already entered Maryland. General Stuart with his cavalry was left to guard the passes of the mountains and harass the movements of the Federals, with instructions to follow into Maryland in case they crossed the Potomac. Generals Longstreet and Hill then crossed the river with their divisions at Williamsport and Shepherdstown, and the columns waiting at Hagerstown advanced into Pennsylvania, encamping near Chambersburg on the 27th. The subsequent movements are thus described by General Lee:— “Preparations were now made to advance upon Harrisburg; but on the night of the 29th information was received from a scout that the Federal army, having crossed the Potomac, was advancing northwards, and that the head of the column had reached the South Mountains. As our communications with the Potomac were thus menaced, it was resolved to prevent his further progress in that direction by concentrating our army on the east side of the mountains. Accordingly Longstreet and Hill were directed to proceed from Chambersburg to Gettysburg, to which point General Ewell was also instructed to march from Carlisle. “General Stuart continued to follow the movements of the Federal army south of the Potomac after our own had entered Maryland, and in his efforts to impede its progress advanced as far eastward as Fairfax Court House. Finding himself unable to delay the enemy materially, he crossed the river at Seneca, and marched through Westminster to Carlisle, where he arrived after General Ewell had left for Gettysburg. By the route he pursued the Federal army was interposed between his command and our main body, preventing any communication with him until his arrival at &#. In the mean time great was the consternation throughout the North. The President immediately issued a proclamation, calling upon Maryland to furnish 10,000, Pennsylvania 50,000, Ohio 30,000, and West Virginia 10,000 men, to repel the invaders. General Hooker resigned, or was dismissed from the command of the army of the Potomac, and General Meade—an officer previously almost unknown—was appointed in his place. The two hostile armies came into collision at Gettysburg, which lies in a valley surrounded by hills. General Lee says in his despatch:“The leading division of Hill met the enemy in advance of Gettysburg on the morning of the 1st of July. Driving back these troops to within a short distance of the town, he there encountered a larger force, with which two of his divisions became engaged. Ewell, coming up with two of his divisions by the Heidlersburg-road, joined in the engagement. The enemy was driven through Gettysburg, with heavy loss, including about 5000 prisoners and several pieces of artillery. “He retired to a high range of hills south and east of the town. The attack was not pressed that afternoon, the enemy's force being unknown, and it being considered advisable to await the arrival of the rest of our troops. Orders were sent back to hasten their march, and in the mean time every effort was made to ascertain the numbers and position of the enemy, and find the most favourable point of attack. It had not been intended to fight a general battle at such a distance from our base, unless attacked by the enemy; but, finding ourselves unexpectedly confronted by the Federal army, it became a matter of i. to withdraw through the mountains with our large trains. At the same time the country was unfavourable for collecting supplies while in the presence of the enemy's main body, as he was enabled to restrain our foraging parties by occupying the passes of the mountains with regular and local troops. A battle thus became in a measure unavoidable. Encouraged by the successful issue of the engagement the first day, and in view of the valuable results that would ensue from the defeat of the army of General Meade, it was thought advisable to renew the attack.” The battle raged all the next day, and some of the positions of the Federals were carried, which induced the Confederates to hope that by renewing the attack on the following morning they would achieve a decisive victory. But the Federals fought with stubborn resolution; and all the efforts of the enemy were in vain against them. General Lee thus describes his failure and subsequent retreat:— “The enemy in the mean time had strengthened his line with earthworks. The morning was occupied in necessary preparations, and the battle recommenced in the afternoon of the 3rd, and raged with great violence until sunset. Our troops succeeded in entering the advanced works of the enemy, and getting possession of some of his batteries, but our artillery having nearly expended its ammunition, the attacking columns became exposed to the heavy fire of the numerous batteries near the summit of the ridge, and after a most determined and gallant struggle were compelled to relinquish their advantage, and fall back to their original positions with severe loss. . . . . “Owing to the strength of the enemy's position and the reduction of our ammunition, a renewal of the engagement could not be hazarded, and the difficulty of procuring supplies rendered it impossible to continue longer where we were. . . . . . . “The army remained at Gettysburg during the 4th, and at night began to retire by the road to Fairfield, carrying with it about 4000 prisoners. Nearly 2000 had previously been paroled, but the enemy's numerous wounded that had fallen into our hands after the first and second day's engagements were left behind. “Little progress was made that night, owing to a severe storm, which greatly embarrassed our movements. The rear of the column did not leave its position near Gettysburg until after daylight on the 5th. “The march was continued during the day without interruption by the enemy, except an unimportant demonstration upon our rear in the afternoon, when near Fairfield, which was easily checked. Part of our train moved by the road through Fairfield, and the rest by the way of Castletown, guarded by General Imboden. In passing through the mountains, in advance of the column, the great length of the trains exposed them to attack by the enemy's cavalry, which captured a number of waggons and ambulances; but they succeeded in reaching Williams-fort without serious loss. “They were attacked at that place on the 6th by the enemy's cavalry, which was gallantly repulsed by General Imboden. The attacking force was subsequently encountered and driven off by General Stuart, and pursued for several miles in the direction of Boomsborough. The army, after an arduous march, rendered more difficult by the rains, reached Hagerstown on the afternoon of the 6th and morning of the 7th of July. “The Potomac was found to be so much swollen by the rains that had fallen almost incessantly since our entrance into Maryland as to be unfordable.” The Federals came up with the retiring Confederate army on the 13th of July, but did not attempt to attack. In the mean time a pontoon bridge was thrown across the Potomac at a place called Falling Waters; and on that night and the following day the whole Confederate force recrossed the river without any serious interruption from the enemy, and almost without any loss. The carnage, however, at Gettysburg was enormous; and it was computed that not fewer than 50,000 on both sides altogether were put hors de combat. In the mean time the attempt to enforce the conscription at New York gave rise to frightful riots, and the city was for two days in the hands of the mob, who committed shocking atrocities upon the unfortunate negroes that fell in their way. The military were obliged to fire upon the people, and tranquillity was not restored before several lives were lost, and a large amount of property was destroyed. It had been enacted that personal service might be commuted for a payment of 300 dollars, and all persons in easy circumstances naturally availed themselves of the alternative. The Corporation of New York voted 3,000,000 dollars to buy off the poorer conscripts, and the other municipalities of the State generally followed the example. The compulsory draught accordingly proved, on the whole, a failure. After a series of bloody conflicts in the rear of Wicksburg, General Grant closely invested the place by land on the 18th of May, while the Federal flotilla, under Admiral Porter, kept up a bombardment from the river on the front. The siege lasted for forty-eight days; and the garrison, under General Pemberton, made a brave resistance. An incessant fire was kept up night and day on the devoted place; and as the Confederates were unable to relieve it, and no supplies could force their way within the lines of the Federals, or by the river, it began to suffer severely from famine. At last it capitulated on the 4th of July,–the anniversary of the Declaration of American Independence. In a long narrative of the siege written by Lieutenant Underhill, an aide-de-camp of General Lee, and a witness of the events which he relates, he thus describes the sufferings of the inhabitants:— “All the ladies and children, inhabitants of the town, remained within its walls, having had no opportunity to escape. Their lot was a dreadful one, indies brought up in the lap of luxury, whose slightest wish they had been accustomed to have obeyed as if it had been an autocrat's decree, who had lived in little palaces —as Southern houses certainly are—and who had always been surrounded with every luxury that taste, refinement, or wealth could desire and procure, had now to leave their comfortable homes, betake themselves to dark unwholesome caves and caverns dug in the sides of the numerous ‘bluffs’ of the Hill City, sleep on the damp floor, and eat their scanty ration of bacon and peabread, and latterly of mule-meat, from a plate they required to hold, the scanty dimensions of the caves not warranting the luxury of a table. Those who know the position of Wicksburg, and who are unacquainted with the barbarity of Federal commanders, will naturally inquire the cause that would produce such an effect as this; for they well know that the city itself lies in a hollow, and as no troops or military stores were within the city bounds, the place could just as easily have been reduced by bombardment had a shot never fallen in the streets of the town, and this would have been easily avoided if wished. But, on the contrary, Admiral Porter established a mortar battery behind the woods across the river, opposite the town, and thence, day and night, Sunday and week day, maintained a constant discharge of 13-inch shell upon the devoted city. Many women and children were killed; every street partially laid in ruins; a large portion of the town burnt; and what suffered more than any thing else were the buildings

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