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and on reaching the passage on the basement, finding it filled with smoke, he called in a policeman. A message brought Inspector Foulger forthwith from the Bow-lane police-station, and a fireman from the head-quarters of the London Fire Brigade in Watlingstreet. Smoke was then seen oozing from crevices in the door of Mr. Bunting, and the fireman jocosely said if he had a bucket of water he would put out the fire wherever it was. The door was broken in, and, though the place was found full of smoke, the inspector and the fireman at first searched it in vain for fire. While they were so engaged the heated smoke seemed to break into flame spontaneously, and the whole place was speedily in a blaze. The fire spread first into the warehouses of Messrs. Morley, and then into the premises above. By the aid of the telegraph thirteen engines, six of which were steam fire-engines, including that of Mr. Hodges, were brought to the spot. There was an abundant supply of water, and they played upon the burning mass both from Milk-street and Wood-street. The current of air in Clement's-court and Feathers-alley served to fan the flame, but by about two o'clock the engines had obtained the mastery over the fire, though it was not wholly quenched until some hours afterwards. One after another the floors and parts of the burning roof fell with a noise resembling a discharge of artillery, and alarming the whole neighbourhood. A great crowd collected about the spot, and a strong body of police was present to keep order. Fortunately no lives were lost, though the two women-servants of Messrs. Grant had a narrow escape.

24. Royal, Bounty.—On Christmas Eve, by Her Majesty's command, the children of the workmen and labourers on the Osborne estate assembled in the servants’ hall at Osborne, where a Christmas tree with gifts was arranged. At half-past four o'clock the Queen, accompanied by the members of the Royal Family, proceeded to the hall, and, assisted by the Princes and Princesses, distributed the presents to the children, which consisted of articles of wearing apparel, books, toys, &c. The Queen subsequently, in the same manner, gave the labouring men and women great-coats, blankets, and other articles. The ladies and gentlemen of the household and the Rev. G. Prothero and Mrs. Prothero were present.





This celebrated soldier, whose recently acquired title has not obliterated the more familiar name of Colin Campbell, under which he first won his way to the respect and affection of his countrymen, was born at Glasgow, on the 20th of October, 1792. His father was a Highlander of the name of M*Liver, and he died only a few years ago, supported in his latter days by the bounty of his distinguished son. Mrs. M'Liver was a Miss Campbell; and family circumstances led to their son, the youthful Colin, being brought up by his mother's sisters, who were living in a respectable condition in life in Glasgow; and this circumstance led to the adoption of the maternal name. At the age of 16 he entered the army as an ensign in the 9th Foot. It was in the summer of 1808 that young Colin Campbell found himself gazetted to an ensigncy in that regiment, of which the late Sir Robert Brownrigg, Bart., G.C.B., was then colonel; and it was not long before he took an active share in the hardships and glories of the British army. He first saw service in the Peninsula. He fought gallantly at Vimeira, and was present at the advance and subsequent retreat of the army under Sir John Moore, at Corunna, and after that engagement returned on leave to England. Scarce landed from the transport which carried him from the shores of Spain, he was ordered off to participate in the suf. fering and disasters of the Walcheren expedition in 1809. The fever struck into his body so keenly that, until he went to China thirty years afterwards,

“Walcheren,” as he said, “was with me every season.” From Walcheren he returned to Spain in 1810, where, with better fortune and guidance, he shared in the battle of Barossa in March, 1811, and the defence of Tarifa on Jan. 5, 1812; and in 1812 he was transferred to a corps of the Spanish army, with which he was actively employed against the French in a long series of harassing skirmishes and • operations, which are known to the Spaniards, but not to us, as important actions. In this year he also took part in the unsuccessful movement against the French at Tarragona. In 1813 he joined the Duke of Wellington's army again, and plunged into the thickest of the hard fighting which took place in that memorable year. He had in his first year's service reached the grade of lieutenant; and now, at the age of 21, he had made a name for activity, courage, and determination which began to be heard throughout the army. He passed unscathed through Vittoria, the greatest of our victories, after Waterloo, in that quarter of the century; but in the breach of St. Sebastian he was not so fortunate. He led a forlorn hope which rushed to the aid of the neglected stormers, and he received two wounds in that desperate encounter. On the 9th of November, 1813, he became a captain by brevet, and in that position remained for twelve long years. Captain Campbell had no command of the means which, well employed, might then have secured him a juster reward for his services; but he had ample opportunity of testing every variety of climate and of seeing all kinds of service. In 1823 he served as Brigade-Major of


the force employed in reducing the blacks in Demerara, where he revived the dormant venom of his Walcheren fever. From that period the state of the world, so far as Great Britain was concerned, gave him no opportunity of active work against an enemy, and for many years he was employed on a duty which he often spoke of as most disgusting to a soldier; he was obliged to protect by military force the ejections and sales for the recovery of tithe, then so common in Ireland. When the interests of commerce and civilization made it necessary for Great Britain to declare war against China in 1842, Colin Campbell, who had been gazetted as Lieutenant-Colonel ten years before, went out in command of the 98th. From China to India is a common step. Colonel Campbell had a short repose in Hindostan, but it was broken by the outbreak of the Sikh war. In virtue of his seniority he was appointed to the command of the Third Division of the army of the Punjab, and he soon flamed out on the field with more than the old Peninsular fire, and led his men with such skill that in all the great battles in which we stood foot to foot with the sternest foe we ever met or are likely to meet in India, his soldiers appeared in the very crisis of the fight. At Ramnuggur, at Chillianwallah, where, in directing a most important and timely movement, he was again wounded, and at Goojerat, he earned the name of an able general in addition to that of the thorough soldier, which he had won and enjoyed so long. After these events Sir Colin Campbell became the late Sir Charles J. Napier's brigadier-general, and in that capacity he performed many honourable exploits. Soon afterwards, however, he resigned the lucrative appointment which he held, because he would not allow the GovernorGeneral's political agents to dictate to him how he should fight; and the Governor-General preferred losing his services, which he acknowledged in the most flattering terms, rather than have an independent man fighting the battles of 2ngland with an energy and skill equalled, or at all events surpassed, by none except Sir Charles Napier himself. He therefore returned to England, having fought not without glory, for his leading the 61st Regiment at the battle of Chillianwallah decided the action, and was greatly instrumental in saving the British army. Indeed, the feat of this regiment on that day, under Sir Colin's leadership, was pronounced by the Duke of Wellington to have been one of the most brilliant exploits ever performed by any regiment of the English army.

Sir Colin remained unattached down to February or March, 1854, but he was then appointed to the command of the Highland Brigade in the army destined for the Crimea; and when the allied armies attacked the Russians on the heights of the Alma he became a conspicuous figure among the foremost in the fray. He flew with his gallant Highlanders to the aid of the Light Division; he had his horse killed under him ; and for his dashing conduct at the critical moment in the battle, when he used the memorable words, “Highlanders never retire,” he was personally thanked by the Commander-in-Chief, Lord Raglan, at the close of the engagement. During the siege of Sebastopol, the defence of Balaklava was entrusted to Sir Colin. This being the basis of our operations, the responsibility was great, and fortunately it was in good hands. On the 25th of October, 1854, the Turks, after being driven in, left the whole brunt of the attack of the enemy's heavy cavalry to fall on the 93rd Highlanders, who had been drawn up two deep in front of the approach to Balaklava. Some 1500 Russian cavalry observed this regiment by its “thin red streak topped with a line of steel,” and dashed down on it in the hope of cutting the brave Scots to pieces. Sir Colin Campbell, undismayed, coolly gave orders for the front line to “prepare to receive cavalry,” and when the latter came within 150 yards a rattle of minié musketry from the 93rd sent death and terror into the Czar's soldiers, who wheeled about and fled in the greatest confusion. After the battle, when complimented in flattering terms by Lord Raglan for having achieved so much with infantry in line against cavalry, the veteran replied, “I did not think it worth while to form them four deep.” After this affair, Sir Colin Campbell was not called into close conflict with the enemy, their demonstration against his position on the 5th of the following month being but a mere diversion to aid their murderous onslaught at Inkermann. He had been gazetted a major-general in 1854. In the October of the same year he was appointed to the colonelcy of the 67th Regiment. On the 4th of June, 1856, he was made lieutenant-general, and, on returning from the seat of war, he was presented with the freedom of the City of London, and created an hon. D.C.L. at the Oxford Commemoration.

In June, 1857, all England heard with surprise the news of the outbreak of the Indian mutiny, with the sudden death of General the Honourable George Anson, commander of the British forces in the East. It was at once felt that the emergency was serious, and that it required all the concentrated energy, capacity, and prowess of a well-trained soldier. The demand for a real “general” was urgent; and happily the Government fixed the choice on Colin Campbell. The selection was a fortunate one, and Sir Colin lost no time in obeying the call for his services. At less than twenty-four hours' notice, he left London for the East. Travelling by “express,” he caught up the Indian mail at Marseilles, and reached Calcutta the herald of his own appointment. The ready zeal with which he undertook the task of quelling that most dangerous and deadly outbreak, the sound judgment and discretion with which he tempered his eager and impetuous desire to be “up and at” the foe, and his firm and strenuous enforcement of strict military discipline, are as little likely to be forgotten as the brilliant achievements by which he restored the prestige of the English name in India. For this reason it is not necessary to repeat at greater length the story of those achievements. It is enough to say that, acting in conjunction with the Lawrences, Outram, Havelock, Nicholson, and Neill, he saved our Indian empire. In person he directed the relief of Lucknow, and its subsequent siege and capture; and, having trodden out the ashes of the most formidable rebellion which has marked our annals, he was raised to the honours of the peerage of the United Kingdom in 1858 as Baron Clyde of Clydesdale, taking his title from the river by whose banks he was born, as he had not an acre of hereditary or purchased land from which to derive his designation. In the same year he was promoted to the rank of full general. In 1860 he was transferred to the colonelcy of the Coldstream Guards, and so recently as the month of November, 1862, he was presented with the baton of a field-marshal in the army, on the occasion of the attainment of the majority of his Royal Highness the Prince of Wales. Lord Clyde was also a Knight of the Most Exalted Order of the Star of Hndia, a Grand Officer of the Legion of Honour, and a Knight Grand Cross of the Sardinian Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus, and of the Turkish Order of the Medjidie; and he held the honorary command, as colonel, of the 15th Middlesex (London Scottish) Rifle Volunteers. His remains were interred in Westminster Abbey, not far from the spot where his friend and companion in arms, Sir James Outram, was recently buried. The funeral was attended by the carriages of the Royal Family, and by a large numBut his nature was so retiring, and his modesty so complete, that he excited no personal envy or jealousy. His rise was felt to be simply the natural recognition of talents which the country could not spare ; and at the same time his entire generosity prevented his retaining any grudge at past disappointments, and made him always ready to serve others whenever and wherever he was wanted.

ber of distinguished persons, the friends and comrades of the deceased. In person Lord Clyde was well knit, symmetrical, and graceful; but of late years his shoulders became somewhat bowed, though he lost little of the activity which was remarkable in so old a man. His crisp, grey locks still stood close and thick, curling over the head and above the wrinkled brow, and there were few external signs of the decay of nature which was, no doubt, going on within, accelerated by so many wounds, such fevers, such relentless, exacting service. When he so willed it, he could throw into his manner and conversation such a charm of simplicity and vivacity as fascinated those over whom it was exerted, and women admired and men were delighted with the courteous and gallant old soldier. His career affords a remarkable illustration of the value of high character in the profession of arms, and of strength of mind and physical constitution to enable him to wait till opportunity and its golden moment arrives. If such a man live long enough it must arrive; for there is a time in the existence of every nation when she throws aside the frivolous courtiers who have amused her leisure, and seizes instinctively the strong arm which can avert the threatening danger. Lord Clyde's early fortune led him to the West when the Waterloo campaign was about to ennoble its heroes, and to consign the Peninsular soldiers who were not present with them to a long oblivion and obscurity. But he was known even to those who stood in his way as a master of his profession, and he loved it so well that slight and the sense of wrong could not force him to neglect his duty. Duty was to him a sentient, warm-blooded principle, not a cold, passionless, brutish idol, and her first rule was in his mind, “obedience.” The struggle to obey left some traces of its influence on his spirit. He could not help at times long ago comparing his position and his services with those of men above him, though he rarely spoke of himself, and there was a loftier independence in his words when he thought of these things, which might have been mistaken for anger. The more he was neglected, the greater became his attachment to the soldier. No man ever studied so thoroughly and knew so intimately the character, the virtues, and the failings of that strange human aggregate which is to so many officers a mere locomotive creature, to be drilled, and wheeled, and reviewed, to be paraded, and black-celled, and be-striped, to be “kept in his proper place”—to be cursed at on occasion too—

as Lord Clyde. His rugged brow knitted fiercely and his eye flashed no doubtful fire if he heard a word spoken to the soldier's disparagement, or detected any action to his detriment. Though he did not call them his children, they were dear to the childless old chief, and, if he addressed them, his words flowed with an eloquence and sympathetic charm which deserted his lips when he had to speak to less congenial audience. When in India the authorities determined on transferring the European soldiers of the Company to the army of the Crown, without seeking their consent, he pointed out to them the injustice and the consequences of the step, and resisted it by every means in his power; but when the Government had resolved to adhere to its policy he repressed the insubordinate outbreaks he had prophesied with vigour and determination. Looking at his whole career, Lord Clyde was a remarkable instance of the way in which sterling qualities of head and heart may win their way even in the ranks of the British Army. We are accustomed to pride ourselves on the fact that the highest honours of the two learned professions are open to the attainment of the humblest Englishman, but there is a prejudice, not, perhaps, unfounded, that it is otherwise in the army, and that money or interest, or both, are essential to high military rank. Yet Lord Clyde commenced his service as unassisted by wealth or friends as the most unknown and penniless barrister or curate. Nor did he owe his ultimate reputation and success to the opportunity for any very extraordinary services. He rose by the mere force of sterling ability, complete knowledge of his profession, sound sense, high honour, and an honest, industrious, and laborious performance of duty. These qualities alone, and unaided, made him a Field-Marshal, a member of the most distinguished Orders in Europe, and raised him to the English Peerage. He had to wait long— too long, it is true—and often had reason for just indignation at undeserved neglect; but his perfect modesty kept him true to his work, and gave opportunity for his real value to compel his rise. Perhaps he owed as much to the qualities of his heart as to those of his head and his will. The positions he won are hardly open to equal abilities, if marred by an impracti. cable or ungenerous nature. But men will rarely refuse to recognize true talent when its force is softened by modesty, and its claims made welcome by unselfishness. A merely personal ambition in Sir Colin Campbell might have met with the angry repulseofproudorinterested feelings.

Such a life, so simple, so true, so independent of all artificial and even of all extraordinary advantages, is more honourable than more brilliant and less steady careers, and has a far higher value to Englishmen. This country has never been wanting in men of high genius at critical periods of its history, and our great names may match with those of any country and any time; but our greatness as a nation is due more to the steady ability and true integrity which are spread so largely among all classes than to the power of extraordinary and occasional genius. The qualities which in a superior degree raised Lord Clyde to his high position are those which have been always most highly valued by Englishmen, and which every one in his degree may imitate. He lived long enough to illustrate a noble principle, and to give an example of duty, truth, and modest worth which Englishmen will not willingly forget. His memory will long be dear to the hearts of his friends, and when those who knew him have themselves passed away it will be cherished in the grateful and affectionato heart of his country.


In his early life Mr. Cockerell spent many years of careful study among the existing remains of classic architecture in Asia Minor, Sicily, Rome, Pompeii, and elsewhere. In 1811-12 the ruins of the Temples of Jupiter in AEgina, and of Apollo, near Phrygaleia, in Arcadia, were excavated by Mr. Cockerell, in company with Baron Haller, and others. An account of these excavations he published in 1860. The collection of remains from the former edifice is in the Museum at Munich, that of the latter in the British Museum. Subsequently “restorations of far-famed buildings of antiquity as they may once have existed, of the Capitol and Forum of Rome, of the Parthenon, &c.,” often employed Mr. Cockerell's talents as an architectural draughtsman. In 1829 he was elected an Associate of the Royal Academy, and in 1836 he attained the honour of a Royal Academician. In 1810 he succeeded Wilkins

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