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the revolutionary mania of 1848, to deal with the demands of a people who avowedly felt the British protectorate as a burden; and though he yielded to them an ultra-Liberal constitution, he could not bring them to any better state of feeling, notwithstanding that he was personally popular among them, as he had been in all his other governorships. His last public employment was the command of the troops in Ireland, which he held from 1855 to 1860.

Besides his British honours of a G.C.B. and G.C.H., Lord Seaton was a Knight of the foreign Orders of the Tower and Sword of Portugal, of Maria Theresa of Austria, and of St. George of Russia. Having been for some years colonel of the 26th (Cameronian) Regiment of Foot, he was appointed colonel of the 2nd Life Guards, March 24th, 1854, and on April 1st, 1860, he received the high distinction of a field-marshal's baton.

The deceased married, June 21st, 1814, Elizabeth, daughter of the late Rev. James Yonge, of Puslinch, Lausend, and Coombe, Devon, Rector of Newton Ferrars, by whom he had a numerous family.

WILLIAM MAKEPEACE
THACKERAY.

Mr. Thackeray, one of the most brilliant and popular writers of fiction that this generation has produced, descended from an old Yorkshire family, was born at Calcutta in 1811, his father being a member of the Bengal Civil Service, and his uncle a physician at Chester. His great-grandfather was Dr. Thackeray, of Harrow, who went to Cambridge in 1710, an excellent scholar and clever man, who introduced at Harrow the Eton system: he partly educated Sir William Jones, and his epitaph was written by his pupil Dr. Parr. The son of the Doctor married a Miss Webb, of the old English family to which the Brigadier Webb, of Marlborough's wars, belonged; he made a fortune in India, but eventually settled at Hadley, in Middlesex, where he died. There are numerous descendants of the Head Master of Harrow in the Church and in the Indian Service, and traces of the influence of family connexions are found in many of the writings of the deceased.

Like other English children born in India, young Thackeray was sent home for education (in 1817), and the voyage —during which he saw Napoleon in his island prison—was among his earliest recollections. He was placed at the Charterhouse, where, under the Rev. Dr. Russell, he made very satisfactory progress, and acquired an acquaintance with

the Latin language, and especially the Latin poets, which exercised a great influence over his genius and his diction. From Charterhouse he went to Cambridge, which he left without taking a degree; and afterwards, having experienced some reverses of fortune (for he had inherited considerable property), he began a career as an artist, which he did not eventually pursue further than to illustrate his own writings. He next appeared as a newspaper writer, and was at one time the Paris correspondent of the “Morning Chronicle,” as in after life he was connected with the “Times.” The first contributions he made to literature under a distinctive name were the tales, criticisms, and descriptive sketches which appeared in “Frazer's Magazine” under the pseudonymes of Michael Angelo Titmarsh, and George Fitz-Boodle, Esq. The keen observation, delicate irony, and refined style of these magazine papers attracted the notice of readers like the late John Sterling, who predicted the author's future fame, but left the mass unconscious of any extraordinary merit. The earliest of his works which appeared in a separate form were “The Paris Sketch Book '' (1840), and “The Second Funeral of Napoleon,” and “The Chronicles of a Drum,” in metre, published together (1841). But neither these nor “The Irish Sketch Book” (1843) made a permanent impression on the public, which was in this case slow to discover unaided merit. He afterwards became a contributor to “Punch,” and the earlier volumes of that periodical bear evidence of his faculty of satirizing society as it actually is, and of his peculiar faculty of writing verse in a style at once easy and original. His pseudonym of M. A. Titmarsh at length became famous, and a brilliant career was before him. In “Vanity Fair,” which appeared in 1846 in monthly numbers after the Dickens fashion, he took a larger canvas and filled it with a group of portraits not excelled through all fiction in originality, variety, and force, though their truth was not so generally allowed. From this time it became the practice to speak of him as the modern Fielding. After some small occasional and Christmas books, “Notes of a Journey from Cornhill to Grand Cairo” (1816), “Mrs. Perkins's Ball” (1847), “Dr. Birch and his Young Friends” (1849), he published “Pendennis,” in which he seemed to dwell by preference on the dark side of human character, and to hold up the petty and ignoble side of all things, while overlooking the goodness that exists in the world; and this unhappy tendency gave rise to a suspicion that he was in his own character cynical and austere, whereas in fact he was quite the reverse, but his habitual manner was liable to be misunderstood by those who did not intimately know him. In 1851 Mr. Thackeray delivered, at Willis's Rooms, a course of “Six Lectures on the English Humourists,” which have since been numbered with his published works. In 1852 “The History of Henry Esmond, Esq.,” was given to the world. The nobler tone of this work may be considered either as a refutation of the censures founded on the features of “Pendennis,” or as an improvement suggested by the taste of the public, expressed through the medium of adverse criticism. “The Newcomes,” published in 1855, revealed a deeper pathos than any of his previous novels, and showed that the author could, when he pleased, give pictures of moral beauty and loveliness. The success of the “Lectures on the English Humourists” led him to prepare another series on “The Four Georges,” which he first delivered in the United States, and in which he was by some considered to have deferred too much to the prejudices of his Republican auditors. In 1857 Mr. Thackeray solicited the suffrages of the constituency of the city of Oxford, in the Liberal interest, but was unsuccessful; and in the same year he was writing and publishing his “Virginians,” the last of his principal novels. In 1860 he became the editor of the “Cornhill Magazine,” which rapidly attained a high degree of success. “Lovel the Widower '' and “The Adventures of Philip” appeared in its pages, but they are not to be compared with the series of fictions by which they were preceded. Although called to the Bar in the Middle Temple in 1848, Mr. Thackeray never practised. Until of late years his career was up-hill, struggling, and painful. He had to endure a domestic bereavement of a peculiarly painful nature; and he suffered from a sickness which interrupted the publication of “Pendennis,” in the middle of that work, and threatened to bring his life to a premature close. During the last seven or eight years Mr. Thackeray was in prosperous circumstances, and these were probably the happiest of his life. He was but a few days before his death congratulating himself on having entirely recovered from an illness that had harassed him for years, and was actively engaged on a new work, a portion of which he exhibited to a friend. On the evening of the 23rd of December he retired to rest in excellent health and spirits, and the next morning he was found dead in his bed. He leaves two daughters, one of whom

has already gained reputation as a writer of fiction. Mr. Thackeray was interred in the Kensal-green cemetery, and the funeral was attended by many persons of eminence in the literary world. Many criticisms alike on his productions and his personal character appeared, of which the following, believed to be from the pen of Mr. Hannay, is among the most judicious:– “The position of Mr. Thackeray as a novelist is easily defined. He represented the English novel as the direct representative of Fielding. Other men wrote more popular stories. But he excelled all men in an intellectual representation of intellectual English life, in reflecting the thought, sentiment, taste, of the classes whose character determines the opinion of posterity about each generation. He was even more a philosopher than a painter, and more a thinker than a humourist,although he was an admirable painter and an admirable humourist. His culture supplied an adequate basis to his observation. He probably knew no English writers better than he knew Horace and Montaigne, and he was always grateful to Charterhouse for the discipline which enabled him, though his life was not properly a studious one, to interpenetrate his thoroughly modern dissertation with the essential spirit of the purest classical subtlety. “Those who were honoured with the friendship of this memorable man,—who saw him at home, -who knew the real truth about his disposition and private conduct, are alone able to do him justice in these respects. He was one of the kindest men living of his time, hospitable, generous, charitable, tolerant, in a degree which would have been a distinction in itself to a man distinguished for nothing else. His principles, too, were conspicuously sound. He honoured above all men those writers who had devoted their lives to the service of virtue; and shrinking as he did from every thing like cant, he never lost an opportunity of paying his personal homage to the religious institutions and sentiments of the country.”

FIRANCES TROLLOPE.

This lady, well known in the literary world as the author of the amusing but somewhat caustic description of the manners and society of the United States, as well as of many popular works of fiction, was the daughter of an English clergyman, and was born in 1790. In 1809 she married Anthony Trollope, Esq., a barrister, whom she survived many years. She made her visit to America in

1829, and her work—which caused much criticism, and gave considerable offence in that country—was published in 1832. It was much read, and obtained great motoriety in this country. Having established her reputation as a clever and pungent satirist, Mrs. Trollope commenced her career as a novel-writer, and her style being much appreciated by the public, she continued for upwards of twenty years to send forth from the press a succession of works characterized for the most part by a close and keen observation of human nature, and by a wit which, if not always of the most refined quality, was well adapted to set in a strong light the follies and extravagances of modern life. Among the most popular of her novels may be mentioned the “Vicar of Wrexhill,” “Life and Adventures of Michael Armstrong, a Factory Boy,” “The Widow Barnaby,” “The Widow Married,” and “The Barnabys in America.” Nor was her prolific pen solely confined to works of fiction. Mrs. Trollope published several other volumes during the same period descriptive of the countries which she visited—much of her life, especially the latter years, having been spent abroad and in foreign travel—and of this class of works were her “Paris and the Parisians,” published in 1835; and “Vienna and the Austrians,” in 1838; also a “Visit to Italy,” “Travels and Travellers,” &c. Mrs. Trollope belonged to a family well known for literary talents. Mr. Adolphus Trollope, the author of several deservedly popular Italian tales and works of travel, is her son ; and Mr. Anthony Trollope, one of the first writers of fiction in this country, is her near relative.

REAR-ADMIRAL WASHINGTON.

Rear-Admiral John Washington, formerly Hydrographer to the Admiralty, entered the Navy May 15, 1812, as a firstclass volunteer on board the “Junon,” of forty-six guns, Captain James Sanders, fitting for the North American station, in which vessel he saw much active service, particularly in operations in the river Chesapeake. The “Junon" made prizes of several of the enemy's vessels, and completely discomfited fifteen, gunboats that had been despatched for the express purpose of capturing her, after an action of three hours, fought on June 20, 1813. Removing as midshipman, in the following October, to the “Sybille,” he sailed in that ship in 1814, under Captain Forrest, with the “Princess Caroline,” Captain Downman, for the latitude of Greenland, in fruitless pursuit of the American Commodore Rogers. In November of the THE ARCHBISHOP OF DUBLIN.

same year, having returned to England, he entered the Royal Naval College at Portsmouth. On leaving that institution he was received, in May, 1816, on board the “Forth,” Captain Sir Thomas Louis, under whom he was again employed for upwards of three years on the coast of North America. He then, in succession, joined the “Vengeur” and the “Superb,” both on the South American station, where he remained until after his promotion to the rank of lieutenant, which took place on the 1st of January, 1821. He was subsequently employed on “particular service;” and in August, 1830, was appointed to the “Royal George,” 120, as flag-lieutenant to Sir J. Poer Beresford, Commander-in-Chief at the Nore, continuing to serve under that officer in the “Queen,” until advanced to the rank of Commander in 1838. To the active service consequent upon his various appointments, Lieutenant Washington had united the practice of maritime surveying and the pursuits of a scientific hydrographer and geographer; he was a member of various learned Societies, and was the author of many scientific works connected with his profession. In 1835 he succeeded Captain Maconochie as Secretary of the Royal Geographical Society of London, but resigned that office in 1841, on being appointed to continue the survey of the North Sea, which had for some time been in progress. During this undertaking, in which he was continually engaged until the close of 1844, he was occasionally occupied in correcting the existing charts, as the position of the shoals and the directions of the navigable channels had in many cases become changed. In 1842 he had been appointed to the rank of postcaptain in compliment to the King of Prussia. The survey was Captain Washington’s last service afloat. In 1845 he was appointed a commissioner for inquiring into the state of the rivers, shores, and harbours of the United Kingdom. On the retirement of Rear-Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort, in 1855, he was appointed to the office of Hydrographer to the Admiralty, and he subsequently attained the rank of Rear-Admiral. In 1833 Admiral Washington married Eleonora, youngest daughter of the Rev. H. Askew, Rector of Graystock, in Cumberland, by whom he left a large family, more than one of his sons being in the Royal Navy. Admiral Washington was not more remarkable for his high scientific attain. ments than for his kindness of heart and his earnest desire to promote the welfare of the seafaring population.

The Right Hon. and Most Rev. Richard Whately, D.D., Lord Archbishop of Dublin, Bishop of Glendalough, and Bishop of Kildare, Prebendary of Cullen in St. Patrick’s Cathedral, Visitor of Trinity College, Dublin, Vice-President of the Royal Irish Academy, Chancellor of the Order of St. Patrick, and a Privy Councillor, was the fourth son of the Rev. Joseph Whately, D.D., of Nonsuch Park, Surrey, Prebendary of Bristol, by his wife, the daughter of William Plumer, Esq., of Ware Park, Herts, and sister of William Plumer, Esq., many years M.P. for Hertfordshire. He was nephew of Thomas Whately, secretary to the Earl of Suffolk and Berkshire, and author of some valuable “Remarks on the Characters of Shakspeare.” He was born in Cavendish-square, on Feb. 1, 1787, and was educated at Oriel College, Oxford, where his career was brilliant. He graduated B.A., taking a second class in classics and mathematics in Michaelmas Term, 1808. He, in 1810, obtained a prize for his English essay, “What are the arts in the cultivation of which the ancients were less successful than the moderns P” He was, in 1811, elected Fellow of Oriel, and proceeded M.A. in 1812. In 1822 he was appointed Bampton Lecturer at Oxford, and was nominated to the living of Halesworth with Chediston, in Suffolk. He about this time first became known as a religious and logical writer. His three “Sermons on the Christian's Duty to Established Governments and Laws' met with much favour, and he had great success in the publication of his curious tract called “Historic Doubts respecting Napoleon Bonaparte.” This was intended to confute the argument adopted by Hume in his essay against the credibility of miracles; Whately's work showing that it was as easy to construct a similar fabric of argument to disprove the existence of Napoleon Bonaparte. After publishing the Bampton Lectures, and graduating i. and D.D., Dr. Whately was chosen Principal of St. Alban's Hall. He produced his celebrated books, “The Elements of Logic ’’ in 1826, and “The Elements of Rhetoric" in 1828. He was for one year (from 1830 to 1831) Professor of Political Economy at Oxford, when the new Whig Government fixed upon him to fill the Primacy of Ireland. He was consecrated Archbishop of Dublin and Bishop of Glendalough in St. Patrick’s Cathedral, on Sunday, Oct. 23, 1831. As Primate, Dr. Whately led a most active and influential life, taking interest as a liberal ChurchFor upwards of twenty-two years he sat on the Bench, and a more upright, independent, and industrious man never presided in our courts of law; he was also much esteemed by the members of the profession for his amiability of disposition. He had attained an advanced age, and was entitled to have retired on full pension; but the love inherent in him for the profession of the law was such that he preferred to hold his high office, the duties of which he discharged with untiring zeal and ability to the day of his death. He arrived at York on December 5th, and opened the Commission for the General Gaol Delivery. He was in his usual health, remarkably active for his age, and his intellectual powers were keen and acute. After discharging the duties of Judge of Assize with unimpaired vigour for several days, he was suddenly stricken with apoplexy, and died at the judge's lodgings at York on the 10th of December.

man in all questions of social and eccle

siastical importance, and more especially

in the question of Irish education. He

also aided the endeavours to procure a

repeal of the law which prohibits mar

riage with a sister-in-law. Dr. Whately,

by the conciliatory course which he

adopted, may be said to have stemmed

the formidable attack made by O'Connell

and the Catholic party against the

Established Church in Ireland, the

political supremacy of which would have

been probably annulled, but for the com

promise relative to the tithes and the decrease (by amalgamation of Sees) of the Irish bishoprics. Pursuant to the latter statutory arrangement, Dr. Whately became also Bishop of Kildare in 1846. He was a Commissioner of National Education in Ireland from the institution of the system until 1853, when he resigned from his feeling that the religious question had not been fairly treated, especially with reference to the scriptural books which were on the Education Board's list. Of Dr. Whately’s numerous publications while Archbishop, the titles may be given here of “Thoughts on Secondary Punishments,” “Lectures on Political Economy,” “Transportation,” “The Kingdom of Christ,” “Introductory Lectures on St. Paul's Epistles,” “Cautions for the Times” (edited and in the main inspired by him), &c. He was a contributor to the “Edinburgh” and “Quarterly’’ Reviews, and to many other periodicals of a learned or instructive nature. His latest contributions are to be found in a popular magazine, printed by women, entitled “The Rose, Shamrock, and Thistle.” He also brought out an emended and improved edition of the “Tales of the Genii,” and he edited “Scripture Lessons,” and a “Book of Sacred Poetry,” for schools. Dr. Whately married, in 1821, Miss E. Pope, daughter of W. Pope, Esq., by whom he left issue.

MR. JUSTICE WIGHTMAN.

This highly-respected lawyer, who was born in 1784, was of Scottish origin, being descended from a family of the name long settled in Dumfriesshire. He was educated at University College, Oxford, where he graduated in 1805, and was afterwards elected to a Michel Fellowship at Queen's, where he took the degree of M.A. Having practised for some years as a special pleader, he was in 1821 called to the Bar by the Hon. Society of Lincoln's Inn. He attached himself to the Northern Circuit, and his reputation as a sound lawyer soon brought him a large and lucrative

practice. In every case of importance tried in Yorkshire at Nisi Prius Mr. Wightman was certain to be retained. This was a time when the Northern Bar was in the zenith of its fame; Scarlett, Brougham, Pollock, Cresswell, Parke, Alderson, Williams, and Coltman were competitors with Mr. Wightman, and, like him, were all raised to the Bench. For some years Mr. Wightman was associated with the Attorney-General (Sir John Campbell), and rendered that official very important legal assistance. In 1830 he was appointed a Commissioner to inquire into the practice and proceedings in the Superior Courts of Common Law, and in 1833 he was also appointed one of the Commissioners for digesting the Criminal Law. Mr. Wightman never aspired to a silk gown, and he was one of the few members of the Bar promoted from a stuff gown to the ermine. In February, 1841, he was appointed a Judge of the Court of Queen's Bench, when he had conferred upon him the honour of knighthood.

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