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BARBAROUS MODES OF PUNISHMENT IN
In the travels of Sparrman in the Hottentot country, Many barbarous modes of punishment now in use the following interesting description is given of a in Persia are of ancient institution. Rebels were bird, which is called the honey-guide. It is rather burned alive, or sawed in two. The victims of political differences had their eyes put out, or their ears, noses, or hands cut off. These were amusements for the ancient, as they are for the modern sovereigns of this country. During the civil contests which followed the death of Kerim Khan, Zachee Khan, who usurped the government, coming to the town of Yezdikhast, made a sudden demand on the magistrates for a sum of money due to the government, which he accused them of secreting. They denied the arrears, asserted they had no money concealed, and it was out of their power to collect the sum he required. On finding the unhappy citizens firm in their declarations, he, without more ado, ordered a certain number of the most respected characters in the town to be taken to a rock, near
THE HONEY-GUIDE. the window where he sat, and immediately hurled to larger than a sparrow, is very fond of honey, and it the bottom of the precipice, where they lay a mangled points out in the most sagacious manner the nests of spectacle of horror. One of the wretched victims the bees to the bears. When these brutes destroy a still survives, a circumstance which, to those who nest of bees, this bird feeds voraciously upon the look at the height of the rock, appears miraculous. honey which is spilt. As soon as it has discoThe present rulers are of a more benignant character, vered a nest of bees, it looks out for some companion but the infliction of punishment is still often too to attack it. It entices a bear by its piercing cries, summary.
and conducts it to the vicinity of the nest. The bird Robbery is treated with the utmost severity. One flies before it, and rests at intervals, awaiting its of the princes, having, in a journey, found a band of companion in the chase, and exciting it, by fresh mountaineers in the act of dividing their plunder, cries, to follow it. But, in proportion as it apcaused their bodies to be frightfully mutilated, and proaches the nest, it shortens the space of its stations, sent them to their friends and neighbours, to warn and its cry becomes less frequent. If, sometimes them of the consequences which that crime would be impatient of arrival at the nest, it has left its comsure to bring after it in Persia.
panion far behind it, it returns to him, and appears, How different this from the institution of regular by its redoubled cries, to reproach him for his slow. trials, which, by the delay and deliberation they ness. Having arrived at the nest of the bees, it imply, accustom the offended, however powerful, and alights, and rests quietly on a neighbouring tree or however justly indignant, to repress the acts which bush, awaiting the end of the expedition, and that flow from their hasty resentment !—Mr. Kinneir tells part of the booty which belongs to it. The Hotten's, that he saw two thieves built up in a wall, where tots never fail to leave it that portion of the comb tloy were left to perish.-MALTE BRUN.
which contains the eggs and young, of which this bird
is more voracious than of honey itself. M. Sparrman THE BLOOD-FISH, OR CARIBITO.
having offered to the Hottentots who accompanied Our Incans caught with a hook the fish known in the him an ample recompense of tobacco and glass beads, country bythe name of Caribe, or CARIBITO, because no if they would assist him in catching a honey-guide ; other fish he such a thirst for blood. It attacks bathers they rejected his proposal, saying that this bird was and swimme, from whom it often carries away consider their friend, and they would not betray it. able pieces o flesh.
When a person is only slightly wounded, it is difficult for him to get out of the water pithout receiving a severe wound. The Indians dread ex- It is particularly worth observation, that the more we tremely these Carnes; and several of them showed us the magnify, by the assistance of glasses, the works of nature, scars of deep wounds in the calf of the leg, and in the the more regular and beautiful they appear; while it is thigh, made by thes, little animals. They live at the quite different in respect to those of art: for when they are bottom of rivers; but if a few drops of blood be shed on the water, they arrive by thousands on the surface. When them so coarse, so rough and uneven, although they have
examined through a microscope, we are astonished to find we reflect on the number of these fish, the most voracious been done with all imaginable care by the best workmen. and cruel of which are only four or five inches long; on the Thus God has impressed, even on the smallest atom, an triangular form of their sharp-cutting teeth, and on the image of his infinity-ŠTURM. amplitude of their retractile mouth, we need not be surprised at the fear which the Caribes excite in the inhabitants of the banks of the rivers A pure and the Oroonoko. WHENEVER, (said Dr. Johnson,) whenever chance brings In places where the river was very limpid, and where not
within my observation, a knot of young ladies busy at their, a fish appeared, we threw into the water’little morsels of needles, I consider myself as in the school of virtue; and flesh covered with blood. In a few minutes a cloud of though I have no extraordinary skill in plain-work or Caribes came to dispute the prey. The belly of the dish embroidery, I look upon their operations with as much has a cutting edge, indented like a saw; its body towards satisfaction as their governess, because I regard them as the back is ash-coloured, with a tint of green; but the providing a security against the most dangerous insnarers under part, the gill-covers, and the pectoral fino, are of a
of the soul, by enabling them to exclude idleness from fine orange. The Caribito has a very agrceable taste: as
their solitary nioments, and, with idleness, her attendant no one dares to bathe where it is found, it may be consi
train of passions, fancies, chimeras, fears, sorrows and dered as one of the greatest scourges of those climates, in
desires. which the sting of the mosquitoes, and the irritation of the skin, render the use of baths so necessary---HUMBOLDT.
JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, WEST STRAND. It may justly be feared, that those persons never griered
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In 1717 Mr. Wotton gives a detailed description of The early history of the Set of Llandaff is involved the cathedral to Browne Willis. He notices the in considerable obscurity: Godwin adverts to the Duke of Bedford's, or north-west tower; the southrumour, that the church was founded by King Lucius west tower," seeming to be as old as the church ;" about the year 180.; but as he could not discover the nave and side aisles, 110 feet in length from the that any bishop sat there before Dubritius, it is west door to the screen ; the choir, with its stalls ;. probable that he had no predecessors, since the the bishop's throne, erected by Bishop Marshall in memory of his successors is so carefully preserved. Edward the Fourth's reign; the altar-screen, also According to Fuller, Dubritius was consecrated the work of Bishop Marshall ; the organ-loft over Bishop of Llandaff by Germanus and Lupus in the the stalls on the north side of the choir, with some year 426, and sat sometimes at Caerleon and some- shattered remains of an organ, given after the Restotimes at Llandaff, Usher, Godwin, and other autho-ration of Charles the Second by Lady Kemeys, of rities, state that he was not appointed Archbishop of Cefn Mabley; the Chapter House, and the Lady Caerleon till 490, and that he held the two sees till Chapel. He enumerates various monuments, and 512, when he resigned Llandaff to his disciple, St. adds, that the roof of the nave and choir was of Teilo. In 519 he resigned Caerleon to his successor, timber, and that there was no painted glass in the St. David, (who removed the metropolitan see from windows. Caerleon to Menevia,) and retired to Bardsey Island, The cathedral had been much injured during the on the coast of Carnarvonshire. His bones were great Rebellion. In 1697, Bishop Bull, Archdeacon removed from thence to Llandaff in 1120, and de- of Llandaff, observes, in writing to a friend, “ I have posited before the high altar, where stood a monu- å true desire to see you, and discourse with you, ment attributed to him.
especially about our sad and miserable church at St. Teilo, to whom several churches in Wales are Llandaff. Tremendous storms in 1703 and 1720 dedicated, (as Llandilo) lived in great repute for damaged the battlements, and expedited the ruin of sanctity till his death in 540. A ring * was found the nave and choir. In 1723 a large portion of the on opening a tomb in the cathedral in 1764, sup-roof of the nave fell in, and the choir becoming useposed to be the episcopal ring of St. Teilo, a large, less, the service was removed to the Lady Chapel. dull, heart-shaped amethyst, set in gold, and orna- Strenuous exertions were made by Bishops Clamented with enamelled leaves, probably of Italian vering and Harris, and the Chapter, to procure subworkmanship; it was in the Strawberry Hill col. scriptions for the restoration of the cathedral. In lection.
1737, £2000 had been expended, and about £1500 St. Teilo was succeeded by St. Odoceus, and it is more was required. It would be superfluous to said by Godwin, “ that during these three bishops' observe, that the worst taste is exhibited in these times, so much riches had been bestowed on Llandaff, reparations. The greater part of the nave was that if it enjoyed the tenth part of that which it has suffered to remain a ruin. A Grecian façade deforms been endowed with first and last, it would be one of the entrance to the present nave and choir, while the the wealthiest churches in Christendom, whereas it Gothic windows and pointed arches in this part of has now hardly sufficient to repair itself." The date the original building are unaltered, except the two of the death of Odoceus is uncertain. Bishop Urban eastern arches. The clerestory windows, and those may fairly be considered as the founder of the present over the altar and west door, are Grecian. The cum. church. He was consecrated in 1108. He found brous screen, stalls, bishop's throne, and pulpit, as the old cathedral (a structure of small dimensions), well as the stuccoed ceiling and cornices, are in the in a ruinous state ; in 1119 he exerted himself to same style; the old screen, stalls, altar-screen, and obtain funds for the projected edifice, which was Bishop Marshall's throne having been destroyed; but commenced on the 14th of April, 1120, and dedi- a portion of the painting on the latter representing cated to St. Peter and St. Paul. The west front, the bishop on his knees, addressing the Virgin in the (with the exception of the north-west tower, which clouds, was discovered a few years ago, on the removal was built by Jasper, Duke of Bedford, about the of the heavy Grecian portico erected over the altar : year 1485,) and the Lady Chapel, with its roof of Bishop Harris, in a letter to Browne Willis, written groined stone, are favourable specimens of early in 1736, says that the “conceit of this portico" was English architecture ; the south-west tower, which is taken by Wood the architect, "from a description in in the same style, was tolerably perfect in 1787. Josephus." There are three circular enriched doorways in the
To the east of the choir stands the Lady Chapel, nave; over that to the west is a small statue of St. seventy feet in length. It has sustained but little Dubritius.
mischief from the devastating hand of renovaAmong the individuals who have filled this see, we tion; a large Grecian window has replaced the may also notice John de Monmouth, consecrated in pointed one at its eastern extremity. The circular 1296, who was recommended to the Pope hy Arch- arch which separated this chapel from the choir, is bishop Peckham * for his skill in the Welsh language. worthy of notice, from the peculiarity of its form. Nor should Bishop Morgan be passed over in silence, The monuments suffered severely during these termed by Wood " a very learned man," and the operations. A beautiful monument of Sir William translator of the Bible into Welsh. He was conse- Matthew, and Jenette his wife, which stood in the crated in 1993. His successor, Godwin, compiled old nave, was taken to pieces, and deposited in the the catalogue of the Bishops of England, " a work," chapter-house. Sir W. died in 1500. Various says Wood, in his Alhena Oxonienses, “ which will ever tombs of bishops changed their position, but the be admired and read by all true lovers of antiquities.” elaborate monuments of Christopher Matthew, who Within the last seventy years, the See of Llandast died in 1500, and Elizabeth his wife, to the north can boast of the distinguished names of Shipley, side of the Lady Chapel; that of Christian Audley, Barrington, Watson, Marsh, Van Mildert, Sumner, of the time of Henry the Fourth, to the south of and last, though not least, of Copleston, the talented the same; and that of David Matthew, in Edward and munificeut prelate who at present presides over the Fourth's reign, at the end of the north aisle; this diocese.
remain untouched. Cole MSS, Brit, Mus.
In the modern nave is a massive monument,
erected by public subscription to the memory of Ben
HOSPITAL FOR ANIMALS. jamin Hall, Esq., M.P. for the county of Glamorgan, I visited at Surat, (in the East Indies,) a place who died 1817; it is a fac-simile of the well-known
called the Pinjra Pol, which is appropriated for the sarcophagus of Hadrian, executed in gray marble.
reception of old, worn-out, lame, or disabled animals. The celebrated “ Peter Bell,” now in Exeter Cathedral, once hung in a tower, (now destroyed,) not far At that time, they chiefly consisted of buffaloes and
cows; but there were also goats and sheep, and even from the present Cathedral at Llandaff, and to the S.W. of the churchyard. The bell weighs 12,500 feathers, and here, shorn of their plumes, walked
cocks and hens; some of which latter had lost their pounds; it was removed to Exeter about the year
about the courts without molestation. 1484, and was recast in 1676.
This establishment is supported by the Hindú In conclusion, may we be allowed to express a
Banians of Surat; and is situated in that part of the hope, that the zeal evinced by the laity in the resto
suburbs of the city called Gopipura, between the ration of 'York Minster and the Cathedral of Peter
inner and outer walls. Animals of every description, borough, may at no distant period be extended to and from all parts, are admitted to the benefits of Llandaff; so that we may no longer exclaim, on viewing the beautiful relics of this temple of God,
-conceive they increase the general happiness, and
this institution; as with their number, the Banians “thy servants look upon her stones, and it pitieth their own reputation. them to see her in the dust."
The establishment occupies a court about fifty feet It belongs in truth to the church of God to suffer blows, square; to which there is a large area attached, to not to strike them. But at the same time let it be remem
admit of the cattle roving about: it is strewed with bered, that the church is an anvil which has worn out many grass and straw on all parts, that the aged may want a hammer.-BEZA.
neither food nor bedding. There are cages to protect
such birds as have become objects of charity, but There is no quality of the mind, by which men, even good
most of them were empty: there is, however, a men, are more apt to be misled than zeal; particularly zeal in religion, " zeal of God," as St. Paul terms it. colony of pigeons, which are daily fed. Where the object is good, the quality is of high value: "it
By far the most remarkable object in this singular is good to be zealously affected always in a good thing;"
establishment is a house on the left hand on entering, and beyond controversy, no object can be better than the about twenty-five feet long, with a boarded floor, promotion of God's glory, and the furtherance of his religion.. elevated about eight feet: between this and the But it ought not to carry us beyond the bounds of modera-ground is a depository where the deluded Banians tion. It ought to be regulated by a correct knowledge of throw in quantities of grain which gives life to and the nature and character of the religion which we profess; feeds a host of vermin, as dense as the sands on the and which we are desirous of furthering; and it ought to be brought into subjection to the dictates of that religion: sea-shore, and consisting of all the various genera a religion, not furious, fiery, implacable, cruel; but“ peace- usually found in the abodes of squalid misery. able, gentle, easy to be entreated, full of mercy and good The entrance to this loft is from the outside, by a fruits, without partiality, and without hypocrisy." They stair ; which I ascended. There are several holes who act for the furtherance of that religion, in a manner inconsistent with its dietates, show that however sincere grain is thrown: I examined a handful of it which
cut in different parts of the floor, through which the be their “zeal of God," it is “ not according to knowledge;" or, “ that they know not what manner of spirit they are of." | had lost all the appearance of grain : it was a moving Every deviation from the rules of charity and brotherly mass, and some of the pampered creatures which fed love, of gentleness and forbearance, of meekness and upon it were crawling about on the floor--a circum-, patience, which our Lord prescribes to his disciples, however stance which hastened my retreat from the house in it may appear to be founded on an attachment to him and zeal for his service, is in truth a departure from the religion Pol is in the very midst of houses, in one of the
which this nest of vermin is deposited. The Pinjra of Him, “the Son of Man," who “ came not to destroy men's lives, but to save them."-Bishop MANT.
most populous cities in Asia; and must be a prolific
source of nightly comfort to the citizens who reside It is impossible to estimate the amount of evil which in the neighbourhood; to say nothing of the strayed mankind would experience in their civil capacity, were the few who manage to make their way into the more Scriptures no longer considered of divine origin, nor con- distant domains of the inhabitants. stituted the ultimate standard of all moral and political obligation. All reverence for the laws would cease, for the lawgiver would have only his own authority, or the mere period for feeding the vermin ; many Hindús being glimmerings of the law of nature, to enforce his commands; in the habit of throwing in handfuls of grain, at while those who had to obey the laws would soon have different times, as suits their notions of duty. It is every just and equitable principle banished from their an annual custom in Surat to convey to this place minds, and every sacred feeling obliterated from their bo- | the refuse of all the Banians' granaries in the town;
The whole fabric of society would soon go to pieces, and, at all times throughout the year, to dispose of if men were removed beyond the sphere of the public and private sanctions of scriptural morality.--BLAKEY.
such grain as may have become unfit for use, in this
The house of which I have now been What I have done is worthy of nothing but silence and speaking is exceedingly warm ; and has a most disforgetfulness; but what God hath done for me is worthy agreeable closeness, which I attributed to the quantity of everlasting and thankful memory.Bishop Hall.
of decayed vegetable matter that must have been Better to be despised for too anxious
apprehensions, than selves are not aware at what time this establishment
accumulating for many years, as the people themruined by too confident a security.-BURKE.
was first founded. There are similar institutions to A WORD OP ADVICE TO THE DISCONTENTED. the one I have just described, at almost every large There's discontent from sceptre to the swain,
city on the western side of India, and particularly And from the peasant to the king again.
at those places where the Banians or Jains reside. Then whatsoever in thy will afflict thee,
They have their origin, it is well known, in the great Or, in thy pleasure seem to contradict thee,
desire which possesses the minds of these people to Give it a welcome as a wholesome friend, That would instruct thee to a better end,
preserve animal life; and though it is comprehensible Since no condition from defect is free,
to a native of Europe why aged cows and horses are Think not to find what here can never be.
preserved, from the circumstance of their having Alex. NicchOLES. 1615. done their owners some service, still there can be no
h. It did not appear that there was any regular
stronger instance of human caprice than to nurture size of the trunk, but it increases gradually until a noxious and offensive mass of vermin, which every the tree reaches maturity; after that period, it again other race but themselves are anxious to extirpate diminishes in volume, and in extreme old age comand destroy. The great body of Hindús do not pletely disappears. The structure of this portion of protect and preserve animal life as the Banians do; the plant is cellular; the cells in the outer part but it is a very common practice among them to feed being circular, and those in the centre of a hexagonal with regularity pigeons, and even the fish in rivers. form (six sided.) The celebrated Linnæus, endeaI have seen too, at Anjár, in Cutch, an establishment voured to discover some analogy between the pith in of rats, conjectured to exceed five thousand in num- a tree, and the brain and spinal chord in man, but it ber, which were kept in a temple, and daily fed with has been since proved to be an organ of secondary flour, which was procured by a tax on the inhabitants importance, and not by any means necessary to the of the town !!
life of the plant. Surrounding the pith, we find the [From a paper by LASUTENANT Burnes, in thic Journal of the Royal heart-wood, this is the portion of the tree that has Asiatic Society.]
been formed in previous years, and may be considered
being in active circulation. A series of circular
marks of a lighter colour than other portions of the VEGETABLES.
wood are likewise visible; these have the name of ALTHOUGH vegetable life is considered inferior to the spurious grain, and their number indicates the age animal life, and although the structure of a vegetable of the tree, one circle being formed every year; is far from being equally complicated, still, it consists other lines are also seen branching out from the of an infinitely greater series of organs, than is in centre in all directions; these constitute the silver general imagined. A vegetable has not, it is true, grain. The next great circle is the alburnum or the power of moving from place to place, nor that sap-wood; it is white, and full of moisture, and of voluntary action, but every arrangement necessary
consists of innumerable tubes of various forms, for its growth and nourishment, and for the per- through which the sap rises and falls, or is conveyed petuation of its species, is to be found in the most to different parts of the plant. The alburnum in insignificant production of the vegetable world, as
the birch, contains so much sugar and mucilage, that perfectly formed, and as beautifully arranged, as in it is sometimes cut into junks, and used as bread the most elevated being in the scale of nature.
by some of the inhabitants of the north of Europe. If we make a horizontal section of the trunk of a
The following figures are supposed to represent the tree, or shrub, we shall find the parts of which it is different forms of Fig. 1.
Fig. 2. composed, arranged in circles round a common centre.
the tubes or organs of
The simple tubes,
sap, the cells seem destined for the elaboration of its "The annexed engraving represents the magnified parts, and for the exposure of them to the action of appearance of a small portion of a horizontal section the atmosphere, and the new matter is annually of a tree, showing the cut ends of the vessels that produced in the spring immediately on the inner convey nourishment to the various parts.
surface of the cortical layer of the last year." In the centre, at c, is seen the pith, which in The third, or outermost part of the bark, is the very young plants is small, in proportion to the epidermis or cuticle, and varies much in different