Imágenes de páginas


But a

THE gradient over about one - third rangements made with this view are of the line is 1 in 4, i.e. for every 4 ft. worth a short description, to satisfy of length the line rises 1 ft. This is the minds of nervous people. Colexceedingly steep, much steeper, in lisions at such a slow speed are not to fact, than would be practicable for be feared: the dangers are of two horse-carriages on ordinary roads, other kinds. In the first place the and in this consists the extraordinary engine or carriage might get off the character of the railway. To ascend rails, which, with a precipice of some or descend such a gradient by ordinary thousands of feet close alongside, railway appliances would be imprac- might have an uncomfortable result. ticable; stationary engines and ropes This is provided against by a clip on would be difficult of application and both engine and carriage, which emhighly dangerous, and it has there- braces two projections on the middle fore been necessary to adopt a system or rack-rail ; so that if the flanges of of propulsion which, though it was the wheels should run off their rails tried in the infancy of railways, has the vehicle cannot get away: never been used in their practical

more serious risk to be development, namely, the rack and guarded against is that of the train pinion. Two rails are laid down on becoming unmanageable and running the ordinary plan, but between them down ; a risk which always exists on is placed a long-toothed rack, in which steep gradients even in ascending, engage the teeth of a pinion or toothed and still more in the descent. On wheel, worked by the locomotive, and ordinary railways the control is efthe revolution of this wheel causes fected by breaks applied to the wheels; the ascent of the train.

but on such an incline as 1 in 4 The engine is made as light as pos. these would be useless, for even with sible, there being no necessity, as on all the wheels locked the train would ordinary railways, to procure adhe. still run down by its own gravity. sion by weight on the wheels. It has Hence it has been necessary to devise little resemblance to an ordinary loco- an entirely different scheme, which is motive, the boiler being upright: and most ingenious and perfectly effective. with a view to give it a vertical posi- The carriage is provided on one of its tion when on the steep gradient, it axles with a cogged-wheel similar to slopes considerably when standing at the driving-wheel on the engine, and the stations, which has a very odd double-clip breaks, worked by powerappearance. Only one carriage is ful screws, are applied to drums taken up at a time; it is very light, fastened on this shaft; so that by but will carry about 50 passengers; screwing these tight a hold is obwhen a greater number have to be tained on the rack-rail, and the carconveyed extra trains are sent. The riage is held up with great security. speed, both ascending and descending, The locomotive is provided with a is purposely kept very slow, not much similar break on its free axle, while exceeding 3 m. an hr.

the driving-axle has a still more The great point aimed at is to en- powerful break adapted to the shaft sure safety, which, with such a fright of the engine, so giving a double fully, steep gradient is a difficult security in case of the accidental problem. "It has however been care- fracture of any part of the machinery. fully studied, and the ingenious ar- With these breaks the train, while

running down at the slow speed cast steel, these materials giving the
adopted (not exceeding 4 m. an hr.), best security against fracture.
can be brought to a stand almost As an additional precaution, the
instantaneously, and firmly held in carriage, in ascending, is not coupled
its place on the steepest part of the and dragged behind the engine as on
incline. Another very ingenious con- ordinary railways, but is loose, and
trivance is also adopted in running is pushed on in front. By this ar-
down hill ; the steam being entirely rangement if anything should happen
shut off, the pistons, worked by the to the engine and it should run down,
motion of the train, are made to com- it need not take the carriage with it,
press the air in the cylinders, and to as the latter can be stopped by its
drive it through an aperture capable own break, and will remain where it
of regulation; this acts as a break, is till help can be procured. In run-
and serves to regulate and control ning down the carriage follows the
the speed. The rack is strongly engine by its own weight, and the
formed in wrought iron, and the same security is obtained.-W. P.
pinions working into it are of the best

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1 Bâle to Berne, by the Mün-

c Lauterbrunnen to Grindelwald

ster Thal (Val Moutiers) and

- Wengern Alp— Faulhorn 85

Bienne (Railway)

D Grindelwald to Reichenbach or

3 Bâle to Soleuré and Bienne

Meiringen-Great Scheideck 93

(Railway)—the Weissenstein . 9 E Meiringen to Brienz and

4 Bâle to Lucerne, by the

Interlaken-Giessbach Falls. 95

Central Swiss Railway

12 26 Meiringen to Hospenthal-

5 Bâle to Berne, by Railway 15 Passes of the Grimsel and Furca 97

6 Bâle to Zürich, by Railway 15 27 Passes leading to or from the

7 Bâle to Schaffhausen and


Constance-Falls of the Rhine

A Grindelwald to Grimsel-


19 Strahleck and Lauteraar Joch

8 Schaffhausen to Constance



(Railway)-Lake of Constance. 23 B Gadmenthal to Grimsel 104

9 Schaffhausen to Zürich (Rhein-

c Grimsel to the Eggisch-

fall Railway)

27 horn-Oberaarjoch


10 Romanshorn to Zürich (Railway) 32 D To Meiringen, over the

12 Zürich to Berne, by Railway 32 Lauteraar and Gauli Glaciers. 106

13 Zürich to Ragatz, Lakes of 28 Grimsel to Brieg, by Ober-

Zürich and Wallenstadt (Rly.) 32 gestelen--the Egyischhorn 106

15 Zürich to Lucerne and the 31 Stanz to Altdorf, by the Surc-

Rigi, by Horgen, Zug, and nen, Engelbergthe Titlis 112


39 | 32 Susten Pass, from Meiringen

16 Zürich to Lucerne, over the

to Wasen


Albis, or by Railway 47 33 The Joch Pass

, from Meiringen

17 Lucerne to Schwyz—the Ross-

to Engelberg



52 34 Pass of St. Gothard, from

18 The Lake of Lucerne. - Lu-


the Lake of

cerne to Fliielen

58 Lucerne, to Bellinzona. 117

19 The Pass of the Brünig.- 35 Lauterbrunnen or Mürren to

Lucerne to Meiringen or

Kandersteg, or the Lötschen-


63 thal, by the Tschingel Glacier 128

20 Sarnen to Engelberg or 36 Lauterbrunnen to Kandersteg,

Engstlen and Meiringen, by

by the Seefinen Furke and

the Melchthal

68 Dündengrat


22 Lucerne to Berne or Thun, 37 Pass of the Gemmi, Thun to

by the Entlebuch and the

the Baths of Leuk (Louèche),

Emmenthal, and Langnau

and to Susten in the Valais. 131


69 38 Turtman to Kandersteg, by

24 Lucerne to Berne, by Railway 70 the Lötsch Pass


25 THE BERNESE OBERLAND. 76 39 Pass of the Rawyl.Thun, or

A Berne to Thun and Interlaken 77 Interlaken, to Sion or Sierre.

B Interlaken to Lauterbrunnen 81 The Grimmi.


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40 Lenk to Lauenen, by the Trütt- 66 Rorschach to Coire, by Ragatz

lisbery -Lauenen to Gsteig,

(Rail.)Baths of Pfäffers 219

by the Chrinen

141 67 Bregenz to Coire, by Vaduz 227

41 Pass of the Sanetsch-Saanen 68 Rorschach or St. Gall to Gais

to Sion

142 and Appenzell, with Ex-

42 Thun to Vevey, by the Simmen-

cursions to Weissbad, the

thal, Saunen, Château d'Oex,

Wildkirchlein, and the Hoch

and Gruyères ; Pass of the



Dent de Jaman

143 69 St. Gall to Rapperschwyl or

43 Château d'Oex to Aigle or

Uznach, by Heinrichsbad and

Bex, by the Val des Ormonts 147 Herisau


45 Berne to Lausanne (and Ve- 71 Wylto Coire- The Toggenburg 233

vey), by Freyburg

149 72 Wesen, or Richterschwyl, to

46 Berne to Lausanne, by Morat Schwyz- Einsiedeln Mor-

and Avenches (Aventicum)



48 Berne to Neuchâtel.

156 73 Schwyz to Glarus, by Muotta,

49 Bienne to Yverdon and Lau-

the Pragel Pass, and the

sanne, by the Lakes of Bienne



and Neuchâtel (Railway) 16074 Wesen to Glarus and the Baths

50 Neuchâtel to Chaux de Fonds

of Stachelberg


and Le Locle (Rail.) 162 75 Muotta to Stachelberg, by the

51 Pontarlier (in France) to

Bisithal, or to Altdorf, by the

Neuchâtel, by Travers (Rail.) 164 Kinzig Kulm


52 Yverdon, or Lausanne, to the 76 Stachelberg to Altdorf, by the

Lac de Joux

166 Klausen Pass


53 Lyons, or Mâcon, to Geneva 77 Stachelberg to Dissentis, by the


168 Sand Grat


55 Geneva to Villeneuve, by Lau- 78 Stachelberg to Brigels, over

sanne, Vevey, and Chillon,

the Kistengrat


Lake of Geneva (Railway), 181 79 Glarus Stachelberg to

56 Villeneuve to Sierre, by Mar.

Reichenau-Richetli and Sego

tigny (Gorge of the Trient)

nes Passes



192 80 Glarus to Ilánz, by the Pa-

57 Geneva to Martigny,by Thonon

nixer Pass


and Meillerie, along the south 82 Coire, up the Valley of the

shore of the Lake of Geneva 199 Vorder-Rhein, to Dissentis, and

58 Bex to Sion, by les Diablerets

across the Ober-alp to An-

and Col de Chéville

202 dermatt


59 Passage of the Simplon—Sierre 83 The Maderaner Thal--Passes

to Domo d' Ossola

204 of the Clariden Grat and

60 The Lötschenthal—Turtman



to the Eggischhorn, by the 84 Dissentis to 'Airolo, by the

Lötschsattel .

210 Uomo Pass


61 Viesch to Premia or Crodo 85 Pass of the Lukmanier — Disa

in Val Antigorio, by the

sentis to Olivone, in the Val


211 Blegno


62 Pass of the Gries - Oberges- 86 Ilánz to Olivone-the Disrut

telen to Domo d'Ossola, by

and Greina Passes


the Val Formazza (Pommat)

87 Coire to Chiavenna- Via Mala

and Falls of the Tosa

213 -Pass of the Splügen


63 Pass of the Nüfenen (Novena), 88 Andeer to Casaccia, by the

from Obergestelen to Airolo 216 Averser Thal, Forcellina and

65 Zürich to Rorschach by Rail-

Septimer Passes


way-St. Gall (Railway) 217 | 89 Splügen to Ilánz, by the Pass

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