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§ 2. ROUTES TO SWITZERLAND-SKELETON TOURS.

There are now several routes by which Switzerland may be speedily reached from London :

a. By Bâle from Paris direct, or via Mayence or Cologne, and cross lines up the Rte.

b. By Friedrichshafen, via Stuttgart and Ulm.

c. By Neuchâtel, via Paris, Dijon, and Pontarlier. d. By Geneva.

a. BALE may be reached

London to Paris, 11 hours; Paris to Bâle, by Troyes and Mulhouse, 12 hours; by Strasbourg 17 hours).

London to Mayence by Dover, Ostend, and Rhine Railway, 251⁄2 hours;

Mayence to Bâle (railway) 9 hours. Or

London to Cologne by Antwerp, 28 hours; Cologne to Frankfort (steamer and railway), 15 hours; Frankfort to Bâle (railway), 8 hours (or through to Zürich, 11 hours).

A cheaper but slower route is by Rotterdam and the Rhine.

From Bâle the traveller may go by railway

To Lucerne in 3 to 3 hrs.

To Berne in 3 hrs.

To Thun in 5 hrs.

To Zürich in 3 hrs.

To Geneva by Bienne, Neuchâtel, and Lausanne in 8 hrs.
To Schaffhausen in 3 hrs.

To Constance in 5 hrs.

b. FRIEDRICHSHAFEN may be reached

London to Mayence, 25 hours; Mayence to Friedrichshafen, 12 hours.
London to Paris, 11 hours; Paris to Friedrichshafen, by Forbach and

Ludwigshafen, 25 hours. This is a very pleasant way of entering
Switzerland. From Friedrichshafen the traveller may go to Zürich
by Romanshorn, or to Ragatz or Coire by Rorschach, steamer and
rail.

c. NEUCHÂTEL may be reached

London to Paris, 11 hours; Paris to Pontarlier by Dijon, 111⁄2 hours;
Pontarlier to Neuchâtel, about 50 miles, 2 hrs.

d. GENEVA may be reached

London to Paris, 11 hours; Paris to Geneva by Mâcon, 14 hours. a or b will be adopted by those who wish to visit first Lucerne or the Bernese Oberland; d by those who aim at Chamonix and Zermatt.

The traveller with his knapsack who requires no more than a night's lodging at Paris may sleep at one of the hotels opposite the terminus of the railway from which he will have to start in the morning, or he may run through from London to Switzerland with a through ticket. Starting by the mail at Charing Cross at 7.25 A.M., he will have an hour for dinner in Paris; leave at 8 P.M. and arrive at Bâle about 9 the next morning, or at Neuchâtel about 10. Or he may leave London by the evening mail, 8.30, sleep at Dover or Calais, and go on direct next day.

For the guidance of travellers, skeleton tours are here given, adapted to the convenience and taste of persons of different degrees of bodily strength, and using different modes of conveyance. They are framed so as to show what may be done within a given time; but no sounder advice can be offered to those who desire real and thorough enjoyment in tra

velling than carefully to abstain from doing all that can be done in the time at their disposal. The grand scenes of nature cannot be fully apprehended at a glance, and the impression which will be retained of them when seen repeatedly, and under varying conditions of weather and light, will be far more prized than the crowd of imperfect images that can alone be carried away in the course of a hurried advance from one place to another.

Each traveller must, however, decide for himself where to halt, and the following outlines may be used on that understanding for any portion of the alpine chain which it is desired to explore.

A.-CARRIAGE TOUR: about six weeks of easy travelling.

A few

easy excursions, which may be accomplished in a chaise-à-porteurs, are given in italics.

Bâle.

Münsterthal.

Bienne.

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Horgen, Zug, and Immensee.
Ascend the Rigi and descend to Weggis.
Flüelen, by steamer.

Lucerne.

Return to Geneva.

Vevey, by steamer.
Chillon. (Hôtel Byron.)

Aigle. (Making an excursion to
Sepey, and Hôtel des Diablerets, in
the Val des Ormonts.

Brünig Pass to Meiringen. Interlaken (visiting Giessbach by boat).

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B.-The foregoing Route may be varied by going at first from Bâle to Zürich by Railway.

Rapperschwyl, and steamer to Zürich.
Schaffhausen.

Constance.

Friedrichshafen, by steamer.

Lauterbrunnen and Grindelwald, re-
turning to
Interlaken.

(Thun, &c., as in preceding route.)

C.-ROUTE BY BRIDLE-PATHS AND CARRIAGE-ROADS, including much of the fine scenery of the central Alps. Three months. It is assumed that wherever there is a good carriage-road it should be used. A few excursions partly on foot are given in italics.

Bâle to Lucerne, direct; or by Schaff- | Excursion to Macugnaga Glacier.
hausen and Zürich.
*Mattmark or Suas, by the Monte Moro
Pass.

Ascend the Rigi from Goldau or Art.
Descend to Weggis.

Return to Lucerne.-Ascend Pilatus.
By Stanz to Engelberg.
By Surenen Pass to Altdorf.
By Devil's Bridge to Hospenthal.
Pass of the Furca to the Grimsel.
Excursion to the Lower Glacier
the Aar.

Baths of Reichenbach or Meiringen.
Pass of the Great Scheideck.
Faulhorn.

Grindelwald.

Excursion to the Lower Glacier
Grindelwald.

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Châtillon.

Sion.
Evolena.

St. Luc, in Val d'Anniviers.

Grüben, in Turtman Thal, ascending
Bella Tola on the way.
St. Niklaus in the Vispthal.
of Zermatt.

Riffelberg and Gorner Grat.

Gressoney St. Jean, by Brussone. Alagna by the Col d'Ollen. Varallo.

of

Orta, by the Col di Colma.

Excursion to the Motterone.
Ponte Grande in the Val Anzasca.
Macugnaga.

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Ascent of the Becca di Nona.
Excursion to the Hospice of St. Ber- Friedrichshafen.

nard, and return.

Luino.

Lugano.

Excursion to Monte Generoso.
By Porlezza and Menaggio to Bel-
laggio, on the Lake of Como.
Varenna.

Lecco, by the Val Sassina.
Como, by Erba.

Colico, by steamer.
Chiavenna.

Andeer, by Splügen Pass.
Coire, by Via Mala.
Ragatz and Pfäffers.
Wesen, by Wallenstadt.
Baths of Stachelberg.
Excursion to Ober Sand Alp.
Altdorf, by Klausen Pass.
Brunnen.

Glarus, by Muotta Thal.
St. Gall.

Rorschach.

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*Those who fear to undertake the Pass of the Moro may vary the route by going from Macugnaga to Baveno, thence by steamer to Locarno or Magadino, by Bellinzona to Airolo and over the Nüfenen Pass to Münster in the Upper Valais. From Münster to the Eggischhorn, thence to Zermatt, returning by Visp to Brieg, and thence by the Simplon to Domo d'Ossola. The above route would be rejoined at Baveno.

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D.-TOUR OF 14 OR 16 DAYS, hard travelling and fine weather.

Days.

7 By Lauterbrunnen and Interlaken to Frutigen.

Days.

Schaffhausen.
1 Rhine Fall.
Zürich. Or
Friedrichshafen.
1 Romanshorn.
Zug. Or
Bâle.
Lucerne

2 Rigi.

Altdorf.

Andermatt or Hospenthal

4 Grimsel.

5 Reichenbach and Rosenlaui.

6 By Grindelwald to Wengern Alp.

2 Diligence to Alveneu, walk over the Albula Pass to Ponte; sleep at Samâden.

3 Visit Roseg or

Morteratsch

Glacier; sleep at Pontresina. 4 Ascend the Piz Languard. 5 To Casaccia, by Maloja Pass. 6 Andeer, by Forcellina Pass and Avers Thal.

7 Via Mala to Reichenau and Waldhaus.

8 By Gemmi to Leukerbad.

9 Martigny and Tête Noir inn.

10

8 To Elm, by Segnes Pass.
9 Baths of Stachelberg, by the
Richetli Pass.

10 Excursion to Ober Sand Alp.
11 Klausen Pass to Altdorf.
12 Surenen Pass to Engelberg.
13 Ascend the Titlis, and sleep at the
Inn on the Engstlen Alp.

14 To Im Hof, and Grimsel Hospice.
15) Sidelhorn and Oberaar Glacier.
16) Glacier of the Rhone.
17 Strahleck Pass to Grindelwald.
18 Inn on the Wengern Alp.
19 By Lauterbrunnen to Mürren.
20 To Kandersteg, by the Tschingel
Glacier and Gasteren Thal.
21 Leukerbad, by Gemmi Pass.
22 Ascend Torrenthorn (for Lötsch-
sattel descend to H. Nesthorn).

11 Chamonix.

12

13 Geneva.

14 Tour of the Lake to Lausanne. 15 Berne.

E. TOUR FOR MODERATE PEDESTRIANS, keeping to the higher parts of
the Swiss and Savoy Alps. It is assumed that some days of rest should
be allowed to intervene, and that the passes or ascents marked in italics
should not be attempted without guides.
Days.

1 Friedrichshafen by steamer to
Rorschach; thence by rail to
Ragatz; visit Pfäffers; sleep at
Coire.

16 Bâle.

3, 4, and 5 may be shortened to one day by crossing the Brünig to Meiringen.

Days.

23 By Viesch from Leukerbad, or by Lötschsattel from H. Nesthorn, to the Eggischhorn.

24 Eggischhorn, Aletsch Glacier.
25 Belle Alp.

26 Saas.

27 Excursion to Fee Alp; sleep at Mattmark.

28 Macugnaga by Monte Moro.
29 Excursion to Macugnaga Glacier.
30 Sleep at Ponte Grande.

31

Varallo, by the Barranca Pass and
Val Mastalone.

32

Alagna.

33 Exc. to Pile Alp and Val di Bours.
34 Gressoney, by Col d'Ollen.
35 Ascend the Grauhaupt.

36 Breuil, by the Cimes Blanches, or in
two days by Brussone and Châ-
tillon.

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Days.

45 Evolena, by Col de Torrent.
45 Col de Collon to Prérayen (or by
Otemma Glacier to Giétroz, and
next day by Col de Fenêtre to
Aosta).

46 Aosta.

47 Courmayeur.

48 Ascend the Cramont.

Days.

(To Chamonix, by the Col de la Seigne, Col du Bonhomme, and Col de Voza.

49

50

§ 3. MONEY.

The coinage of Switzerland, by a decree of the Diet of 1850, has been reduced to conformity with that of France. The current money is francs and centimes, and the old Swiss batz is no longer a legal tender. This new and uniform coinage is distinguished by the word HELVETIA on the obverse, and is among the best in Europe.

The silver coins consist of pieces of 5 francs, 2 francs, 1 franc, and franc (50 centimes). The small coins consist of pieces of 5, 10, and 20 centimes, struck in base metal, and are much more convenient than French or English copper. Centimes are sometimes called rappen. The old batz was worth 15 centimes. The old Swiss franc was a French franc and a half.

Italy

Prussia
N. Germany

S. Germany
Austria

Holland

51 Brévent.

52 Jardin.

Previously to this salutary change there was hardly a country in Europe which had so complicated a currency as Switzerland. Almost every canton had a coinage of its own, and those pieces that were current in one canton would not pass in the next; as a change has been contemplated in England, it may be interesting to know that, within six months after the new system was introduced, all trace of the old denominations was gone, except that the expression "franc de France," instead of "franc," was common. In remote districts the children begging screamed for centimes as if they had never heard of any other coin.

From 10 to 14 days additional should be allowed for rest and detention by bad weather.

French Napoleons and francs, current all over Switzerland, are the best money the traveller can take with him; but English sovereigns and banknotes are usually taken at inns throughout Switzerland and on the Italian lakes, at a value of 25 francs.

1 franc 100 centimes

A very safe method of carrying money is by circular notes issued by Coutts & Co., Herries & Co., the London and Westminster Bank, and other banks, payable at all the large towns in Europe. They may be procured for any sum from 107. upwards.

The coinage of Italy is the same as that of France; but the old coinage of Piedmont, and Austrian zwanzigers, are still in circulation in the remoter districts.

The following table may be useful on the road to Switzerland :—
France

Belgium
Switzerland

100 cents
100 cents

1 thaler 30 silver groschen
24 Neu gr.
6 Einen thaler-a coin so named (th of a thaler)

= 5 silver groschen = 4 Neu gr.

1 florin (in German, gulden) = 60 kreuzers

1 florin

1 florin

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English.

= Os. 93d.

= 2s. 11d.

=0s.

6d. = 1s. 8d.

= 1s. 11 d.

= 1s. 8d.

Change for a Sovereign = 6 thalers 21 silv. gr., or 11 gulden 46 kr.; but the exchange varies.

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