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Liestal
Laufelfingen
Olten
Sursee
Lucerne

ROUTE 4.

Liestal Stat. (Inns not good : Falke; Schlüssel). Liestal was always

SWISS RAILWAY.

BÂLE TO LUCERNE, BY THE CENTRAL opposed to its connexion with Bâle town, and was finally separated from it in 1833. It is a dirty, uninteresting place of 3871 Inhab., and since the separation has become the seat of government of Bâle Campagne (or Baselland), which includes 53 parishes, with about 36,000 Inhab. In the Council-room (Rathsstube) are curious paintings and sentences on the walls, and Charles the Bold's cup taken at Nancy.

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this place the men of Bâle were in 1833 drawn into an ambuscade by the men of Liestal and defeated with considerable slaughter. The rly. runs for some miles along the flat land of the Rhine valley, then leaving it, turns to the rt. up the valley of the little river Ergolz.

4 or 5 trains a day in from 3 to 4 hrs. The fast trains are at 10:30 a.m. and 2.15 p.m.

The Central Swiss Railway starts from the S. side of Bâle, a mile from the bridge, and traverses the Jura, through very beautiful scenery, to Olten; whence its branches diverge to Berne and Bienne, Lucerne and Zürich. The works on the line were executed by the English engineer Brassey.

The rly., on quitting Bâle, crosses the valley of the Birs on a lattice bridge of 3 arches, a little N. of the pattlefield of St. Jacob, where, in 1444, 1600 Swiss had the boldness to attack, and the courage to withstand for many hrs., a French army tenfold more numerous, commanded by the Dauphin, afterwards Louis XI. According to the story only 10 of the Swiss escaped unwounded, and all but about 50 were left dead on the field, along with thrice their own number of foes. This almost incredible exploit spread abroad through Europe the fame of Swiss valour; and Louis, the Dauphin, wisely seeing that it was better to gain them as friends than to oppose them as enemies, courted their alliance. The Swiss themselves refer to the battle of St. Jacob as the Thermopyla of their history. The vineyards near the field produce a red wine, called Schweizer Blut (Swiss blood). A little beyond

The rly. now enters a mountain valley, and follows the curves of the stream. The scenery is very pretty; in the bottom are bright green meadows, dotted with white houses; on the sides of the hills fir and beech forests, and here and there above them limestone cliffs.

Sissach Stat. Inn: Lowe. Rt., or 7 m. S., at the foot of the Bölchenfluh, 2923 ft., in a neighbourhood abounding in beautiful walks, are the Baths of Eptingen. The Rly. now ascends by a gradient of 1 in 20, and several side valleys are crossed on bridges, the line constantly rising until it looks down upon the village of

Buckten Stat. (Inn: Halbmond), beyond which is a tunnel 900 ft. long; 1. rise the ruins of the Castle of Homburg, the scenery becoming wilder and more picturesque, and the mountains higher.

Close to this the tunnel under the Läufelfingen Stat. (Inn: Soleil.) Unter-Hauenstein is entered. It is 1 m. long, and was completed in 3 years: at one accident, in 1857, 52 men were buried alive. This pass has always been of great importance

as an outlet for the merchandise of Switzerland, and as the most direct line of communication from W. Germany to Italy by the St. Gothard. The carriage road ascends to the head of the pass, 2280 ft., by a series of zigzags, descending in a similar manner on the other side, and commands a * View of the great chain of the Alps, which is lost to the traveller by the rly. Those who would not miss it will quit the train at Läufelfingen, walk over the mountain (Inn at the summit), and rejoin the rail at Olten.

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The Lucerne line leaves the Aar and enters a pretty vale, distinguished by its verdant pastures, and its substantial-looking houses, the walls of which are often covered with thin plates of wood overlapping each other like fishes' scales. Rt. and 1. a varied outline of wooded heights, and the rocky front of the Jura.

Zofingen Stat.-Inns: Cheval Blanc (Rössli), Ochs - a cheerful-looking town with 3700 Inhab. Its Library contains autograph letters of Swiss reformers, a cabinet of coins and drawings by members of the Swiss Society of Artists. Near the Schützenhaus (shooting-house) are some magnificent lime-trees, in the branches of which a ball-room has been constructed. Zofingen is supposed to be the Roman Tobinium. Remains of the period have been turned up here, particularly the foundations of a villa, of which a mosaic pavement is still in good preservation. A fragment of the castle of Reiden, and a solitary tree perched on a rock beside it, become conspicuous before reaching

Reiden Stat. The Parsonage was originally a house of the Knights of Malta.

Dagmersellen Stat. Inn: Löwe, kept by A. Bühler, good and clean. The village was the birthplace of the sculptor Kaiser.

Nebikon Stat.

Wauwyl Stat. Rt. the little lake of Mauensee.

Sursee Stat.-(Inns: Sonne; Hirsch; both bad and dear)—an old walled town, whose gate-towers still bear the double-headed eagle of Austria The Rathhaus is much dilapidated, but a good specimen of the GermanBurgundian style. The general outline resembles the old Tolbooth of Edinburgh.-Sursee is 1 m. from the N. end of the Lake of Sempach, which has no pretensions to great beauty, but is pleasing, and interesting historically, as the scene of the Battle of Sem

pach (9 July, 1386)-the second of those great and surprising victories by which Swiss independence was established. It was fought on the E. shore, behind the little town of Sempach. In 1805 a portion of the water of the lake was let off, in order to gain land; thus the lake is diminished in extent, and its form somewhat altered from what it was at the time of the battle. The rly. runs along its W. shore. Views of Pilatus and Rigi.

Nottwyl Stat. At Büttisholz, a village about 3 m. W. of this Stat., and on the rt. of the road, may be seen a mound, called the English barrow, said to contain the bones of a number of Free Companions, who fell here in a fight, 1375. They were chiefly English, nick-named Gugglers, from their high-crowned caps of iron, and formed part of a numerous and splendidly equipped host, which had invaded Switzerland under Ingelram de Coucy, to claim the marriage-portion of his mother, Catherine, daughter of Duke Leopold of Austria. A band of 3000, whilst pillaging in this neighbourhood, were attacked and defeated by the sturdy peasants of Entlebuch, who rode back triumphant to their châlet homes on English steeds, and clad in the bright armour of their foes.

Sempach Stat. About 2 m. from the rly. stat. is the town of

Sempach (Inns: Kreuz; Adler); and 2 m. farther a small chapel, erected to commemorate the victory of Sempach, on the spot where Leopold of Austria (son of the Duke of the same name who had been defeated 71 years before at Morgarten) lost his life. The names of those who fell, both Austrians and Swiss, were inscribed on the walls, which also bear a rude fresco representation of the noble devotion of Arnold of Winkelried—

He was a knight of Unterwalden, who, observing all the efforts of the Swiss to break the ranks of their enemies foiled by their long lances, exclaimed, "I will open a path to freedom: protect, dear comrades, my wife and children." He then rushed forward, and gathering in his arms as many lances as he could grasp, buried them in his bosom. The confederates were enabled to take advantage of the gap thus formed before the Austrian lancers had time to extricate their entangled weapons from his body. In order to oppose the Swiss, who fought on foot, many of the Austrian nobles had dismounted to form a serried phalanx; but the armour which rendered them almost invulnerable on horseback, and which, while they remained united and in close column, had formed so impenetrable a barrier to the attack of the Swiss, now that their ranks were broken, disabled them from coping with their light-armed and active foes. 600 nobles were slain, and more than 2000 common soldiers; while the entire force of the Swiss, who achieved this victory, is said not to have exceeded 1400 men. conquerors founded masses for the souls of those who fell, foes as well as friends, and they are celebrated even now on the anniversary of the fight, which is a popular festival.

The

He of battle-martyrs chief!
Who, to recall his daunted peers,
For victory shaped an open space,
By gath'ring, with a wide embrace,
Into his single heart, a sheaf
Offatal Austrian spears.-Wordsworth.

The approach to Lucerne is charming: a winding descent between fir trees and mossy knolls opens the view of the Alps. On the L. is the Rigi; on rt. the serrated ridge of the gloomy Pilatus.

Emmenbrücke Stat. Here the Emme is crossed, and we reach the banks of the green and limpid Reuss, rushing out of the lake of Lucerne and spanned by a light bridge of the Zürich rly. The old battlemented wall of the town, flanked at intervals by a number of tall watchtowers, is seen descending to the margin of the river.

LUCERNE Junct. Station, on S. side of the lake, opposite the Promenade and Quay of Lucerne (Rte. 16). All

the steamers for Weggis, Flüelen, &c., | Nahl, and represents her with her call here.

child in her arms, bursting through the tomb at the sound of the last trumpet. Its merit, as a work of art, has been much exaggerated. The epitaph was written by Haller. This tomb is formed of sandstone, and is let into the pavement of the church.

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Beyond Zollikofen Junct. Stat. is Ruete, rt., an agricultural institution.

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Aarau Stat-Inns: Ochs; Storch- attendance. The neighbourhood is the chief town of canton Aargau or pretty, and winding paths, under the Argovie, which was first included in shade of trees, lead up the hill to the Confederation in 1803, having pre- the castle of Habsburg, ancient seat of viously formed a subject province of the imperial family of Austria. At a canton Berne, contains 5454 Inhab., short distance is the wooded eminence and is situated on the rt. bank of the and château of Wildegg (Col. d'EffinAar: Simond called it, in 1817, "anger), at the foot of which is a saline and bitter spring containing iodine and bromide of sodium. Among the excursions may be mentioned the ascent of the Gyslifluh, 2539 ft., commanding a fine view of the Alps, and over which there is a pleasant walk to Aarau.

odious little place;" but it has much improved and increased since then. It lies at the base of the Jura, here partly covered with vineyards. There are many extensive cotton-mills.

The Rathhaus, in which the cantonal councils are held, has been rebuilt. In the parish church Protestant and Catholic services are performed alternately.

Henry Zschokke, the historian and novel-writer, resided here until his death, 1848, in a pretty villa on a hill on the 1. bank of the Aar. When the armies of the French Revolution took possession of Switzerland in 1789, and destroyed its ancient form of government, Aarau was made for a short time capital of the Helvetian Republic.

Schinznach Stat., 10 min. walk from Schinznach-les-Bains, also called Habsburger Bad, a much frequented watering-place. The establishment, under the direction of M. Moser, consists of an hotel and pension with 350 beds and 160 baths. 200 persons frequently join the table-d'hôte, 1 P.M., 3 fr. The visitors are chiefly French. Season from May 1 to September 30; prices reduced in the first and last month. The sulphur springs, among the strongest known in Europe, issue from highly tilted stratified rocks, at about 20 ft. below the surface of the drift of the valley of the Aar, and are collected in a shaft at the temp. of about 90° Fahr., and distributed by machinery. Sulphur, salts of soda, and magnesia are united in these waters, which are efficacious in the treatment of diseases of the skin, mucous membrane, respiratory_organs, wounds, and rheumatism. Dr. Zurkowski, medical resident, also Drs. Amsler and Hemmann (inspectors of the adjoining hospital) are in daily

Brugg Stat. Rly. to Waldshut (Rte. 7). Brugg (Inns: Rössli; Rothes Haus) belonged to the House of Habsburg, and is a picturesque old place, its entrances guarded by high conical roofed towers. The Schwarze Thurm (Black tower) is a Roman building of the age of the Lower Empire. Brugg is the birthplace of Zimmermann (On Solitude), physician to Frederick the Great.

The country around is interesting. In the plain, a little below the town, three of the principal rivers which drain the N. slopes of the Alps, the Limmat, Reuss, and Aar, form a junction, and, united under the name of Aar, flow towards the Rhine, into which they fall about 10 m. below Brugg, at a place called Coblenz. Close upon this meeting of waters, and on the triangular tongue of land between the Aar and Reuss, stood

Vindonissa, the most important settlement of the Romans in Helvetia, as well as their strongest fortress on this frontier. In the 3rd, 4th, and 5th cents. it was ravaged by Vandals, Alemanni, and Huns, and in the 6th cent. destroyed by Childebert, king of the Franks, and scarcely any portion of it now appears above ground; but traces of an amphitheatre, of an aqueduct, which conveyed water from the Brauneggberg, 3 m. off, foundations of walls, broken pottery, inscriptions, and coins, have been turned up from time to time, and its name is preserved in that of the village of Windisch.

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