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tensive Survey of the Branches of any Science. He must also be well acquainted with Words as well as Ideas in a proper Variety, that when his Disciple does not take in the Ideas in one Form of Expression, he may change the Phrafe into several Forms, till at last he hits the Understanding of his Scholar, and enlightens it in the just Idea of Truth.
BESIDES this, a Tutor should be a Person of a happy and condescending Temper, who has Patience to bear with a Slowness of Percep. tion, or want of Sagacity in fome Learners. He should also have much Candour of Soul, to pass a gentle Censure on their Imperti. nences, and to pity them in their Mistakes, and use every mild and engaging Method for infinuating Knowledge into those who are willing and diligent in seeking Truth, as well as reclaiming those who are wandering into Error. But of this I have fpoken fomewhat already, in a Chapter of the former Part, and shall have Occasion to express something mcre of it shortly.
A VERY pretty and useful Way to lead a Person into the Knowledge of any particuJar Truth is, by Questions and Answers, which , is the Socratical Method of Disputation, and therefore I refer the Reader to that Chapter or Section which treats of it. On this Account Dialogues are used as a polite and pleasant Method of leading Gentlemen and
Ladies into some of the Sciences, who seek not the most accurate and methodical Treasure of Learning.
But the most usual, and perhaps the most excellent Way of instructing Students in any of the Sciences is, by reading Lectures, as Tutors in the Academy do to their Pupils.
The first Work is to choose a Book well written, which contains a sort Scheme or Abstract of that Science ; or at least, it should not be a very copious and diffusive Treatise, Or if the Tutor knows not any such Book already written, he should draw up an Abftračt of that Science himself, containing the most substantial and important Parts of it, disposed in such a Method as he best approves.
Let a Chapter or Sektion of this be read daily by the Learner, on which the Tutor should paraphrase in this Manner, viz.
He ihould explain both Words and Ideas more largely, and especially what is dark and difficult should be opened and illustrated, partly by various Forms of Speech, and partly by apt Similitudes and Examples. Where the Sense of the Author is dubious, it must also be fixed and determined
Where the Arguments are strong and cogent, they should be inforced by some further Paraphrase, and the Truth of the Inferences should be made plainly to appear.
Where the Arguments are weak and infufficient, they should be either confirmed or rejected as useless; and new Arguments, if need be, should be added to support that Doctrine.
What is treated very concisely in the Author should be amplified, and where leveral Things are laid closely together, they must be taken to Pieces and opened by Parts.
Where the Tutor differs from the Au. ther which he reads, he should gently point out and confute bis Mistakes.
Where the Method and Order of the Book is just and happy, it should be pursued and commended: Where it is defective and irregular, it should be corrected.
The most necessary, the most remarkable and useful Parts of that Treatise, or of that Science, Thould be peculiarly recommended to the Learners, and pressed upon them that they would retain it in Memory; and what is more unnecessary or superfluous should be distinguished, least the Learner should spend too. much Time in the more needless Parts of a Science.
The various Ends, Uses and Services of that Science, or of any part of it, should be also declared and exemplified, as far as the Tutor hath Opportunity and Furniture to do it; particularly in Matheinaticks and Natural Philofophy,
And if there be any thing remarkably beautiful or defective in the Stile of the Writer, it is proper for the Tutor to make a juft Re mark upon it.
While he is reading and explaining any particular Treatise to his Pupils, he may compare the different Editions of the fanie Book, or different Writers upon the same Subject: He Thould inform them where that Subject is treated by other Authors, which they may · peruse, and lead his Disciples thereby to a further Elucidation, Confirmation or Improvement of that Theme of Discourse in which he is instructing them.
It is alluring and agreeable to the Learner also, now and then to be entertained with some historical Remarks, or any Occurrences or useful Stories which the Tutor has met with, relating to the several Parts of such a Science, provided he does not put off his Pupils merely with such Stories, and neglect to give them a solid and rational Information of the Theme in hand. Teachers should endeavour, as far as possible, to join Profit and · Pleasure together, and mingle Delight with
their Instručtions; but at the fame Time they must take heed that they do not merely amuse the Ears, and gratify the Fancy of their Disciples, without enriching their Minds.
In reading Lectures of Instruction, let the Teacher be very solicitous that the Learners
take up his meaning, and therefore he thould frequently enquire, whether he expresses himself intelligibly, whether they understand his Sense, and take in all his Ideas, as be endeavours to convey them in his own Forms of Speech.
It is necessary that he who instructs others, should use the most proper Style for the Conveyance of his Ideas eally into the Minds of those who hear him: And though in teaching. the Sciences a Person is not confined to the fame Rules by which we must govern our Langauge in Conversation, for he must necessarily make use of many Terms of Art and hardWords, yet he should never use them merely to sew his Learning, nor affect sounding Language without Neceffity, a Caution which we shall farther inculcate angn.
I THINK it very convenient and proper, if not absolutely necessary, that when a Tutor reads a following Lecture to his Pupils, he fhould run over the foregoing Lecture in Queltions proposed to them, and by this Means acquaint himself with their daily Proficiency.*
It *Note, This Precaution tho' never to be neglected, is of especial Importance when a Pupil is entering on any new Branch of Learning, where it is absolutely necessary that the fundamental Definitions and Principles thould not only be clearly 'understood, but should be rendered very familiar to the Mind: And probably most Tutors have found young Persons sadly bewildered, as they have gone on in their Lectures, for want of a little more Patience and Care in this Respect.