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home till the beginning of November. The Assembly
sitting through the following winter, and warm disputes
arising between them and the governor, I became wholly
engaged in public affairs; for, besides my duty as an
Assemblyman, I had another trust to execute, that of being
one of the commissioners appointed by law to dispose of
the public money appropriated to the raising and paying
an army to act against the Indians, and defend the frontiers.
And then, in December, we had two insurrections of the
back inhabitants of our province, by whom twenty poor
Indians were murdered, that had, from the first settlement
of the province, lived among us, under the protection of
our government. This gave me a good deal of employ-
ment; for, as the rioters threatened further mischief, and
their actions seemed to be approved by an ever-acting party,
I wrote a pamphlet entitled “A Narrative, &c." (which I
think I sent to you) to strengthen the hands of our weak
government, by rendering the proceedings of the rioters
unpopular and odious. This had a good effect; and after-
wards, when a great body of them with arms marched
towards the capital, in defiance of the government, with an
avowed resolution to put to death one hundred and forty
Indian converts then under its protection, I formed an
Association at the governor's request, for his and their
defence, we having no militia. Near one thousand of the
citizens accordingly took arms; Governor Penn made my
house for some time his head-quarters, and did every thing
by my advice; so that, for about forty-eight hours, I was a

at man; as I had been once some years before, in
public danger.*
reference to the defeat of General Braddock by the French, at
Monongahela. See ante, p. 323 et seq.-ED.


But the fighting face we put on, and the reasonings we used with the insurgents, (for I went at the request of the governor and council, with three others, to meet and discourse with them,) having turned them back and restored quiet to the city, I became a less man than ever; for I had, by this transaction, made myself many enemies among the populace; and the governor, (with whose family our public disputes had long placed me in an unfriendly light, and the services I had lately rendered him not being of the kind that make a man acceptable,) thinking it a favorable opportunity, joined the whole weight of the proprietary interest to get me out of the Assembly; which was accordingly effected at the last election, by a majority of about twentyfive in four thousand voters. The House, however, when they met in October, approved of the resolutions taken, while I was Speaker, of petitioning the crown for a change of government, and requested me to return to England, to prosecute that petition ; which service I accordingly undertook, and embarked at the beginning of November last, being accompanied to the ship, sixteen miles, by a cavalcade of three hundred of my friends, who filled our sails with their good wishes, and I arrived in thirty days at London.

Here I have been ever since, engaged in that and other public affairs relating to America, which are like to continue some time longer upon my hands; but I promise you, that when I am quit of these, I will engage in no other; and that, as soon as I have recovered the ease and leisure I hope or, the task you require of me, of finishing my “Art of Virtue," shall be performed. In the mean time, I must request you would excuse me on this consideration, that the powers of the mind are possessed by different men in different degrees, and that every one cannot, like Lord

Kames, intermix literary pursuits and important business without prejudice to either.

I send you herewith two or three other pamphlets of my writing on our political affairs, during my short residence in America ;* but I do not insist on your reading them; for I know you employ all your time to some useful purpose.

To Mary Ste Your pleasing favor of November with is venson, dated

now before me. Philadelphia,

It found me, as you supposed 25 March, it would, happy with my American friends 1763.

and family about me; and it made me more happy in showing me, that I am not yet forgotten by the dear friends I left in England. And, indeed, why should I fear they will ever forget me, when I feel so strongly that I shall ever remember them?

Of all the enviable things England has, I envy it most its people. Why should that petty Island, which, compared to America, is but like a stepping-stone in a brook, scarce enough of it above water to keep one's shoes dry; why, I say, should that little Island enjoy, in almost every neighbourhood, more sensible, virtuous, and elegant minds, than we can collect in ranging a hundred leagues of our vast forests ? But it is said the Arts delight to travel westward. You have effectually defended us in this glorious war, and in time you will improve us. After the first cares for the necessaries of life are over, we shall come to think of the embellishments. Already, some of our young geniuses begin to lisp attempts at painting, poetry, and music. We have a young painter now studying at Rome.

* These were “A Narrative of the Late Massacres ;" and the “ Preface to Galloway's Speech."-ED.

Cool Thoughts ;"

Some specimens of our poetry I send you, which, if Dr. Hawkesworth's fine taste cannot approve, his good heart will at least excuse. The manuscript piece is by a young friend of mine, and was occasioned by the loss of one of his friends, who lately made a voyage to Antigua to settle some affairs, previous to an intended marriage with an amiable young lady here, but unfortunately died there. I send it to you, because the author is a great admirer of Mr. Stanley's musical compositions, and has adapted this piece to an air in the sixth Concerto of that gentleman, the sweetly solemn movement of which he is quite in raptures with. He has attempted to compose a recitativo for it, but, not being able to satisfy himself in the bass, wishes I could get it supplied. If Mr. Stanley would condescend to do that for him, he would esteem it as one of the highest honors, and it would make him excessively happy. You will say that a recitativo can be but a poor specimen of our music. It is the best and all I have at present, but you may see better hereafter.

I hope Mr. Ralph's affairs are mended since you wrote. I know he had some expectations, when I came away, from a hand that would help him. He has merit, and one would think ought not to be so unfortunate.

I do not wonder at the behaviour you mention of Dr. S— towards me, for I have long since known him thoroughly. I made that man my enemy by doing him too much kindness. It is the honestest way of acquiring an enemy. And, since it is convenient to have at least one enemy, who, by his readiness to revile one on all occasions, may make one careful of one's conduct, I shall keep him an enemy for that purpose ; and shall observe your good mother's advice, never again to receive him as a friend.

She once admired the benevolent spirit breathed in his sermons. She will now see the justness of the lines your laureate Whitehead addressed to his poets, and which I now address to her.

" Full many a peevish, envious, slanderous elf

Is, in his works, benevolence itself.
For all mankind, unknown, his bosom heaves;
He only injures those, with whom he lives.
Read, then, the man ;-does truth his actions guide,
Exempt from petulance, exempt from pride ?
To social duties does his heart attend,
As son, as father, husband, brother, friend?
Do those, who know him, love him? If they do,
You've my permission, you may love him too."

Nothing can please me more, than to see your philosophical improvements, when you have leisure to communicate them to me. I still owe you a long letter on that subject, which I shall pay. I am vexed with Mr. James, that he has been so dilatory in Mr. Madison's Armonica. I was unlucky in both the workmen, that I permitted to undertake making those instruments. The first was fanciful, and never could work to the purpose, because he was ever conceiving some new improvement, that answered no end. The other I doubt is absolutely idle. I have recommended a number to him from hence, but must stop my hand.

Adieu, my dear Polly, and believe me, as ever, with the sincerest esteem and regard, your truly affectionate friend and humble servant.

To his wife, dated New York, 16 June, 1763.

We left Woodbridge on Tuesday morning, and went to Elizabethtown, where I found our children returned from the Falls, and very

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