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them, M. M. I. B. Say; M. Ganilh, have treated, in an interesting, and perspicuous manner, of different branches of political economy. The Elements of Legislation, published by M. Perrau, are not unworthy of being quoted. The author of a work, honoured with the prize of utility, which the French Academy used to decree, M. Pastoret, in developing the prin. ciples of penal legislation, thought that he could determine how the law should proceed, in order to be humane, when it should strike to be just, and where it should stop to be useful. We remark in the works of M. de Lacretelle, a brilliant and celebrated discourse, on the nature of ignominious punishments. All these writers have kept pace with the rea : son of the age, and some have accelerated its progress.
Before we proceed to the oratorical art, in which we again find policy and legislation presented under new forms to France, we shall have to mention a Treatise on the Eloquence of the Pulpit, a book itself eloquent, in which Cardinal Maury gives excellent precepts, after having exhibited striking examples.
In literary criticism, several writers furnish us with profound studies, and judicious comments on our great classicks : M. Cailhava, on Moliere ; M. Palissot, on Corneille and on Voltaire ; Chamfort, on Lafontaine, whom he had, while young, made the subject of a charming eulogy; and Laharpe, on Racine, whom he had also worthily praised before. We do not omit remarking numerous additions to the Literary Memoirs of M. Palissot, a work frequently instructive, and always written with uncommon elegance. Nor do we forget the labours of M. Ginguéné, on Italian literature, a considerable and useful work, already in a state of great forwardness. Here the last volumes of Laharpe's Course present themselves, with his Correspondence in Russia. After having done justice to the indisputable talents of that man of letters, now no more, we shall be obliged to point out the extreme severity with which he thought himself authorized to treat his contemporaries, and particularly his rivals ; his unreserved censure, which is scarcely ever just; the pleasure of condemning, which discredits an able censor ; his injustice often palpable; and even in a just cause his offensive bitterness so opposite to French urbanity. On this occasion, Sire, we shall examine the rules of sound criticism, and in so doing, we engage to observe them in the whole course of our work; and
perhaps it may be of importance to repeat them, when they appear to be forgotten.
In the oratorical art, at the commencement of our period, appears a collection of the funeral orations and sermons, by Beauvais, bishop of Senez, a prelate indebted for his dignities, to his merit; and who sometimes shewed himself the worthy successor of Bossuet, and Massillon. The French bar appeared impoverished, when its supporters enriched the tribune. At this term our memory recurs with pain to turbulent assemblies. We shall hasten through them, Sire, to avoid numerous shoals. We shall be able to conform ourselves to the views manifested by your equity and wisdom ; and forced to recollect that factions existed, we shall not forget that there were also talents. We begin with that celebrated orator, who, gifted with a mind as vigorous as flexible, attached his perso. nal renown to almost all the labours of the constituent assembly. After Mirabeau, follow those who combatted his opinions with energy, the Cardinal Maury, Cazalès ; those who suca cessfully supported him, Chapelier, Barnave, and M. Regnault de Saint Jean d'Angely, who still displays, in the hall where we are now admitted, that precision and perspicuity, which peculiarly distinguish his eloquence. Could we forget the number of able civilians, who have applied the oratorical art, to the different objects of legislation. Thouret, Tronchet, rivals worthy of each other; Camus, who to great knowledge joined great austerity of manners ; Target, M. Merlin, M. Treilhard, whose extensive learning has enlightened the tribunals? We pay homage to the plan of publick instruction, that monument of literary glory, erected by M. de Talleyrand ; a work, in which all the philosophick ideas are embel. lished by all the charms of style. The subsequent assemblies furnish us with two works of uncommon merit, of the same kind; the one by the profound Condorcet, the other by M. Daunou, whose useful labours, eloquence, and modesty, have been esteemed by several legislatures.' We remark in the same assemblies, orators who united to a courageous probity, a diction both pathetick and imposing : Vergniaux, for instance; M. Français de Nantes, M. Boissy d'Anglas, M. Garat, Portalis, M. Simeon, and that able statesman so eminent for jurisprudence, and the oratorical art, so elevated amongst the great dignitaries of the empire.
In the camps, where, remote from the calamities of the interior, the national glory was preserved unsullied; there arose another species of eloquence, until then unknown to modern nations. It must even be admitted, when we read in the wri. ters of antiquity, the harangues of the most renowned chiefs, we are often tempted to admire only the genius of the historians. But here, doubt is impossible; the monuments exist; history has only to collect them. From the army of Italy proceeded those beautiful proclamations, in which the conqueror of Lodi and Arcole, at the same time that he created a new art of war, created the military eloquence of which he will remain the model. This eloquence, like Fortune accompanying him, resounded through the city of Alexandria, in Egypt, where Pompey perished ; through Syria, which received the last breath of Germanicus. Subsequently in Germany, in Poland, in the midst of the astonished capitals, Vienna, Berlin, Warsaw, it was faithful to the hero of Austerlitz, of Jena, of Friedland; while in the language of honour, so well under. stood by the French armies, from the bosom of victory, he still commanded victory, and inspired heroism.
At the moment, when men of science and literature, long tossed about by storms, found refuge in a new asylum; and particularly at the epoch, when your Majesty, improving the Institute, honoured it with your special favour: academical eloquence soon began to revive, and to flourish again. That species of composition, the various models of which belong exclusively to the literature of the last century, is not contracted within narrower limits. Two illustrious writers, Thomas and M. Garat, have proved, that in certain subjects, it admits of grand images, and of the most beautiful movements of oratory. The art also often consists in avoiding them. But it always requires elegance and regularity in the forms, perspicuity, justness, and a happy harmony between the ideas and the expressions. These qualities have been found combined, in the discourses which M, Suard delivered, as perpe tual secretary, in the name of the class of French Literature ;' and the same functions have been performed with equal success, in the name of the other classes. M. Arnault, on several solemn occasions, has infused great interest into subjects of publick instruction.
(To be continued.)
THERMOMETRICAL OBSERVATIONS, &c. JANUARY, 1811.
Fall of Mean heat. heat. heat.
rain. 23° 150 19° Cloudy. 40 26 32.71 Snow, say 1 inch.
| 25.67 Snow, say 4 inches. 38
34.33 Cloudy, mist. 36 45 Foggy.
56 83 Broken clouds. 8 58
Do. fair, cloudy, 42.14 Foggy. [misty. 31.25 Sleet, snow, 1 inch.
29 Cloudy, fair, cloudy. 40
say 5 inch.
Train. 2.8 6
14.50 Do. cloudy, snow. 1
30.67 Do. cloudy. Nax 28 30 116 23.75 Hazy, fair.
Y 291 27
20.33 (Fair. 301 41
31.87 Do. cloudy. 311 44 34 40 Snow, thaw.
Total of rain 0,3 Inches.
7th. Greatest heat 61o2,
The diurnal mean heat is deduced from a number of observations made from 7 o'clock, A. M. to 10 o'clock, P. M. Slight rains, or snows, and those of no visible depth. .
FOR FEBRUARY, 1811.
NEW WORKS. *Letter to the Hon. Samuel Mitchell, M. D. Representative in Con. gress from the City of New-York ; professor of Natural History, &c. on the danger of putting money into the United States' and Manhattan Banks, with sundry novel speculations on Insurance stock, domestic manufactures, and the best mode of vesting a capital “so as to make both ends meet.” By Abimelech Coody, Esq. Ladies' shoemaker. New-York.
A Geographical Sketch of the principal places mentioned in Sacred History. By Elizabeth Peabody, Preceptress of a young ladies academy in Salem. Boston, Charles Metcalf.
An Essay on the Atonement, being an attempt to answer the question, Did Christ die for all mankind ? " Come, for all things are now ready." By a friend to truth. New York, Samuel Whiting & Co.
An Essay on the establishment of a Chancery Jurisdiction in Massa. chusetts ; addressed to the Legislature of Massachusetts, with the hum. ble request that they may be duly examined. By a Fellow-citizen. Bos. ton, D. Mallory & Co.
Travels in Mexico and other parts of America ; by the celebrated Baron Humboldt. Translated from the original French, by John Black. New-York, Samuel Whiting & Co.
*A Digest of the Powers and Duties of Sheriffs, Coroners, Constables, and Collectors of Taxes. By Rodolphus Dickenson, Attorney at Law.
NEW EDITIONS. A Practical Treatise on Pleading, in Assumpsit. By Edward Lawes, Esq. of the loner Temple, Barrister at Law. With the addition of the decisions of the American Courts. By Joseph Story. Boston, James W. Burditt & Co.
The Massachusetts Justice : being a collection of the Laws of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, relative to the power and duty of Jus. tices of the Peace ; to which are added, a' variety of forms grounded on the said laws. Intended for the use of those who practice in the office of a Justice, tojassist them in the various duties thereto belonging. Third edition, much improved. By Samuel Freeman, Esq. Compiler of the Town Officer, Probate Directory, and American Clerk's Magazine, Boston ; Thomas and Andrews.
Christ's Warning to the Churches, to beware of False Prophets, who came as Wolves in Sheep's Cloathing; and the marks by which they are known. Illustrated in two Discourses, with an Appendix. By Joseph Lathrop, Pastor of the First Church in West Springfield. Eleventh edi. tion, revised, corrected, and much enlarged. Boston ; Lincoln and Ed. mands.
*No trust in dying man. A sermon, delivered at Oakham, September 7, 1810, at the funeral of Mr. Daniel Tomlinson, jun. aged twenty-three years, eldest son of the Rev. Daniel Tomlinson. By Thomas Snell, pas
*Such books, pamphlets, etc. as are designated by this mark (*) may be found at the Boston Athenaeum.