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foot, and repeating them with great || prayers, to make the office look devotion; and it is pretended that more awful and venerable to the by this means several countries people. At length, things were were delivered from great cala- carried to such a pitch, that a mities. The days on which they regulation became necessary; and were used were called Rogation it was found necessary to put the days: these were appointed by the service and the manner of percanons of different councils, till it forming it into writing, and this was decreed by the council of was what they called a liturgy. Toledo, that they should be used Liturgies have been different at every month throughout the year; different times and in different and thus, by degrees, they came countries. We have the liturgy of to be used weekly on Wednesdays St. Chrysostom, of St. Peter, the and Fridays, the ancient stationary Armenian liturgy, Gallican liturdays for fasting. To these days gy, &c. &c. "The properties rethe rubrick of the church of Eng-quired in a public liturgy," says land has added Sundays, as being the greatest day for assembling at divine service. Before the last review of the common prayer, the litany was a distinct service by itself, and used sometimes after the morning prayer was over; at pre-as possible." The liturgy of the sent, it is made one office with the morning service, being ordered to be read after the third collect for grace, instead of the intercessional prayers in the daily service.


Paley, "are these: it must be compendious; express just conceptions of the Divine attributes; recite such wants as a congregation are likely to feel, and no other; and contain as few controverted propositions

church of England was composed in the year 1547, and established in the second year of king Edward VI. In the fifth year of this king it was reviewed, because some things were contained in that liturgy which shewed a compliance with the superstition of those times, and some exceptions were taken against it by some learned men at home, and by Calvin abroad. Some alterations were made in it, which consisted in adding the neral confession and absolution, and the communion to begin with the ten commandments. The use of oil in confirmation and extreme


LITURGY denotes all the ceremonies in general belonging to divine service. The word comes from the Greek lepya, "service, public ministry," formed of Asilos, public," and plov, "work." In a more restrained signification, liturgy is used among the Romanists to signify the mass, and among us the common prayer. All who have written on liturgies agree, that, in primitive days, divine service was exceedingly sim-unction was left out, and also ple, clogged with a very few cere- prayers for souls departed, and monies, and consisted of bút a what related to a belief of Christ's small number of prayers; but, by real presence in the eucharist. degrees, they increased the num-This liturgy, so reformed, was estaber of ceremonies, and added new blished by the acts of 5th and 6th

Edward VI, cap. 1. However, it || others think that Lollard was no surname, but merely a term of reproach applied to all heretics who concealed the poison of error under the appearance of piety.

was abolished by queen Mary, who enacted, that the service should stand as it was most commonly used in the last year of the reign of king Henry VIII. That The monk of Canterbury deof Edward VI was re-established, rives the origin of the word lolwith some few alterations, by Eli- lard among us from lolium, "a zabeth. Some farther alterations tare," as if the Lollards were the were introduced, in consequence tares sown in Christ's vineyard. of the review of the common Abelly says, that the word signi prayer book, by order of king fies "praising God," from the James, in the first year of his German loben, " to praise," and reign, particularly in the office of herr, "lord;" because the Lolprivate baptism, in several ru- lards employed themselves in trabricks, and other passages, with the velling about from place to place, addition of five or six new prayers singing psalms and hymns. Others, and thanksgivings, and all that much to the same purpose, derive part of the catechism which con-lollhard, lullhard, or lollert, lultains the doctrine of the sacra- lert, as it was written by the anments. The book of common cient Germans, from the old Gerprayer, so altered, remained in man word lullen, lollen, or lallen, force from the first year of king and the termination hard, with James to the fourteenth of Charles which many of the high Dutch II. The last review of the liturgy words end. Lollen signifies "to was in the year 1661. Many sup- sing with a low voice," and thereplications have been since made fore lollard is a singer, or one who for a review, but without success. frequently sings; and in the vulBingham's Orig. Eccl., 13; gar tongue of the Germans it deBroughton's Dict.; Bennet, Ro-notes a person who is continually binson, and Clarkson, on Liturg. praising God with a song, or singpassim ; A Letter to a Dissenting ing hymns to his honour. Minister on the Expediency of Forms, and Brekell's Answer; Rogers's Lectures on the Liturgy of the Church of England; Biddulph's Essays on the Liturgy.

LOLLARDS, a religious sect, differing in many points from the church of Rome, which arose in Germany about the beginning of the fourteenth century; so called, as many writers have imagined, from Walter Lollard, who began to dogmatize in 1815, and was burnt at Cologne; though

The Alexians or Cellites were called Lollards, because they were public singers, who made it their business to inter the bodies of those who died of the plague, and sang a dirge over them, in a mournful and indistinct tone, as they carried them to the grave. The name was afterwards assumed by persons that dishonoured it; for we find among those Lollards who made extraordinary pretences to religion, and spent the greatest part of their time in meditation, prayer, and such acts

Lollard and his followers re

of piety, there were many abo-year 1472, obtained a solemn minable hypocrites, who enter-bull from pope Sixtus IV, ordertertained the most ridiculous opi- ing that the Cellites, or Lollards, nions, and concealed the most should be ranked among the religienormous vices under the specious ous orders, and delivered from the mark of this extraordinary pro- jurisdiction of the bishops. And fession. Many injurious asper- pope Julius II granted them still sions were therefore propagated greater privileges, in the year against those who assumed this 1506. Mosheim informs us, that name by the priests and monks; many societies of this kind are so that, by degrees, any person still subsisting at Cologne, and in who covered heresies or crimes the cities of Flanders, though under the appearance of piety they have evidently departed from was called a Lollard. Thus the their ancient rules. name was not used to denote any one particular sect, but was for-jected the sacrifice of the mass, merly common to all persons and sects who were supposed to be guilty of impiety towards God or the church, under an external profession of great piety. However, many societies, consisting both of men and women, under the name of Lollards, were formed in most parts of Germany and Flanders, and were supported partly by their manual labours, and partly by the charitable donations of pious persons. The magistrates and inhabitants of the towns where these brethren and sisters resided gave them particular marks of favour and protection, on account of their great usefulness to the sick and needy. They were thus supported against their malignant rivals, and obtained many papal constitutions, LORD'S DAY. See SABBATH. by which their institute was conLORD'S NAME TAKEN. firmed, their persons exempted IN VAIN, consists, first, in using from the cognizance of the inqui- it lightly or rashly, in exclamations, sitor, and subjected entirely to the adjurations, and appeals in common jurisdiction of the bishops; but as conversation.-2. Hypocritically these measures were insufficient to in our prayers, thanksgivings, &c. secure them from molestation,-3. Superstitiously, as when the Charles duke of Burgundy, in the Israelites carried the ark to the

extreme unction, and penances for sin; arguing that Christ's sufferings were sufficient. He is likewise said to have set aside baptism, as a thing of no effect; and repentance as not absolutely necessary, &c. In England, the followers of Wickliffe were called, by way of reproach, Lollards, from the supposition that there was some affinity between some of their tenets; though others are of opinion that the English Lollards came from Germany. See WICKLIFFITES.


LORD, a term properly denoting who has dominion. Applied to God, the supreme governor and disposer of all things. See God.

only swearing, but, perhaps, in some respects, swearing of the worst sort; as it is a direct breach of an express command, and offends against the very letter of that law which says, in so many words, 'Thou shalt not take the name of the Lord thy God in vain.' It offends against politeness and good breeding, for those who commit it little think of the pain they are inflicting on the sober mind, which is deeply wounded when it hears the holy name it loves dishonoured: and it is as contrary to good breeding to give pain, as it is to true pity to be profane. It is astonishing that the refined and elegant should not reprobate this practice for its coarseness and vulgarity, as much as the pious abhor it for its sinfulness.

field of battle, to render them successful against the Philistines, 1st Sam. iv, 3, 5.-4. Wantonly, in swearing by him, or creatures in his stead, Matt. v, 34, 37.-5. Angrily, or sportfully cursing, and devoting ourselves or others to mischief and damnation.-6. Perjuring ourselves, attesting that which is false, Mal. iii, 5.-7. Blasphemously reviling God, or causing others to do so, Rom. ii, 24. Perhaps there is no sin more common as to the practice, and less thought of as to the guilt of it, than this. Nor is it thus common with the vulgar only, but with those who call themselves wise, humane, and moral. They tremble at the idea of murder, theft, adultery, &c., while they forget that the same law which prohibits the commission of these "I would endeavour to give crimes, does, with equal force, some faint idea of the grossness of forbid that of profaning his name. this offence by an analogy, (oh! No man, therefore, whatever his how inadequate!) with which the sense, abilities, or profession may feeling heart, even though not seabe, can be held guiltless, or be ex-soned with religion, may yet be onerated from the charge of being touched. To such I would eara wicked man, while he lives in the nestly say-Suppose you had some habitual violation of this part of beloved friend,-to put the case God's sacred law. A very cele- still more strongly, a departed brated female writer justly ob- friend,-a revered parent, perserves, that "It is utterly INEX-haps,-whose image never CUSABLE; it has none of the palliatives of temptation which other vices plead, and in that respect stands distinguished from all others both in its nature and degree of guilt. Like many other sins, how-familiarity and indecent levity; ever, it is at once cause and effect; it proceeds from want of love and reverence to the best of Beings, and causes the want of that love both in themselves and others. This species of profaneness is not


curs without awaking in your bosom sentiments of tender love and lively gratitude; how would you feel if you heard this honoured name bandied about with unfeeling

or, at best, thrust into every pause of speech as a vulgar expletive? Does not your affectionate heart recoil at the thought? And yet the hallowed name of your truest Benefactor, your heavenly Fa

ther, your best Friend, to whom | always our duty to pray that you are indebted for all you en- Christ's kingdom may be advancjoy; who gives you those very ed in the world, and to profess friends in whom you so much de-our daily dependence on God's light, those very talents with providential care. Nevertheless, which you dishonour him, those there is no reason to believe that very organs of speech with which Christ meant that his people you blaspheme him, is treated should always use this as a set with an irreverence, a contempt, form; for if that had been the a wantonness, with which you case, it would not have been varied cannot bear the very thought or as it is by the two evangelists, mention of treating a human Matt. vi, Luke xi. It is true, infriend. His name is impiously, deed, that they both agree in the is unfeelingly, is ungratefully sin-main, as to the sense, yet not in gled out as the object of decided the express words; and the doxoirreverence, of systematic con-logy which Matthew gives at large. tempt, of thoughtless levity. His is wholly left out in Luke. And, sacred name is used indiscrim- besides, we do not find that the inately to express anger, joy, disciples ever used it as a form. grief, surprise, impatience; and It is, however, a most excellent what is almost still more unpar-summary of prayer, for its brevity, donable than all, it is wantonly order, and matter; and it is very used as a mere unmeaning expletive, which, being excited by no temptation, can have nothing to extenuate it; which, causing no emotion, can have nothing to recommend it, unless it be the pleasure of the sin." Mrs. Moore on Education, vol. ii, p. 87; Gill's Body of Div., vol. iii, page 427; Brown's Syst. of Relig., p. promote on each side more moLORD'S PRAYER, is that which our Lord gave to his disciples on the Mount. According to what is said in the sixth chapter of Matthew, it was given as a direc-ton's Explanation of it; West on the tory; but, from Luke xi, 1. some argue that it was given as a form. Some have urged that the second and fourth petition of that prayer could be intended only for temporary use; but it is answered, that such a sense may be put up-nance which our Saviour instituted on those petitions as shall suit all as a commemoration of his death Christians in all ages; for it is and sufferings. I. It is called a VOL. II.


lawful and laudable to make use of any single petition, or the whole of it, provided a formal and superstitious use of it be avoided. That great zeal, as one observes, which is to be found in some Christians either for or against it, is to be lamented as a weakness; and it will become us to do all that we can

derate sentiments concerning the use of it. See Doddridge's Lectures, lec. 194; Barrow's Works, vol. i, p. 48; Archbishop Leigh

Lord's Prayer; Gill's Body of Divinity, vol. iii, p. 362, 8vo.; Fordyce on Edificution by Public Instruction, page 11, 12; Mendam's Exposition of the Lord's Prayer. LORD'S SUPPER is an ordi

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