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Manes borrowed many things from the ancient Gnostics; on which account many authors consider the Manicheans as a branch of the Gnostics.

In truth, the Manichean doctrine was a system of philosophy rather than of religion. They made use of amulets, in imitation of the Basilidians; and are said to have made profession of astronomy and astrology. They denied that Jesus Christ, who was only God, assumed a true human body, and maintained it was only imaginary; and therefore they denied his incarnation, death, &c. They pretended that the law of Moses did not come from God, or the good principle, but from the evil one; and that for this reason it was abro

not in reality, but only in appear-vent their ever renewing a war in ance, and according to the opi- the regions of light. nion of men. When the purposes of Christ were accomplished, he returned to his throne in the sun, appointing apostles to propagate his religion, and leaving his followers the promise of the paraclete or comforter, who is Manes the Persian. Those souls who believe Jesus Christ to be the Son of God renounce the worship of the god of the Jews, who is the prince of darkness, and obey the laws delivered by Christ, and illustrated by Manes the comforter, are gradully purified from the contagion of matter: and their purification being completed, after having passed through two states of trial, by water and fire, first in the moon and then in the sun, their bodies return to the original mass (for the Manicheans derided the resurrec-gated. They rejected almost all tion of bodies), and their souls ascend to the regions of light. But the souls of those who have neglected the salutary work of puri-ed that the Old Testament was fication pass after death into the bodies of other animals and natures, where they remain till they have accomplished their probation. Some, however, more perverse and obstinate, are consigned to a severer course of trial, being delivered over for a time to the power of malignant aerial spirits, who torment them in various ways. After this, a fire shall break forth and consume the frame of the world; and the prince and powers of darkness shall return to their primitive seats of anguish and misery, in which they shall dwell for ever. These mansions shall be surrounded by an invinciple guard, to pre-only took so much of them as

the sacred books in which Christians look for the sublime truths of their holy religion. They affirm

not the work of God, but of the prince of darkness, who was substituted by the Jews in the place of the true God. They abstained entirely from eating the flesh of any animal; following herein the doctrine of the ancient Pithagoreans: they also condemned marriage. The rest of their errors may be seen in St. Epiphanius and St. Augustine; which last, having been of their sect, may be presumed to have been thoroughly acquainted with them.

Though the Manichees professed to receive the books of the New Testament, yet in effect they

suited with their own opinions. wealth; to feed on flesh, to enter They first formed to themselves a into the bonds of conjugal tencertain idea or scheme of Chris- derness; but this liberty was tianity; and to this adjusted the granted them with many limitawritings of the apostles, pretend- tions, and under the strictest coning that whatever was inconsistent ditions of moderation and tempewith this had been foisted into the rance. The general assembly of New Testament by the later wri- Manicheans was headed by a preters, who were half Jews. On sident, who represented Jesus the other hand, they made fa- Christ. There were joined to him bles and apocryphal books pass twelve rulers or masters, who were for apostolical writings; and even designed to represent the twelve are suspected to have forged seve- apostles; and these were followed ral others, the better to maintain by seventy-two bishops,the images their errors. St. Epiphanius gives of the seventy-two disciples of our a catalogue of several pieces pub-Lord. These bishops had presbylished by Manes, and adds ex-ters or deacons under them, and tracts out of some of them. all the members of these religious These are the Mysteries, Chap-orders were chosen out of the ters, Gospel, and Treasury. class of the elect. Their worship The rule of life and manners was simple and plain, and consistwhich Manes prescribed to his fol-ed of prayers, reading the scriplowers was most extravagantly ri- tures, and hearing public disgorous and severe. However, he courses, at which both the audidivided his disciples into two tors and elect were allowed to be classes; one of which comprehend-present., They also observed the ed the perfect Christian, under the name of the elect; and the other the imperfect and feeble, under the title of auditors or hearers, The elect were obliged to rigorous and entire abstinence from flesh, eggs, milk, fish, wine, all intoxicating drink, wedlock, and all amorous gratifications; and to live in a state of the severest pe-in proportion as they were disconury, nourishing their emaciated bodies with bread, herbs, pulse, and melons, and depriving themselves of all the comforts that arise from the moderate indulgence of natural passions, and also from a variety of innocent and agreeable pursuits. The auditors were allowed to possess houses, lands, and

Christian appointment of baptism, and the eucharist. They kept the Lord's day, observing it as a fast; and they likewise kept Easter and the Pentecost.

Towards the fourth century the Manicheans concealed themselves under various names, which they successively adopted, and changed

vered by them. Thus they assumed the names of Encratites, Apotactics, Saccophori, Hydroparastates, Solitaries, and several others, under which they lay concealed for a certain time, but could not, however, long escape the vigilance of their enemies. About the close of the sixth century, this

sect gained a very considerable influence, particularly among the


civility. Good manners, according to Swift, is the art of making those people easy with whom we conToward the middle of the verse. Pride, ill-nature, and want twelfth century, the sect of Mani- of sense, are the three great sources chees took a new face, on account of ill manners. Without some one of one Constantine, an American, of these defects no man will beand an adherer to it; who took have himself ill for want of expeupon him to suppress the reading rience; or of what, in the lanof all other books besides the guage of some, is called knowing evangelists and the epistles of St. the world. For the effect that Paul, which he explained in such Christianity has on the manners of - a manner as to make them con-men, see article CHRISTIANITY. tain a new system of Manicheism. MARCELLIANS, a sect of He entirely discarded all the writ- ancient heretics, towards the close ings of his predecessors; reject-of the second century; so called ing the chimeras of the Valentini-from Marcellus of Ancyra, their ans, and their thirty æons; the fa- leader, who was accused of revivble of Manes, with regard to the ing the errors of Sabellius. Some, origin of rain, and other dreams; however, are of opinion that but still retained the impurities of Marcellus was orthodox, and that Basilides. In this manner he re- they were his enemies the Arians formed Manicheism, insomuch who fathered their errors upon that his followers made no scruple him. St. Epiphanius observes, of anathematizing Scythian, Bud- that there was a great deal of disdas, called also Addas and Terre- pute with regard to the real tenets binth, the contemporaries and dis-of Marcellus; but as to his folciples, as some say, and, accord-lowers it is evident that they did ing to others, the predecessors and masters of Manes, and even Manes himself; Constantine being now their great apostle. After he had seduced an infinite number of people, he was at last stoned by order of the emperor.

This sect prevailed in Bosnia and the adjacent provinces about the close of the fifteenth century; propagated their doctrine with confidence, and held their religious assemblies with impunity.

MANNERS: the plural noun has various significations; as the general way of life, the morals or the habits of any persons; also ceremonial behaviour or studied VOL. II.


not own the three hypostases; for Marcellus considered the Son and Holy Ghost as two emanations from the Divine nature, which, after performing their respective offices, were to return again into the substance of the Father; and this opinion is altogether incompatible with the belief of three distinct persons in the Godhead.

MARCIONITES, or MARCIONISTS, Marcionista, a very ancient and popular sect of heretics, who, in the time of Epiphanius, were spread over Italy, Egypt, Palestine, Syria, Arabia, Persia, and other countries: they were thus denominated from their au

of wedlock, wine, flesh, and all the external comforts of life.

Marcion denied the real birth,

thor Marcion. Marcion was of Pontus, the son of a bishop, and at first made profession of the monastical life; but he was excom-incarnation, and passion of Jesus municated by his own father, who would never admit him again into communion with the church, not even on his repentance. On this he abandoned his own country, and retired to Rome, where he began to broach his doctrines.

Christ, and held them to be apparent only. He denied the resurrection of the body, and allowed none to be baptized but those who preserved their continence; but these he granted might be baptized three times. In many things he followed the sentiments of the heretic Cerdon, and rejected the law and the prophets. He pretended the gospel had been corrupted by false prophets, and allowed none of the evangelists but St. Luke, whom also he altered in many places as well as the epistles of St. Paul, a great many things in which he threw out. In his own copy of St. Luke he threw out the two first chapters entire.

He laid down two principles, the one good, the other evil; between these he imagined an intermediate kind of Deity, of a mixed nature, who was the Creator of this inferior world, and the god and legislator of the Jewish nation: the other nations, who worshipped a variety of gods, were supposed to be under the empire of the evil principle. These two conflicting powers exercise oppressions upon rational and immortal souls; and therefore the supreme God, to deliver them from bondage, sent to the Jews a Being more like unto himself, even his Son Jesus Christ, clothed with a certain shadowy resemblance of a body: this celestial messenger was attacked by the prince of darkness, and by the god of the Jews, but without effect. Those who follow the directions of this celestial conductor, mortify the body by fastings and austerities, and renounce the pre-ments, on women. cepts of the god of the Jews, and of the prince of darkness, shall after death ascend to the mansions of felicity and perfection. The rule of manners which Marcion prescribed to his followers was excessively austere, containing an express prohibition

MARCITES, MARCITE, a sect of heretics in the second century, who also called themselves the perfecti, and made profession of doing every thing with a great deal of liberty and without fear. This doctrine they borrowed from Simon Magus, who however was not their chief; for they were. called Marcites from one Marcus, who conferred the priesthood, and the administration of the sacra

MARCOSIANS, or COLOBARSIANS, an ancient sect in the church, making a branch of the Valentinians.

St. Irenæus speaks at large of the leader of this sect, Marcus, who it seems was reputed a great magician. The Marcosians had a

great number of apocryphal books which they held for canonical, and of the same authority with our's. Out of these they picked several idle fables touching the infancy of Jesus Christ, which they put off for true histories. Many of these fables are still in use and credit among the Greek monks.

from the most authentic records, viz. that the Maronites retained the opinions of the Monothelites until the twelfth century, when, abandoning and renouncing the doctrine of one will in Christ, they were re-admitted in the year 1182 to the communion of the Roman church. The most learned of the modern Maronites have left no method unemployed to de

MARONITES, in ecclesiastical history, a sect of eastern Chris-fend their church against this actians who follow the Syrian rite, cusation: they have laboured to and are subject to the pope; their principal habitation being on Mount Libanus.

Mosheim informs us, that the doctrine of the Monothelites, condemned and exploded by the council of Constantinople, found a place of refuge among the Mardaites, a people who inhabited the Mounts Libanus and Atilibanus, and who, about the conclusion of the seventh century, were called Maronites, after Maro, their first bishop; a name which they still retain. None (he says) of the ancient writers give any account of the first person who instructed these mountaineers in the doctrine of the Monothelites: it is probable, however, from several circumstances, that it was John Maro, whose name they adopted; and that this ecclesiastic received the name of Maro from his having lived in the character of a monk in the famous convent of St. Maro, upon the borders of the Orontes, before his settlement among the Mardaites of Mount Libanus. One thing is certain, from the testimony of Tyrius and other unexceptionable witnesses, as also

prove, by a variety of testimonies, that their ancestors always persevered in the Catholic faith,, in their attachment to the Roman pontiff, without ever adopting the doctrine of the Monophysites, or Monothelites. But all their efforts are insufficient to prove the truth of these assertions to such as have any acquaintance with the history of the church and the records of ancient times; for to all such the testimonies they allege will appear absolutely fictitious, and destitute of authority.

Faustus Nairon, a Maronite settled at Rome, has published an apology for Maro and the rest of his nation. His tenet is, that they really took their name from the Maro, who lived about the year 400, and of whom mention is made in Chrysostom, Theodoret, and the Menologium of the Greeks. He adds, that the disciples of this Maro spread themselves throughout all Syria; that they built several monasteries, and among others one that bore the name of their leader; that all the Syrians who were not tainted with heresy took refuge among them;

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