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THE DIFFERENT SCIENCES AND ARTS

Are digested into the FORM of Distinct
TREA TISES OR SYSTEMS,

COMPREHENDINO

The HISTORY, THEORY, and PRAGTIGE, of each,
according to the Latest Discoveries and Improvements;

AND FULL EXPLANATIONS GIVEN OF THE
VARIOUS DETACHED PARTS OF KNOWLEDGE,

WHETHER RELATING TO

NATURAL and ARTIFICIAL Objects, or to Matters ECCLESIASTICAL,

Civil, MILITARY, COMMERCIAL, doc.
Including ELUCIDATIONS of the most important Topics relative to RELIGION, -MORALE.

MANNERS, and the OECONOMY of LIFE:-

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TOGITNER WITI

A DESCRIPTION of all the Countries, Cities, principal Mountains, Seas, Rivers, &c.

throughout the WORLD;
A General HISTORY, Ancient and Modern, of the different Empires, Kingdoms, and States;

AND

An Account of the Lives of the most Eminent Persons in every Nation,

from the earlieft ages down to the present times.

Compiled from the writings of the bes Authors, in several languages ; tbe most approved Di&ionaries, as well of generul science as of its partia
cular brancbes ; tbe Tranfaétions, Journals, and Memoirs, of Learned Societies, betb at home and abroad; tbe MS. Lectures of

Eminent Professors on different sciences; and a variety of Original Materials, furnished by on Extonfise Correspondence.

THE THIRD EDITION, IN EIGHTEEN VOLUMES, GREATLY IMPROVED.

ILLUSTRATED WITH FIVE HUNDRED AND FORTY-TWO COPPERPLATES.

VOL. XIV.

INDOCTI DISCANT, ET AMANT MEMINISS & PKRITI.

E DIN BURG H..
PRINTED FOR A. BELL AND C. MACFARQUHAR,

MDCCXCVIL.

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Entered in Stationers Hall in Cerms of the ad of Parliament.

5

ENCYCLOPÆDIA BRITANNICA.

Palliflora. P the pentandria order, belonging to the gynandria held in great veneration in some foreign Catholic coun-
PAS

PAS
ASSIFLORA, or PASSION-FLOWER: A genus of daily on the same plant.-- This plant and flowers are Pallifiora,

Palion.
class of plants; and in the natural method ranking under tries, where the religious make the leaves, tendriis,
the 34th order, Cucurbitacea. The calyx is pentaphyl- and different parts of the flower, to represent the ins
lous; there are five petals ; the nectarium a crown; ftruments of our blesed Saviour's paffion; hence the
the berry is pedicillated. There are near 30 different name palliflora.
fpecies; all of them natives of warm foreign countries, 2. The incarnata, incarnated, or fela coloured Ita-
only one of which is sufficiently hardy to succeed well lian passion-flower, hath a strong perennial root; nens
in the open ground here; all the others requiring the der, herbaceous ftalks, rifing upon fupport four or five
fhelter of a green-house or stove, but chiefly the latter. feet high ; leaves compofel of three lawed lobes, each
The most remarkable are,

leaf attended by a twining tendril; and at the axillas
1. The cærulea, or blue-rayed common palmated long slender pedunculi, terminatel each by one whitish
paffion-flower, hath long slender, fhrubby, purplish- flower, having a greenith calyx, and a red lith or purple
green stalks, branchy, and ascending upon support by radiated nectarium, surrounding the column of the
their claspers 30 or 40 feet high; with one large palfructification, which fucceed to a large, round, felhy
mated leaf at each joint, and at the axillas large spread fruit, ripening to a beautiful orange colour, --The
ing flowers, with whitish-green petals, and a blue ra. flowers of this species are also very beautiful, though
diated nectarium ; succeeded by a large, oval, yellow. of short duration, opening in the morning, and night
ith fruit. It flowers from July until October; the puts a period to their beauty ; but they are succeeded
flowers are very large, conspicuous, and their compo by a daily supply of new ones. The fruit of this fort
fition is exceedingly curious and beautiful. The gene. is also very ornamental, as ripening to a fine reddith
ral fru&ure of the fingular flowers of this plant is, orange colour ; but these rarely attain perfe&tion here,
they come out at the axillas on pedunculi about three unless the plants are placed in the stove; therefore
inches long, which they terminate, each flower having when there is such accommodation, it highly merits
just close under the calyx a three-loled involucrum-like that indulgence, where it will exhibit both Aowers
appendage ; a five-lobed calyx, and a five-petalous co and green and ripe fruit, all at the same time, in a
rolla, the fize, figure, and colour of the calyx, &c. the beautiful manner.
petals arranging a'ternately with the calicinal lobes ; 3. The vespertilio, or bat's-wing paffion-Aower, hath
the whole, including the involucrum, calyx, ar.i corol. fender, ftriated, branchy Atalks ; large, bilobate, or
la, make juft 13 lobes ant! petals, all expanded Aat: two-lobed leaves, the tale roundith and glandular,
and within the corolla is the nectarium, composed of a the lobes acute, widely divaricated like a bat's wings,
multitude of thread-like fibres, of a blue and purple and dotted underneath ; and axillary flowers, having
colour, disposed in circular rays round the column of white petals and rays. The leaves of this species have
the fructification ; the outer ray is the longest, flat, a fingular appearance, the two lobes being expanded
and spreading on the petals ; the inner is short, erect, fix or feven inches wide, resembling the wings of a bat
and narrows towards the centre: in the middle is an upon fight; hence the name vespertilio.
érect cylindric club-shaped column or pillar, crowned As all the species are natives of warm climates, in
with the roundith germen, having at its base five hori. this country they are mostly of a tender quality, except
zontal spreading filaments, crowned with incumbent the firtt fort, which fucceeds very well in the full ground,
yellow antheræ, that move about every way; and from in a warm lituation ; enly their young braaches are
the side of the germen arise three slender spreading sometimes killed in very fevere winters; but plenty of
Ayles, terminated by headed ftigmas : the germen new ones generally rise again in spring following: the
afterwards gradually becomes a large oval fleshy fruit, others, denominated flove kinds, mult always be retained
ripening to a yellowish colour.--Thefe wonderful in that repotitary:
flowers are only of one day's duration, generally spen:

PASSION, is a word of which, az Dr Reid ob-'
ing about it or 12 o'clock, and frequently in hot ferves, the meaning is not precisely atcerained either
funny weather burst open with elasticity, and continue in common discourse or in the writings of philofophers.
fully expanded all that day: and the next they gradu. In its original import, it denotes every feeling of the
ally close, affuming a decayed-like appearance, and mind occalioned by an extrinfic caufe ; but it is gene-
never open any more; the evening puts a period to 'rally used to fignify some agitation of mind, opposed
their existence, but they are succeeded by new ones to that itate of tranquillity in which a man is most
VOL. XIV, Part I.

A

master

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Paflion. mater of himself. That it was thus used by the incited to crush to atoms. Such conduct is certainly Pallior..

Greeks and Romans, is evident from Cicero's rendering not rational, and therefore it is supposed to be necer
Tabos, the word by which the philosophers of Greece farily inftinétive.
expressed it; by perturbatio in Latin. In this sense of With respect to other passions, such as the luft of
the word, pafsion cannot be itself a diftin&t and inde- power, of fame, or of knowledge, innumerable inftan-
pendent principle of action; but only an occasional de. ces, says Dr Reid, occur in life, of men who facrifice
gree

of vehemence given to those difpofitions, desires, to them their ease, their pleasure, and their health. and affe Aions, which are at all times present to the But it is absurd to suppose that men should sacrifice mind of man; and that this is its proper senfe, we need the end to what they defire only as means of promotno other proof than that passion has always been con- ing that end; and therefore he seems to think that ceived to bear analogy to a form at sea or to a tempest these paslions must be innate. To add ftrength to in the air.

this reasoning, he obferves, that we may perceive With respect to the number of passions of which the fome degree of these principles even in brute animals mind is susceptible, different opinions have been held of the more sagacious kind, who are not thought to by different authors. Le Brun, a French writer on defire means for the sake of ends which they have painting, juftly confidering the expression of the paf. in view. fons as a very important as well as difficult branch of

But it is in accounting for the passions which are his art, has enumerated no fewer than twenty, of disinterested that the advocates for innate principles which the signs may be expressed by the pencil on seem most completely to triumph. As it is impossible canvass. That there are so many different states of not to feel the passion of pity upon the prospect of a mind producing different effects which are visible on fellow.creature in distress, they argue, that the basis the features and the gestures, and that those features of that passion must be innate; because pity, being at and gestures ought to be diligently studied by the artist, all times more or less painful to the person by whom are truths which cannot be denied ; but it is absurd to it is felt, and frequently of no use to the person who consider all these different states of mind as pasions, since is its obje&, it cannot in such instances be the result tranquillity is one of them, which is the reverse of of deliberation, but merely the exertion of an original passion.

inttinet. The fame kind of reasoning is employed to The common division of the passions into defire and prove that gratitude is the exercise of an innate prin. averfion, hope and fear, joy and grief, love and hatred, ciple. That good offices are, by the very conftitution has been mentioned by every author who has treated of our nature, apt to produce good will towards the of them, and needs no explication ; but it is a question benefactor, in good and bad men, in the savage and in of some importance in the philosophy of the human the civilized, cannot surely be denied by any one in mind, whether these different passions he each a degree the least acquainted with human nature. We are grateof an original and innate dispofition, distinct from the ful not only to the benefactors of ourselves as indivi. dispositions which are respectively the foundations of duals, but also to the benefactors of our country; and the other paffions, or only different modifications of that, too, when we are conscious that from our grati. one or two general dispositions common to the whole tade neither they nor we can reap any advantage.

Nay, we are impelled to be grateful even when we The former opinion is held by all who build their have reason to believe that the objects of our gratitude system of metaphysics upon a number of diftinct inter- know not our exiftence. This passion cannot be the val senses; and the latier is the opinion of those who, effect of reasoning, or of association founded on rea. with Locke and Hartley, resolve what is commonly foning; for, in such cases as those mentioned, there called instinct into an early association of ideas. (See are no principles from which reason can infer the pro.. INSTINCT). That without deliberation mankind in- priety or usefulness of the feeling. That public spirit, ftantly feel the passion of fear upon the apprehenfion or the affection which we bear to our country, or to of danger, and the passion of anger or resentment upon any subordinate community of which we are members, the reception of an injury, are truths which cannot be is founded on inftin&t ; is deemed so certain, that the denied : and hence it is inferred, that the seeds of these man deftitute of this affection, if there be any suchy, passions are innate in the mind, and that they are not has been pronounced as great a monster as he who has generated, but only swell to magnitude on the profpe&t two heads. of their respective objects. In support of this argu All the diftinterefted passions are founded on what ment, it has been observed that children, without any philosophers have termed benevolent affection. lastead knowledge of their danger, are inftin&tively afraid on therefore of enquiring into the origin of each passion beirg placed on the brink of a precipice; and that separately, which would swell this article to no pure this passion contributes to their safety long before pose, let us listen to one of the finest writers as well as they acquire, in any degree equal to their neceflities, ableft reasoners of the age, treating of the origin of the exercise of their rational powers. Deliberate benevolent affection, • We may lay it down as a + Ejjays anger, caused by a voluntary injury, is acknowledged principle (says Dr Reid +), that all benevolent affec-tbe active to be in part founded on reason and reflection ; but tions are in their nature agreeable ; that it is essential powers of where angrer impels one suddenly to return a blow, to them to defire the good and happiness of their obeven without thinking of doing mischief, the paffios jects; and that their obje&tı must therefore be beinga is in hinctive. In proof of this, it is observed, that capable of happiness. A thing may be defired either inftinctive anger is frequently raised by bodily pain, on its own account, or as the means in order to someoccafioned even by a fteck or a ftone, which inftantly thing else. That only can properly be called an obbecomes an object of resentment, that we are violently jest of defirc which is defired upon its own account;

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Pallon. and therefore I consider as benevolent those affections we think an attentive observer may easily perceive Pallion. s only which defire the good of their object ultimately, how the seeds of it are gradually infused into the

and not as means in order to something else. To say youthful mind; when the child, from being at first a
that we desire the good of others, only to procure timid creatúre shrinking from every pain, learns by de.
fome pleasure or good to ourselves, is to say that grees to return blow for blow and threat for threat.
there is no benevolent affection in human nature. But instead of urging what appears to ourselves of
This indeed has been the opinion of some philosophers most weight againtt the inftinctive system, we shall
both in ancient and in later times. But it appears as lay before our readers a few extracts from a disserta-
udreasonable to resolve all benevolent affections into tion on the Origin of the Passions by a writer whose
felf-love, as it would be to resolve hunger and thirst elegance of language and ingenuity of investigation do
into felflove. These appetites' are necessary for the honour to the school of Hartley.
preservation of the individual. Benevolent affections “When an infant is born (says Dr Sayers *), there * Difquifi-
are no less necessary for the preservation of society is every reason to suppose that he is born without tions Meta.
among men ; without which men

, would become an ideas. These are rapidly communicated through the Lixeraty.
caly prey to the beasts of the field. The benevo. medium of the senses. The same senses are also the
lent affections planted in human nature, appear therea means of conveying to him pleasure and pain. These
fore no less necessary for the preservation of the human are the hinges on which the passions turn: and till
species than the appetites of hunger and thirft.” In the child is acquainted with these sensations, it would
a verd, pity, gratitude, friendship, love, and patrio appear that no passion could be formed in his mind;
tism, are founded on different benevolent affections ; for till he has felt pleasure and pain, how can he de-
which our learned author holds to be original parts of fire any object, or wish for its removal ? How can he
the human conftitution.

either love or hate? Let us observe then the manner This reasoning has certainly great force; and if in which love and hatred are formed; for on these authority could have any weight in settling a question paflions depend all the rest. When a child endures of this nature, we know not that name to which greater pain, and is able to detect the cause of it, the idea of pain deference is due than the name of him from whom it is connected in his mind with that of the thing which is taken. Yet it must be confessed that the philofo- produced it; and if the object which occafioned pain be phers, who consider the affections and passions as early again presented to the child, the idea of pain associated and deep-rooted associations, support their opinion with with it arises also. This idea consequently urges the very plaufible arguments. On their principles we child to avoid or to remove the object; and thus arises have endeavoured elsewhere to account for the passions the passion of dislike or hatred. In the fame manner, of fear and love, (see Instinct and Love); and we the passion of liking or love is readily formed in the may here safely deny the truth of what has been ftated mind of a child from the association of pleasant ideas respe&ting fear, which seems to militate against that with certain objects which produced them. account. We have attended with much solicitude to “ The passions of hope and fear are states of the the actions of children ; and have no reason to think mind depending upon the good or bad prospects of that they feel terror on the brink of a precipice till gratifying love or hatred ; and joy or forrow arises they have been repeatedly warned of their danger in from the final success or disappointment which attends such fituations by their parents or their keepers. Every the exertions produced by love or by hatred. Out of person knows not only that they have no original these passions, which have all a perceptible relation to or instinctive dread of fire, which is as dangerous to our own good, and are universally acknowledged to be them as any precipice; but that it is extremely diffi. selfish, all our other passions are formed." cult to keep them from that destructive element till To account for the passions called disinterested, he they are either capable of weighing the force of argu- observes, that in the history of the human mind' we ments, or have repeatedly experienced the pain of be. find many instances of our dropping an intermediate ing burnt by it. With respect to sudden resentment, idea, which has been the means of our connecting two we cannot help considering the argument, which is other ideas together; and that the association of these brought in proof of its being inftin&tive, as proving two remains after the link which originally united the contrary in a very forcible manner. Initinet is them has vanished. Of this fact the reader will find some mysterious influence of God upon the mind ex- sufficient evidence in different articles of this work citing to actions of beneficial tendency : but can any (See Instinct, no 19, and METAPHYSICS, no 101): benefit arise from wrecking our impotent vengeance on and, to apply it to the disinterested passions, let us supa stork or a stone ? or is it supposable that a Being of pose, with Dr Sayers, that any individual has done to infinite wisdom would excite us to actions so extrava us many offices of kindness, and has consequently much gantly foolish ? We learn from experience to defend contributed to our happiness; it is natural for us to ourselves against rational or fenGble enemies by reta. seek with some anxiety for the continuance of those liating the injuries which they infiet upon us; and pleasures which he is able to communicate. But we if we have been often injured in any particular man soon discern, that the surest way of obtaining the con. ner, the idea of that injury becomes in time so closely tinuance of his friendly offices is to make them, as associated with the means by which it has been con- much as possible, a source of pleasure to himself.

We ftantly repelled, that we never receive such an in- therefore do every thing in our power to promote his jury-a blow for instance--without being prompted happiness in return for the good he has conferred upto make the usual retaliation, without reflecting whe- on us, that thus we may attach him to us as much as we ther the object be sensible or insensible. So far from are able. Hitherto all is plainly seifih. We have been being inftinctive does resentment appear to us, that evidently endeavouring, for the sake of our own future

grati

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