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New Ineentions and Patents,

239 of social order, religion, and monarchy, Gifford, a grateful tribute is paid for the when" endangered by the levelling valuable assistance afforded by him in principles which the French revolu- the prosecution of this work. With tion had just let louse upon the worku.

that learned divine, who is also a native At this crisis Mr. Gifford took a leading of Ashburton, our author contracted, concern in the Anti-jacobin or Weekly a very early intimacy, which has contiExaminer, a paper, which besides its nued unabated through life. In one of

his patriotic excellence, contained


poems, Mr. Gifford says, beautiful pieces of poetry, and inge. Sure, if our fates hang on some hidden power, nious papers, written by Mr. Canning, And take their colour from the natal hour, and other men of high talent. At Then IRELAND, the same planet on us roce, length, in 1801, our author gave his Such the strong sympathies our lives disclona. version of Juvenal to the world in one But the translation of Juvenal, though quarto volume, dedicated to his noble it commanded the respect of all sound patron the late Earl Grosvenor, who scholars, could not escape the snarling survived the appearance of the transla: of the hypercritics ; to one of whom a tion but a very few days, and Mr. Gif- reply was published, in a quarto pam." ford with anaffected sorrow, paid the phlet, with a supplement. last sad duty to his memory by attend The next publication of Mr. Gifford ing his remains to the grave. It cer. was a complete edition of the works of tainly was remarkable that the work Massinger, with notes; which was folshould have commenced twenty years lowed by an edition of Ben Jonson, illus befurċ, with the death of one pro- trated in the same manner, and both tector, and concluded with that of ano- possessing entraordinary merit for accather.

racy, judgincnt, and erudition. These This affecting circumstance forced upon were followed by a translation of the the recollection of the translator, the ca. Satires of Persius, with plates, &c. which lamity of the rebuilder of Jericho; " He accompanies the last edition of his Jure laid the foundation thereof in Abiram, his nal; and he is now engaged on a com. first born, and set up the gates thereof in plete edition of Shirley's Dramatic works. his youngest son Segub." On a work so Mr. Gifford has latterly declined to come. well known, it is needless to expatiate. It forward in his proper person before the is the only version of the best Roman public, though repeatedly called upon satirist in our language that deserves by some powerful writers, who are conthe name; and besides an excellent life cerned to see the author of the BAVIAD of Juvenal, and a critical introduction, in the back ground, when his talents! it is enriched with a copious collection at Satire are as much needed a8", of notes, in which the sense of the au when he dispersed the Della Cruscan thor is not only cleared up, but much school. He is, however, if the report light is thrown upon the private man be correct, not altogether an idle obners of the Roman people. To Dr. server of the times, being generally Ireland, then prebendary and now dean considered as the conductor of the ablest of Westminster, the early friend of Mr. critical journal now in existence. D.

NEW INVENTIONS AND PATENTS. 1. Nethod of conducting, air by forced this purpose is evident, and the importance.

Ventilation, and reguluting the tem- of the invention here described must conperature in dwellings. By the MARQUIS vince every person. It is thus simply speciDE CIABANNES.

fied by the patentee. The general principle of forcing upwards,

The patent chimney ventilator, which and expelling foul air for the admission of from its construction, forces a current of that which is fresh, in order to render apart- air upwards, whenever there is wind to act ments and public buildings healthy, is simple, upon it first occupied my attention. Find and has long been acted upon; but however ing, however, that in calm weather its power obvious the theory may be, inconveniences

ceases, and that air will even descend have always attended every plan of ventila- through the venulator, if obeying a stronger tion occasioned by the elasticity of the air, impulse, I have, in order to render iteffectual sp that the leasi draught of a chimney, door, in all weathers, adapted to it, a fire or lamp, or, vindow will change its direction. In which producing a rarefaction of air, forces stances of this are frequent even where most

the current upwards at all times. I have care has been taken to exclude impure air, successfully employed a mechanical power and to secure that which is salubrious. in various ways, but it being liable to be out Hence the necessity of employing some,

of repair, I generally prefer the rarefaction gahiysical or mechanical forcing power for caused by heat, which' i denominate * air


New Inventions and Patents.

(Oct. 1,

pump.”. These different means I adopt III. Description of a Machine forcleanaccording to the situation of the place, and iny Corn, by MR. C. Essex, of Eust the conveniences to be found in it for ven

Acton, Middlesex. tilating, and in every instance the results I had anticipated have been completely veri- which the Society of Arts voted a gold me

This machine, for the communication of fied. By thus forcibly drawing up air, it dal to the inventor,is peculiarly adapted to use. becomes easy to give any direction to it in under a thrashing

machine ; as by one probuildings, and having perfectly at command cess, with the same power necessary for that the admission of fresh air from the recipient machine, it completely cleanses the corn, below, the temperature throughout may be and renders it fit for market; at the same kept at any degree, however rigorous the time dividing the different substances into season out of doors, while at the same time the several compartments, with the power the atmosphere is never unpleasant nor unwholesome.”

(by altering the sieves) of making two sorts In our next number we shall take further words by taking away as much of the small

of corn (by cleaning both) or in other notice of an invention which in this variable climate is of general interest.

corn, called tailing, as may be required,

thereby rendering a sample superior in quaII. The potent Columbian Printing Press. lity. This machine, from its peculiar power Invented by GEORGE Clymer. of dividing the dust from the chaff, renders

The superiority of this press consists. the latter much more nutritious for cattle; First, in superabundant power, and mecha- and the superior mode of clearing the rubnical precision of impression, with con- bish, that the corn may fall to the wind siderably less injury to the types : Secondly, alone, renders it much more susceptible of in much greater facilityin working the largest the quick succession of friction, which com. forms, and less injury to the human frame. pletely eradicates every particle of mould, Consequently, many excellent and ex- and in a degree has the effect of drying and perienced workmen, in the decline of life, improving the sample. may still continue to be employed, through the ease with which they can hereby execute

List of New Patents. the hitherto most laborious work. This in

SAMUEL Clegg, of Westminster, Engivention has received the amplest testimonials neer; for an improved Gasometer, or of its utility in the attestations of the most Gas-holder. July 24th, 1818. respectable printers in London as well as in

Richard BLAKEMORE, of MilingriffithAmerica.

work, Glamorganshire, and John James, of The accuracy of these machines excites Lower Redbrook, Gloucestershire, Iron-masadmiration, and their compactness of force ters and Tin Plate Manufacturers; for a new adds to the advantages which they otherwise kind of Plate, which they denominate possess. The happy disposition of their Amorphous Metal Plates ; "and also for a various parts enables those who work at certain improved and more perfect method these presses to dispatch business with a

of crystallizing the surface of tin plates, or degree of rapidity unattainable in the use

iron, or copper plates tinned, which they of those of ordinary construction. Mr.

call Amorphous Metal Plates. July 24,1818. Valpy says in his letter of recommendation: Joseph MANTON, of Davies. Street, * As far as I have yet seen, I conceive your Berkley Square, Gun-maker; for certain press to be decidedly superior to any presses primers for fire arms; and also for certain I have ever used; and I have been endea- improvements in the construction of certain vouring for some time to obtain the best parts of fire arms. August 3, 1818. presses in use for manual labour. From John Malam, of Marsham Street, Westthe shortness of the pull, and its immense minster, Engineer ; for certain improvepower, I doubt not we shall obtain a superior

ments in steam engines. August 5, 1818. impression. The ingenuity of the mechanism

JAMES HOLLINGRAKE, of Manchester, warrants every supposition that the press is Lancashire, mechanic; for a method of: not liable to fracture from use or accident, making or manufacturing copper or other which circumstance, I cannot but

metal rollers for calico printing. Augusts

say, is of the most essential importance to the 7, 1818. trade.”

THE ARCTIC EXPEDITION. WHEN this enterprize was announced, which the ships could possibly explore we felt much interest in the event, as the arctic seas in the present year." well for the honour of our country, as It is only by perseverance and repeated for the general advantage of science. trials that the main point can be de-! But while we indulged a strong hope of termined, and let the result be what it success even in the immediate object of may, as far as regards any opening for the voyage, we were not so sanguine as navigation, some valuable discoveries to expect thất this object would be ac- will no doubt be made in the extension complished during the short space in of our geographical knowledge. It is

The Arctic Expeilition.

2.61 lamentable to see in these planet stricken the ship's company, and all were in perfect times the spirit of party so extremely health. besotted, as to carry its violence into a Such is the substance of the ac-' subject upon which one should suppose, counts received by Government; and no political hostility could possibly cxist. though the following letters are not Yet strange to say, even mer of science, official, they have an equal claim to coninstead of waiting, in common with their fidence as coming from intelligent officers more simple countrynen, for the history employed in this arduous service,and who of this voyage, have set themselves in in writing with familiarity to their friends battle array against each other upon the are more likely to be minute in their question of the practicability of a north remarks, than persons engaged in draw west passage. It certainly would have ing up formal dispatches. been more philosophical to have suspended all theorizing and declamation,

H. M. Ship, Alexander, June 17.

My dear Sir-I am now writing in the invective and dogmatism, till the details

tent upon the north end of Hare or Waygatt of the enterprize and the observations of Island, with the pendulum clock within one those engaged in it were fairly before yard of me, and the observatory and all the the public. But there are men of such instruments within half-a-dozen. We were warped judgments and jaundiced eyes, arrested in our progress yesterday by the as to view every thing in a bad light ice, which forms a complete bar about three that is presented in a quarter to which miles to the northward of this island, comthey have a radical enmity. Hence some mencing on the Greenland side, from what learned professors, who by being nearer

is called Four Island Point, and extending the pole possess less ardent imaginations than ten miles to the westward of this island,

down the Straits at a distance not greater than we southern inquirers, have in the

and 15 to the westward of Disko. Soon after plenitude of their experiinental wisdom, entering the Straits, we found it absolutely positively determined that a barrier of impracticable to go up to the middle, as the ice of eternal durability forms a solid con- ice gradually brought us into the land, till a tinent, comprizing a whole circle within little to the northward of Riskoll (vulgo the last ten degrees of latitude. If such Reef Koll,) we were for a day or two totally be the case, the business is at an end, blockaded. The ice then, by one of those and our navigators have gone upon a

unaccountable changes that so frequently fool's errand, for want of consulting occur here, opened sufficiently to give us a the northern Delphos. We had intended free passage, till yesterday we found a to have said more upon this oracular second bar at this place. From erery acdecree, but at present we have a more

count we have received, as well as from

what we have already seen, it is certain that pleasant task to perform, and that is, to

the last winter has nut only been severe, but report the state of the expedition itself, that the frost has lasted much later than has according to the best accounts that been the case for many years past. You have been received. These are dated may imagine our surprise when, on coming

July 28th; at which time the Isabella and into this neighbourhood yesterday, we the Alexander were in lat. 75 deg. 30 min. found upwards of 35 British ships at anchor N., long. 60 deg. 30 min. W., well over to upon the icebergs, which completely form the American co the weather serene and a cluster of innumerable islands from the perfectly clear. The variation of the com- spot in which I at this moment view them. pass, by accurate observations repeatedly They have all been detained here--not days, made on board both ships, was 89 deg, and but weeks, in spite of every exertion to get the dip 84 deg. 30 min., which led them to to the northward; and the fishery may be conclude, that they were approaching verị considered as hitherto an unsuccessful one, Dearly to the magnetic pole. It had been with the exception of a few of the ships in perfectly calm; the sea was as smooth as Disko Bay. The causes which operate upon glass for three or four days, and the current the ice, producing very sudden changes in drifted them to the South-eastward, which it, are so little understood, that it is imraised their hopes of an open passage round possible to judge when any such change the point of America, from which quarter may take place as to enable us to get to the it appeared to proceed." All the way up the northward. I have just been to the top of a middle of Davis's Straits they skirted an mountain of no inconsiderable height, to unbroken field of ice on the left, but as they determine its altitude by the barometer, and proceeded, it became thinner and apparently I wish I could give you an adequate idea of Totten, and they were sanguine that the the magnificent sublimity of the scene 1 moment the breeze sprang up, the ice to have just witnessed. The whole horizon to the westward would open to them a passage, the northward and westward is one completa and allow them to reach the northern shores mass of compact field ice, with the exception of America. The utmost harmony pre- of about 500 tremendous ice-bergs, which, veiled among the officers and every part of with here and there a small spot of clear NEW MONTHLY MAG,No, 57.



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The Arctic Expedition.

[Oct. 1,
blue water, serve to vary the scene, which from going on shore, when well anchored to
would otherwise tire the eye with the uni- them; for the smallest of them draws so
formity of its dazzling whiteness. To the much more water than any ship, that it must
castward is seen the land of Greenland, very ground long before the ship, unless the shore
high, almost entirely covered with snow, and immediately within it is very steep indeed.
frowning, as it were, upon the ocean of ice A very small ice-berg, to which we anchored
which environs its shores. To the south- on the 9th of June, was grounded in 52 fa-
ward is the island of Disko, with its summit thoms, and was so firmly moored, that the
(which we have never clearly seen) com- levels of the dipping needle were not in the
pletely lost in the clouds : near this island slightest degree affected.
are all the Greenland ships at anchor, giving We have now got as far as Four Island
a finish to the scene, whose grandeur and Point, near which I observed to-day in 70.
beauty are far beyond any thing I have seen 40. N. latitude. It is evident, from all we
before. The longitudes of the places on have yet seen, that there is no getting up the
this coast were very much in want of cor- Straits, with the ice in its present state, but
rection. We had a great number of ex- by tiding it along close to the land, for there
cellent lunars to the southward, which, with is not a drop of clear water to be seen any
the Isabella's chronometers, (which go ad- where else, and if we did not anchor to our
mirably,) will, I think, determine the longi- friends, the bergs, every tide, we could not
tudes so far, to the nearest three or four gain an inch. The weather has been so
miles. The dip of the needle in lat. 67.22. calm, that the ice, as far as we can see from
was 82. and the variation 67. 30. Here the the mast-head, remains in one solid, un-
dip is about the same, and the azimuths we broken mass. A good breeze would scatter
have taken this morning we cannot work; for and help to dissolve it, for it is chiefly what
want of a latitude, which we hope to obtain at is called young ice, which they say has been
midnight. The transit of the sun for the found during the month of April and the
pendulum we hope to get to-morrow; and beginning of May of the present year. The
if the ice still remains firm, so as to prevent season has certainly been severe, for some
onr leaving this place, the next day, we trust, of the Greenland masters say they got to 74
will produce something in this way. De- degrees long before this time last year.
lighted as I am to take a part in these ob- July 5.--Since I last wrote we have been
servations, I confess I should be glad to see incessantly occupied in attempting to get
the tents struck to-night, and the ice open; through the ice to the northward. The first
and you may rely upon it, that no object stage we made was into North-East Bay,
whatever will ever tempt our Commodore to where we have been detained several days,
neglect for an instant the main object of the which could only be occupied in settling the

position of several points of land, &c. and The current that has been spoken of, as the variation of the compass, which, by the coming constantly down the Straits, if it bye, can never be done on board a ship with exists at all, must be to the westward of our any tolerable degree of accuracy, a differtrack up the Straits; and, indeed, all the ence of thirty degrees arising from a change masters of the ships have a great dread of in the ship's head, on board the Isabella. being set to the westward in our present la- On board the Alexander this difference is titude, as they insist upon it that if a ship very apparent also, but in a much smaller were beset here, she would probably come degree. I do not, however, consider the exout in 65 degrees.

periments we have yet made to be sufficientTuesday, June 23.—The ice having opened ly numerous, or sufficiently delicate, to ena little on the evening of Saturday, we endea- able us to draw any satisfactory conclusion voured to get over from Hare Island to the from them, on this very interesting point, coast of Greenland, or as the masters call it, till further and better opportunities offer. the East Land. The Isabella was beset in We had an interesting visit from two Esmaking this attempt, and was drifted about quimaux families the other day, but with the with the ice by the tides till Monday morn- details of which I shall not now trouble you. ing. We were more fortunate, having suc- In truth, I have so few moments to spare, ceeded in getting over to the land, and into from the immediate duties which clear water, on Sunday evening, and there upon us, that I fear you will think my letter made fast to a berg, to wait for the Isabella. but a shabby one. These last two days have There would be no navigating this sea but given us a run to the northward beyond our for the bergs; for after the men have towed most sanguine expectation, as we are at this and warped the ship for twelve or fourteen moment within seven miles of the northernhours, she would be adrift again, and at the most of the Woman's Islands, and passed mercy of the ice, if you could not anchor in Sanderson's Hope yesterday evening. Our security to one of these enormous masses, latitude (by accouni) to-day at noon was 73. which rests upon the ground, and perfectly 10. N. Isabella's 73.15. long.57.14.W. Some secures you from every danger, except that of the Esquimaux from these islands were, I (which has once or twice occurred to us) of understand, on board the Isabella today, drifting off with a high spring tide into deep and report, that the place in which we now

A ship is almost perfectly secure are has been clear of ice during the whole


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New Musical Publications,

243 winter--that no whales have been here dur- the edge of the flaws. From the very great ing this season, and that they think there is variation, we cannot be a great way from plenty of clear water to the northward. If the magnetic pole: you will see the variathis be true, it is delightful intelligence for tion by our last observation on the ice at the

As far as we can ourselves see, there is head of the letter. Do reason to question the accuracy of their Since writing the above, private letstatement, for, though the number of bergs ters have been received from the disis here, as at Riskoll, and at Waygatt Island, covery ships, dated August 1st, in lat. and Black Hook,almost beyond conception or 75. 48. N. long. 61.30. W. . They state, helief, the field-ice appears to be by no means that the ice was clearing away, and that so close as to stop our progress. How long the prospect of success was improving, this fair prospect may continue, it is impos- The most extraordinary phenomenon of sible to judge; but the voyage begins to acquire extreme interest

, and all are anxiously the variation of the compass had gone on looking out for the northward. I am desir- increasing: it was 88. 13. on the ice ; we ous now to put my letters on board the Isa- say on the ice, for on board ship the vabella, that they may go to England with the riation, owing to some peculiar influence despatches in the Majestic; and as the wea- not yet mentioned, was still much more. ther is rather foggy, I am afraid of losing Thc former letters mention thaton board the opportunity, and will therefore delay no ship the variation was at one time 95 longer sending them to the Isabella.

degrees, that is, the needle pointed, inP.S. July 6.--I have just measured the stead of north, to the south of west. height of an ice-berg, which is 123 feet, and This difference between the real variait is aground 125 fathoms! This is literally a small one compared with some hundreds that ship, was first observed by Captain

tion and an apparent variation on board we have seen. Feet above water, and fathoms under, seems to be the general run of their Flinders, but it was supposed to be an specific gravity.

accidental peculiarity in his ship. It is,

however, now clear that it belongs to all His Majesty's Ship Isabella, at Sea, Lat.75. 25. Long. 60. 7. variation 38. 48,

ships, and varies in all; and there would “ July 25.—This is our last opportunity ed to the influence of the iron about the

be little doubt that it should be attributthis year, therefore I could not let it

pass without writing, although nothing has passed vessel, except for a curious fact which, since my last. We are now to the north- we understand, has been ascertained,ward of all the ships that are fishing; we see namely, that the compasses, called insusome a long way a-stern : the boat with des- lated, which are placed in boxes of iron, patches is going immediately to one of them: and which are uninfluenced by external they have followed us a great way this year, iron when brought near them,are affected and have been very kind in giving us every by the ship variation in the same degree assistance when in the ice; I sincerely wish them all safe back: as they have along way is now called the deviation, has been

as the common compasses. This, which to go through the ice. The coast begins to

found to be much greater as the experilook more and more miserable. As we get north, it has more the appearance of a chain

ments go on northward. This is acof ice mountains than land: the sea is one

counted for from the circumstance of the solid field of ice as far as the eye can reach. dip of the needle diminishing what is When the wind blows from the north, we usually called its polarity; and allowing find narrow passages in it, and through them it, therefore, to be more easily affected we pass on: sometimes the whole of our by the local influence of the ship. men are on the ice, dragging the ship along

NEW MUSIC. History of the Rise and Progress of Mu- Indexes to some of these articles, and to

sic, theoretical and practical. 'By G. publish them separately, for the convenience Jones. Extracted from the Encyclo- of such as may not choose to subscribe to pædia Londinensis. Price 15s. or with the larger work. In this form, therefore, the plates of instruments coloured, 11.1s. the present History of Music has come to

our hands. The Encyclopædia Londinensis is a Dic- Mr. Jones was, we believe, the pupil of tionary of Arts and Sciences, upon a very the venerable C. F. Baumgarten, now the extensive plan, now in the course of publi- last remaining of the old school. He therecation. As some of the articles are very fore may boast an acquaintance with the long, forming distinct and complete Trea- sound and scientific music and musicians of tises upon particular subjects, as Botany, the last age, and the more polished harmoHeraldry, Mechanics, &c. the proprietors nies and harmonists of the present; and have thought fit to print separate Titles and the work before us will hear us out in gay

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