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1818.) Memoir of her Majesty Queen Charlotte.

445 expedients were resorted to, to alle- chamber of her Majesty, and remained viate her pain, and to add to her means there a considerable time. of comfort. Among other things, car- From nine o'clock all the worst sympriages of a peculiar and ingenious con- toms of her Majesty's disorder developed struction were prepared to enable her to themselves in succession, with alarming take exercise in the open air; but rapidity; and the most serious appreof most of these she was unable to hensions as to the result being enteravail herself. A chair, made under tained, his Royal Highness determined the direction of the Prince Regent, af- to spend the night at Kew. In conseforded her most relief while confined to quence, orders were given to prepare her chamber.

apartments for the accommodation of The medical attendants of her Ma- his Royal Highness, in the mansion of jesty were Sir Francis Millman, Sir the Duke of Cambridge, on Kew-green ; Henry Halford, and Mr. Brande, apothe- but soon after twelve o'clock, so matecary, of Arlington-street. In addition rial an abatement took place in her Mato these, Mr. Robert Keate, surgeon to jesty's sufferings, that this arrangement the Queen, was in attendance, and he was abandoned, and about midnight his performed the only operations which Royal Highness left the palace for Carltook place. Dr. Baillie was on one oc- ton-house, accompanied by the Duke of casion called in, but no alteration in York. her treatment took place in consequence.

The relaxation in the symptoms of To follow the various stages of her her Majesty's disorder, however, was Majesty's disorder, from its assuming a but temporary. They shortly returned dangerous aspect to the termination of with increased severity, and throughout her existence, would afford little gra- the remainder of the night she was in tification. It is sufficient to say, that as almost continual pain. Sir F. Milman, the disease advanced in virulence, each Sir H. Halford, and Mr. Brande, reinterval of repose became shorter than mained in the ante-chamber nearly the the preceding one; each succeeding whole night: and the Princesses did not paroxysm more acute ; each struggle retire till between two and three o'clock more nearly mortal, till the hand of in the morning. Death put an end at once to her misery Between eight and nine o'clock on and life.

Tuesday morning, the physicians, as We shall now proceed to describe the usual, prepared to issue the bulletin, circumstances which immediately pre- which was as follows: ceded her Majesty's death. Through- “Kew Palace, Nov. 17.—The Queen's out the afternoon of Monday, (Nov. 16,) state last night was one of great and imshe remained in a lethargic state ; and minent danger. Her Majesty remains so little was any immediate change ex- very ill this morning. F. Millman. pected, that at six o'clock Sir Henry

H. Halford." Halford's carriage was ordered to con- At half past nine, this was forwarded vey him to Windsor, and the first mes- to town. The messenger had not left senger from Carlton House returned the palace more than three-quarters of without a report. The carriage of Sir an hour, when her Majesty became so Henry, however, had scarcely drawn up much worse, that a second messenger to the door of the palace, when her Ma- was dispatched to Carlton-house, to rejesty manifested such an increase of quest the immediate attendance of his restlessness, that he was induced to de- Royal Highness. Couriers were also lay his departure; and eventually, in sent off at the same time to the Archabout three quarters of an hour, the bishop of Canterbury, Dr. Baillie, Mr. carriage was ordered back, and the jour. Robert Keate, and Lady Halford. ney postponed for the night.

Shortly after twelve o'clock, the Prince At half-past seven, the second mes- Regent and the Duke of York arrived. senger from Carlton House was dis- By this time, all hope of her Majesty's patched with letters to the Prince Re- surviving the paroxysm was at an end : gent ;--the consequence of which was, her respiration was most laboriously that between nine and ten, his Royal performed; the tension on the side was Highness, accompanied by the Duke of painful almost to suffocation, and sympYork, arrived at the palace, and had an toms of mortification had begun to maimmediate interview with the physicians. nifest themselves in the lower extremiAfter their conference, his Royal High- ties. Every possible mode of attemptness accompanied the Princesses to the ing relief was resorted to, but it became

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History of the Rise and Progress of Music (Dec. 1, more and more evident, that a fatal ter his own feelings, took a hand of each of mination of her Majesty's sufferings was his sisters, and gently withdrew them at hand. Immediately on the arrival of from the mournful scene. Their Royal the Prince Regent and the Duke of Highnesses, followed by the Duke of York, Sir Henry Halford had an au- York, retired to the drawing-room; and dience of their Royal Highnesses, in the it was nearly three-quarters of an hour great drawing-room; the Princess Au- before any interruption was given to gusta and the Duchess of Gloucester their sorrows. were also present; when Sir Henry an- Immediately on the decease of her nounced, that there was no longer any Majesty, the royal standard, which, hope of their august parent surviving since her residence at Kew, had been the paroxysm. Their Royal Highnesses constantly flying on the tower of received the melancholy information the chapel, was lowered half down with the most poignant affliction. the staff; and, in the course of the

At this time the Royal sufferer ap- evening, a detachment of sixty men from peared free from pain, but she was the Ist regionent of guards, under the nearly exhausted, and was supported on command of Colonel Barrow, arrived the one side by the Prince Regent, and from the Horse Guards, at the tempoon the other by the Duke of York, the rary barracks on Kew-green. Princesses kneeling by her side. She T'he first communication which arknew them all, looked on them with af- rived in town of the melancholy tidings, fectionate regard, and would have spo- was about half-past two o'clock, adken, but death had closed her powers of dressed to Viscount Sidmouth ; at three voice though not of expression, and she the following notification was issued to went off without even a sigh or a strug- the nobility and others who were aoxgle, exactly at twenty minutes after one iously inquiring : o'clock.

“ Carlton-house, Nov. 17.-Her MaFor some time after her Majesty had jesty expired at one o'clock this day ceased to breathe, the Princesses con- without pain." tinued absorbed in grief, when Sir H. Thus died in her 75th year, and the Halford announced that the mortal exis- 57th of her marriage, this most excellent tence of her Majesty was at an end, their Queen, to whom inay be applied, the Royal Highnesses were so much affected, language of holy writ, “ the hoary head that they wept audibly. At length, the is a crown of glory, when it is found in Prince Regent, exerting himself to calm the way of righteousness."

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NEW MUSIC. History of the Rise and Progress of lulu- celebrated Theban musician, cost at Cosic, theoretical and pructical. By G. rinth three talents, or 5811. 5s. The an

cients, it appears, were not less extravagant Jones.

in gratifying the ministers of their pleasures (Concluded.)

than ourselves. Amoebous, a harper, was IT has been imagined, with much appear- paid an Attic talent, or 1931. 159. per day ance of probability, that the occupation of for his performance. It is proper to observe, the first poets and musicians of Greece re- that the celebrated musicians of Greece were

sembled that of the Celtic and German bards, of both sexes; and that the beautiful Lamia, I and the scalds of Iceland and Scandinavia. who was taken captive by Demetrius in the

They sung their poems in the streets of sca-engagement in which he vanquished cities, and in the palaces of princes. They Ptolemy Soter, was a public performer. were treated with high respect, and regarded This will not so much surprise us, when it is as inspired persons. Such was the employ- added, that in modern times, at the musical ment of Homer. Music is always named schools in Venice, of which there are four, throughout the Iliad and Odyssey with rap- the performers, both vocal and instrumental, ture; but as in these poems no mention is are all females: the organs, the flutes, and made of instrumental music, unaccompanied French-horns; the violins, violoncellos, and with poetry and singing,a considerable share even the double-basses, are all played by no doubt of the praise is to be attributed to the poetry. The instruments most frequently Among the Romans the minstrels had the named are the lyre, the lute, and the syrinx. privilege of eating in the temple of Jupiter ; The trumpet appears not to have been they wore a long gown as the badge of their known at the siege of Troy. The Nute, in profession, and claimed the liberty of walkGreece, was long an instrument in high fa- ing in procession through the streets of vour. Whatever might be the manner of Rome in their robes, three days in every playing on it,

the players were held in much year, exercising their art, and indulging estimation. The fute used by Ismenias, a themselves in the most extravagant excesses.

women.

1818.) History of the Rise and Progress of Music.

447 Princes and great men, when they went certs; but the performance was public; from home, always considered the honour of these instruments were too feeble for the their wives secure when under the protec- obtuse organs of our Gothic ancestors; and tion of a bard. Ægysthus could not triumph the low state of our regal music in the time over the virtue of Clytemnestra till he had of Henry VIII. (1530) may be gathered from removed the bard who was the guardian of the accounts given in Hall's and Hollingher morals. It is however remarkable, that shed's Chronicles, of a masque at Cardinal in the space of twenty-nine years, the fa- Wolsey's palace, Whitehall, where the King vourite bards or musicians of three queens was entertained with “ a concert of drums belonging to this island fell sacrifices for de- and fifes.” But this was soft music comparting from the ancient character. Mark pared with that of his heroic daughter, Smeaton, musician and groom of the cham- Elizabeth, who, according to Hentzner, ber to Anne Bullen, was accused of being too used to be regaled during dinner “ with great a favourite of the Queen, for which he twelve trumpets and two kettle-drums; was executed, May 12, 1536. Thomas which, together with fifes, cornets, and sideAbel, musical preceptor and grammarian to drums, made the hall ring for half an hour Queen Catherine, wife to Henry VIII., was together.” hanged and quartered, July 30, 1510, for The account of Pietro della Valle of the having written a treatise against the divorce. first opera or musical drama exhibited at And David Rizzio, secretary to Mary, Queen Rome, is extremely curious and amusing. of Scots, on suspicion of an improper cor “ Though no more than five voices or five respondence with her, was murdered in her instruments were employed, the exact numpresence, March 9, 1565. Charity may ber that an ambulant cart could contain, yet perhaps attribute their unhappy exits to the those afforded great variety; as besides the turbulence of the times in which they lived; dialogue of single voices, sometimes two or " but,” says Mr. Jones, “ we certainly do three, and at last all the five sang together, not set musicians to guard the chastity of which had an admirable effect. The music women in the present day.” Henry III. of this piece, as may be seen in the copies in the twenty-sixth year of his reign, gave of it that were afterwards printed, though forty shillings and a pipe of wine to Richard, dramatic, was not all in simple recitatives, his harper, and likewise a pipe of wine to which would have been tiresome, but ornaBeatrice, the harper's wife. Edward I., his mented with beautiful passages, and moveson and suecessor, a short time before he ments in measure, without deviating, howascended the throne, took his harper with ever, from the true theatrical style; on which him to the Holy Land; and when Edward account it pleased extremely, as was maniwas wounded by a poisoned arrow at Ptole- fest from the prodigious concourse of people mais, the musician rushed into the royal it drew after it, who, so far from being tired, apartments and killed the assassin. But we heard it performed five or six several times; have not many instances of fighting musi- there were some even who continued to folcians: their business in war seems to be to low the cart to ten or twelve different places make others fight. John of Gaunt granted where it stopped, and who never quitted it a charter to the minstrels, giving the gover as long as we remained in the street, which nor the title of King of the Minstrels. He was from four o'clock in the evening till held court, and had power to apprehend and after midnight." arrest; to impannel juries, hear plaints, In 1680, the opera of Berenice was exand determine controversies between the hibited at Padua with such astonishing members of his society. Nev charters were splendor as to merit notice. There were granted by successive kings, both in Eng- choruses of one hundred virgins, one hunland and France. In the year 1401, Charles dred soldiers, one hundred horsemen in VI. of France granted the minstrels another iron armour, forty cornets of horse, six charter; but at length their insolent de- trumpeters on horseback, six drummers, meanour degraded them in the public opi- six ensigns, six sackbuts, six great flutes, nion, and they sunk into total neglect; and six minstrels playing on Turkish instrufrom being seated at the tables of kings and ments, six others on octave flutes, six pages, heroes, were necessitated to become compa- three sergeants, six cymbalists. There nions of the lowest orders of the people. were twelve huntsmen, twelve grooms, six

About the end of the reign of Charles II. coachmen for the triumph, six for the proa passion seems to have been excited for the cession, two lions led by two Turks, and two ciolin, and for pieces composed for it in the elephants; Berenice's triumphal car drawn - Italian manner. This, we agree with Mr. by four horses ; six other cars with prisonJones, may be pronounced the most power ers and spoils drawn by twelve horses; six ful, the most perfect, and the most useful coaches. Among the scenery which we had instrument that ever has been invented. It not time to enumerate, was the royal dressis in the power of this sovereign of the ing-room completely furnished, and stables orchestra to make the intonation of all keys with one hundred live horses, &c. Thus equally perfect. Before this, riols of va much of the historical part. rious sizes, with six strings, and fretted like After the usual routine of musical instructhe guitar, were admitted into chamber-con- tion relative to thorough bass, composition,

448

Varieties Proceedings of Universities. Dec. 1, and fuging, we have some carious remarks given in Mr. Jones's work (plate xii) are on the construction of canons, which we pot sufficiently distinct ; the parts should have not met with in any other book in the have been printed in separate lines. English language. A canon is a melody After the scientific part of music is conperformed by two or more parts of a score; cluded, the historical part may be said to one of which must begin before the begin again; for under the head of “ Musiother has finished. Canons were the last cal Instruments,” very many pleasing aneccompositions which masters condescended dotes of musicians and poets will be found. to publish in score. They were regarded as The plates of Musical Instruments amount enigmas, which required the deepest saga- to nine, which are extremely well engraved. city and science to unfold. All the several On that entitled “ Egyptian Instruments," parts were written on one staff, frequently we have the ancient Theban harp, and its without specifying when, where, and in what (supposed) scale. Among the “ Hebrew interval the other parts came in. Modern Instruments," we have the trumpet of the times have furnished us with some jeux jubilee from authority, and a conjectural d'esprit of this kind. When Haydn was David's portable harp. As to the instruments to receive his doctor's diploma at Oxford, figured 10, 11, and 12, on that plate, Mr. he addressed to his judges a sheet of music Jones has not undertaken to inform us in so composed that whether read backwards what part of the Holy Land they were played or forwards, beginning at the top, the bot- upon. Among the “ Grecian Instruments," tom, or the middle, it always presented

an we were at first rather surprised to find a air with an original accompaniment. But common bagpipe; the evidence for its authe most tremendous of all canons is the thenticity, however, is sufficiently strong; Canon Polymorphus, a kind of sacred music but for this we must refer to the work, composed for several choirs. There is a p. 366, having already far exceeded the canon of that kind composed by Valentini limits we usually devote to a single article. for ninety-six voices and twenty-four choirs! The contents of this plate are chiefly copied This canon is called by Berari, Solomon's from Burney. The“ Modern Instruments," Knot, and by Kircher, the Labyrinth. which follow, are all accompanied by their The solution is very intricate. Marpurg scales, either on the plate itself or in the has exhibited one by the same author, sus- letter-press. Upon the whole, we consider ceptible of 2,000 solutions; and upon which this as a work which the musical student Valentini himself has written a large folio may consult with advantage; and which, volume, under the title of Canoni Musicali, from its variety of historical anecdotes, wili which was printed at Rome in the year 1655. be not uninteresting to the general reader. The specimens and examples of canons

VARIETIES. CAMBRIDGE, Nov. 13.-The subject an adjournment of the meeting to the of the Norrisian Prize Essay for the pre- Palace, at Abergwilly, letters from the sent year is--No valid argument can be Right Hon. Lord Kenyon, the Right drawn from the incredulity of the Jews Hon. Lord Cawdor, the Right Rev, the against the truth of the Christian Re- Bishops of St. Asaph, Bangor, and Lan. ligion.

daff, from Sir W. W. Wynn, Sir Thos. The Seatonian Prize for an English Mostyn, Sir Robert Vaughan, Sir Edw. Poem has been this year adjudged to the Price Loyd, Sir Charles Morgan, J. W. Rev. A. Dicken, Fellow of St. Peter's Griffith, Esq. the Rev. Archdeacon College. The subject is-- Deborah. Jones, the Rev. Edw. Davies, and the

Government has sent two ships on a Rev. G. Strong, were read, containing voyage of considerable importance, un- the most cordial assurances of co-opeder the command of an able officer tho- ration in forwarding the views of the roughly skilled in hydrography. This society. A committee was at the same expedition is conjectured to have for its time appointed, to propose prize subjects object an establishment on the eastern for the ensuing year, and other papers coast of Africa, or probably in the to be produced at the next meeting ; and Straits of Babel Mandel.

the Rev. D. Rowland was appointed seWelsh Literature and Music.--A pub- cretary to the Society. It was also prolic meeting was held at Carmarthen, on posed and agreed to, as expedient for Wednesday week, the Right Hon. Lord promoting the objects of the Society, Dynevor in the chair, which formed it. that the members and others who may self into a Society for the Preservation, be possessed of Welsh manuscripts, be of the remains of ancient British Lite- solicited to transmit to the secretary norature, Poetical, Historical, Antiquarian, tices or lists of them in writing, specifySacred, and Moral; and for the encou- ing their titles, with

particular descripragement of the National Music. At tions. Mr. Edward Williams, the bard,

1818.]

New Fisheries --Reigning Families of Europe.

449

was appointed by the Society to super- taken, and most of the best stations areintend the printing of the Society's pub- already occupied. There has been allications, and to give instructions to ready cured, this season, more than young students in Welsh poetry and lite- 1400 barrels, besides a quantity of redrature. The Society look forward with herrings smoked; and before the end of great interest to the establishment of a the season above 20,000 barrels will be committee in the metropolis, to co-ope- cured, producing, at 30s. a barrel, and rate with the general Cambrian Society, 4s. of bounty, 34,000/. in this lately in forwarding its designs, and extending established port alone. An excellent its connexions. We devoutly wish it pier has been constructed by Lord Stafsuccess; and we hope that the Welsh ford; a town also has been begun." scholars in the vicinity will promptly af- Reigning Families of Europe.-- There ford their assistance.

áre at present twelve families in Europe New Fisheries.--- If the present modes that are dignified by the possession of of fishing, so limited in their powers, are Royal Crowns and eight that reign under of old standing, can none better be dis- the titles of Grand Dukes, Dukes, and covered in this age of general improve- Princes, making altogether twenty reignment? Suppose, as in agriculture, pre- ing families. Of the twelve Royal Famiums were offered to excite ingenuity milies, there are two French, eight Gerand stimulate to experiments. Within man, one Italian by descent, but German the last year or two, a new rendezvous by patrimony, and one Asiatic. We of soles has been discovered by the Ply- shall name them in their alphabetical mouth trawlers, on banks lying between order :the Dodman and the Manacles, which 1. The Family of Alsace, descended turned out so abundantly, that for a from Etichon, Duke of Alsace. This while, they ceased trawling; and the Lord is the common stock of the Houses Brighton fishermen lately discovered, for of Hapsbourg and of Lorraine, now conthe first time, a new oyster bed off their founded in the House of Zaringen, coast, said to have been ascertained, whence that of Baden is derived. I'he within the passing summer, to extend House of Lorraine reigns in Austria, seventy miles, by seven in breadth. Can Tuscany, and Modena. In this latter nothing new be struck out in the way of country it has, within our time, taken.. change of ground, or kind of fish, or the name of Este. mode of catching, or of curing, by the 2. The Family of Bernadotte, that patronage of those high and benevolent reigns over Scandinavia. characters who have now come forward, 3. The House of Capet, or of France, so much to their honour, to rescue the is continued in the family of Bourbon, Scilly Islanders from starvation ?-To which reigns in France, Spain, Naples, these it may afford encouragement to and provisionally in Lucca, until it reknow what has been done within a short covers the State of Parma. There is time, in the cold and stormy extremity another Capetian branch, which, howof Scotland. Two or three years ago ever, is not the issue of legitimate marthe newspapers were filled with com- riage. From this bastard scion springs plaints of the distressed state of the work- the House of Braganza, that reigns in ing classes in Sutherland, where nothing Portugal. was thought of but starving, or emigra- 4. The House of Guelfe, originally of tion to America. The Inverness Jour- Italy, where, however, it has no possesnnl lately exhibited the following agree- sions. It is the younger branch of the able contrast: “ Nothing can morc dis- ancient and real House of Este. The tinctly mark the rapid improvement in Guelfes are divided into two branches, this quarter than the following facts re- the younger of which bears the crowns specting Helmsdale, a fishing station es- of Great Britain and Ireland, and Hanotablished by the Marquis of Stafford, at ver; while the elder, less favoured by the mouth of the river of that name fortune, but not less illustrious by the upon the coast of Sutherland. In this merit of its princes, reigns under the port, where six years ago there was not name of Brunswick. a but nor a fishing boat, there are now

5. The House of Hohenzollern expeerected several curing-houses, on the rienced a similar fate as that of the most approved and extensive scale, with Guelfes. The elder branch of this faabout 140 boats belonging to them; and mily has preserved its modest patrimony so general has the desire of settling be- in Suabia, while the younger branch, come, that nine additional sites for simi- transplanted to the north, has founded lar establishments have been lately the Prussian Monarchy. New MONTHLY MAG.-No. 59.

VOL. X.

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