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Parenthesis, says Dr. Johnson, is a sentence so included in another sentence, as that it may be taken out without injuring the sense of that which encloses it. This figure, rather used to impart variety than elegance to composition, should be read or spoken in a quicker and a lower tone of voice than the general subject. The reader or speaker, should slightly suspend his voice immediately before the parenthesis, and take up the same tone at it its close.


"This moon, which rose last night, (round as my shield,)
Had not yet filled her horns, when, (by her light,)
A band of fierce barbarians," &c.

"Beneath a mountain's brow, (the most remote
And inaccessible by shepherds trod,)
In a deep cave, (dug by no mortal hand,)
An hermit liv'd," &c.


"If there's a power above us,
(And that there is all nature cries aloud
Through all her works,) he must delight in virtue."


"Farewell, a long farewell to all my greatness!
This is the state of man, to-day he puts forth
The tender leaves of hope; to morrow blossoms,
And bears his blushing honours thick upon him ;
The third day comes a frost, (a killing frost,)
And when he thinks, (good easy man,) full surely
His greatness is a ripening, nips his shoot,
And then he falls, as I do. I have ventured,
(Like little wanton boys, that swim on bladders,)
These many summers in a sea of glory:
But far beyond my depth: my high blown pride
At length broke under me; and now has left me,
(Weary and old with service,) to the mercy
Of a rude stream, that must forever hide me.



Antithesis arises in a sentence or line where words

are opposed to each other. This figure gives force to meaning, and variety to utterance, and should be read or spoken with a particular stress on the words in opposition.


"Had you rather Cæsar were living, and die all slaves, than that Cæsar were dead, to live all freemen ?”


"Is it credible that when he declined putting Clodius to death with the consent of all, that he would choose to do it with the disapprobation of many? Can you believe that the person whom he scrupled to slay, when he might have done so with full justice-in a convenient place at a proper time-with secure impunity, he made no scruple to murder-against justice-in an unfavourable place at an unseasonable time—and at the risk of capital condem



"So, also, is the resurrection of the dead. It is sown in corrup tion, it is raised in incorruption: It is sown in dishonour, it is raised in glory: It is sown in weakness, it is raised in power: It is sown a natural body, it is raised a spiritual body."

1 COR. XV. CHAP. 42nd VERSE.


Monotone occurs in those parts of a subject where several words follow each other, without requiring any variation of voice, or particular stress upon one word more than another. This figure often imparts sublimity, and from its own want of variety, bestows variety upon that to which it is attached. It should be read or spoken with unvarying sameness.


"For who would bear the whips and scorns o' the time,
The oppressor's wrong, the proud man's contumely,
The pangs of despis'd love, the law's delay,

The insolence of office, and the spurns

That patient merit of the unworthy takes,
When he himself might his quietus make
With a bare bodkin? Who would fardels bear,
To groan and sweat under a weary life;
But that the dread of something after death,
That undiscover'd country, from whose bourn
No traveller returns,-puzzles the will,
And makes us rather bear those ills we have,
Than fly to others that we know not of?
Thus conscience docs make cowards of us all;
And thus the native hue of resolution
Is sicklied o'er with the pale cast of thought;
And enterprises of great pith, and moment,
With this regard their currents turn awry,
And lose the name of action."-

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High on a throne of royal state, which far
Outshone the wealth of Ormus and of Ind,
Or where the gorgeous East with richest hand
Show's on her king's barbarick pearl and gold,
Satan exalted sat-




"In thoughts from the visions of the night, when deep sleep falleth on men, fear came upon me, and trembling, which inade all my bones to shake. Then a spirit passed before my face; the hair of my flesh stood up: it stood still, but I could not discern the form thereof: an image was before mine eyes, there was silence, and I heard a voice, saying, shall mortal man be more just than God? Shall a man be more pure than his Maker? Behold, he put no trust in his servants; and his angels he charged with folly: How much less in them that dwell in houses of clay, whose foundation is in the dust, which are crushed before the moth. They are destroyed from morning to evening; they perish forever without any regarding it." JOB, 4th CHAP. 13-20th VERSES.

"As autumn's dark storms pour from two echoing hills, so towards each other approached the heroes. As two dark streams from high rocks meet and mix, and roar on the plain; loud, rough and dark in battle, met Laughlin and Innisfail : Chief mixed his strokes with chief, and man with man. Steel clanging sounded on steel. Helmets are cleft on high; blood bursts and smokes around. As the troubled noise of the ocean when roll the waves on high; as the last peal of the thunder of heaven; such is the noise of battle."


"In my distress I called upon the Lord, and cried unto my God:he heard my voice out of his temple, and my cry came before him.

Then the earth shook and trembled; the foundations, also, of the hills moved and were shaken, because he was wroth. There went up a smoke out of his nostrils, and fire out of his mouth devoured: He bowed the heavens, also, and came down; and darkness was under his feet;-and he rode upon a cherub, and did fly: yea, he didfly upon the wings of the wind."

18th PSALM,

6-10th VERSES.

"In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth. And the earth was without form and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of the waters. And God said, let there be light,' and there was light." GENESIS, 1st and 3d VERSES.

NOTE. The above extracts, save the first, are examples of the sublime, as well as of Monotone.


In Modulation are comprehended all the various inflections of which the voice is capable. It may, indeed, be termed the soul or witchery of eloquence; for through its medium the sense is charined, the imagination taken prisoner, and the most obdurate softened and relaxed. The effect of Modulation upon the heart must ever be acknowledged, as long as the human ear can drink the harmony of its sounds. To attempt a system of accurrately teaching this delightful power, would be indeed vain and futile ;* nothing but being possessed of

*Mr. Walker, and others, have made very ingenious remarks typified on paper, on the inflections of the human voice; but a just knowledge of the true causes which produce those inflections, will preclude the necessity of any study on the subject, save of the rules to be found in this, and similar books, and of a just conception, as has been above stated, of the author's meaning, which conception will impart the true feeling, and out of that feeling, will arise the natural, and, consequently, the proper inflection, which marks on paper can never correctly convey. Mr. Walker's own words, give cre dence to these observations. In his preface to the third Edition of his Rhetorical Grammar, he says," The sanguine expectations I had once entertained, that this analysis of the human voice, would be received by the learned with avidity, and applause, are now over; I have almost worn out a long life in laborious exertions, and though I have succeeded, beyond expectation, in forming readers, and speakers, in the most respectable circles in the three kingdoms, yet I have had the mortification, to find few of my pupils listen to anything,

a chastely correct ear, sensibly alive to the good feelings of nature, being perfectly master of your subject, and letting it fully and exclusively occupy your mind, can ever enable you to attain a modulation. Instead of paying attention to the different heights, and keys which are said to produce modulation, but which in reality modulation gives even a name to, it is here recommended to every speaker, to commence his subject in a tone sufficiently audible to be perfectly heard; then he can rise, and afterwards fall, as sense and feeling, in conjunction with the rules of this essay and the five inflections of the voice dictate. Those who are possessed of the requisites already mentioned, will find in the following, fit exercises of modulation; but the student will have much to do before he can be capable of reading or reciting, with any prospect of success, such surpassing efforts of poetic genius.


O thou that with surpassing glory crown'd
Look'st from thy sole dominion, like the God
Of this new world; at whose sight all the stars
Hide their diminish'd heads; to thee I call,
But with no friendly voice, and add thy name,
O Sun, to tell thee how I hate thy beams,
That bring to my remembrance from what state
I fell, how glorious once above thy sphere;
Till pride and worse ambition threw me down,
Warring in heav'n against heav'n's matchless King.
Ah wherefore! he deserv'd no such return
From me, whom he created what I was,
In that bright eminence, and with his good
Upbraided none; nor was his service hard.
What could be less than to afford him praise,
The easiest recompense, and pay him thanks,
How due! yet all his good prov'd ill in me,
And wrought but malice; lifted up so high
I'sdain'd subjection, and thought one step higher
Would set me high'st, and in a moment quit
The debt immense of endless gratitude,
So burdensome still paying, still to owe,

but my pronunciation. When I have explained to them, the five modifications of the voice, they have assented and admired, but so difficult did it appear to adopt them, especially to those advanced in life, that I was obliged to follow the old method,-read as I read."

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