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the Baptists. The principle is there recognised — Deviation from prescribed orders is sinful; but where there is no law, there is no transgression. After illustrating this by reference to the Lord's Supper respecting the frequency of which there is no law, he proceeds — • It is otherwise with the recurrence of the Sabbath: this is determined both by command and example.' So we say, concerning the ordinance which divides us from so many excellent Christians : this, as to its performance and its subjects, is determined both by command and example. Should we then not follow our conviction of duty, we should violate command and example. Should we mingle with those who conform not to the command and the example, we should be depriving the truth of our influence, and lending our aid to the support of an errur which we cannot but regard as fraught with dangerous consequences. It would have been criminal in Moses not to have made the snuffers of pure gold—for he had
express instructions to do so, and the pattern of every thing was shown him in the mount.' So we believe, respecting the ordinance of Baptism, we have express instructions to do so, and the pattern of every thing is shown us in the New Testament.
We have said enough to vindicate our dissent froin some of Mr Jay's expressions. What we have said ought to save us from the accusation of narrowness. Indeed, it ought to secure to us the credit of consistent and rigid integrity, of adherence to professed principles even in the midst of misrepresentation and ill-report.
We take our leave of Mr Jay, with sentiments of increased respect for him, and with earnest desire that his well-proportioned views of Christian character and duty may have a wide circulation : for we sincerely believe that these Lectures, except the remarks to which we have just been adverting, are happily adapted to advance the Christian "unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ."
Present State of Christianity and of the Missionary Establishments
for its Propagation in all parts of the World.-Edited by FredERICK SHOBERL. 12mo.
260. New-York, 1828.
We were attracted by the title of this book. The theme presents a rich field for pious investigation, and furnishes innumerable facts for useful statistics. We did not expect, in a duodecimo of less than 300 pages, a very elaborate essay on the present state of Christianity, nor a very minute account of the condition and operations of missionary institutions. But we certainly did expect many things, which this book does not supply; and we feel ourselves called upon to inform our readers of its true character.
Of the purpose of the author we have nothing to say. There is no reason to suppose, that it was otherwise than praiseworthy. But of the book, we are entitled to speak freely. Feb. 1829.
The work is divided into five parts, and treats of the progress of Christianity in Europe, Asia, Africa, America, and South India. It is, in fact, no more than a brief and meagre sketch of the history of our religion in all parts of the world, with some very imperfect, and, in many instances, grosely inaccurate statements, respecting modern missionary operations, although the author says, that he has “ had recourse to the Reports of our principal Societies engaged in the propagation of Christianity, and in the circulation of the Bible, and to other authentic materials." The work, therefore, does not well correspond with its title, for it does not give a view of the “present state of Christianity,” in the world, unless very general and loose statements can afford such a view; and in regard to Missionary Establishments, very little satisfactory information can be gathered from the book.
The work might, nevertheless, with all its deficiencies, be useful, if its spirit were sound, and its statements correct. But we are obliged to say, that the author does not appear to possess the views and feelings which a writer on the propagation of Christianity ought to have; and that so many of his statements are palpably erroneous, as to invalidate the authority of his book as a work of reference.
In the first place, we will say a few words respecting the spirit and views which pervade the book.
It savors strongly of a lax theology. The original author was a Mr Zschokke,'a German writer; and he has certainly infused into it a considerable portion of the German mystical philosophy, falsely so called. He speaks, repeatedly, of the sublime idea of the Unity of God,' 'revealed by Jesus,' and 'through Jesus.'-He inquires (p. 123) in relation to the stow progress of Christianity in modern times, “Why should God be at this day less with Christ than formerby ? Such a question sounds strangely, at least.
But the author's opinions may be learned more conclusively, perhaps, from other circumstances.
There is not, so far as we have observed, a single reference to the Holy Spirit, as having any agency in the diffusion of Christianity. The success of the Gospel, in the early ages of the church, is not ascribed, by the author, to the power of God, giving efficacy and success to the efforts of his ministers. “The sublime perspicu
and simplicity of the new religion,' he says, (p. 23) 'the persuasive force with which it addresses itself to all minds, the purity of life and the contempt of death, manifested by its first professors, soon gained it numerous friends.'—He thinks, too, that the Roman soldiers were instrumental in spreading the Gospel. "The well informed warrior, at home in every part of the world, needed a God independent of the narrow limits of countries, and a faith independent of the priesthood of the nations. What he had an obscure feeling of was rendered clear to him by the simple doctrines of Jesus. What he learned of the doctrine in Asia, Egypt, or Greece, he communicated to others in Gaul and Britain.'
These ferocious legionaries accomplished many wonderful things; but we never before heard of them as missionaries of the cross.
Can a writer, who, in treating of the rapid diffusion of Christianity, omits all notice of the divine influence, and ascribes it to secondary causes, be a suitable historian of missions? Even Gibbon, though he labors to represent the triumphs of the cross as the result of peculiar and propitious circumstances, does not omit to mention the divine agency. Our author, indeed, goes farther, and by unavoidable inference, denies the fact of any divine influence in the diffusion of Christianity. Speaking of the difficulties which oppose modern missions, he says (p. 123) for this reason, many have, indeed, believed, that Christianity was propagated, in the first ages, by supernatural means, and that a divine power supported its first preachers. This will be thought, we suppose, sufficiently significant.
The spirit of the author appears further in the fact, that he does not speak of the heathen as in a guilty and lost condition, and needing the Gospel as the only instrument of their salvation.' He says much of the influence of Christianity to elevate their minds, and purify their morals, and improve their civil and social condi tion; but he does not insist on the necessity of the Gospel to save their souls. He speaks of Christianity as a better religion,' than the abominable idolatrics of the heathen. (page 118.) But we have said enough to show, that such a writer cannot do justice to such a theme.
We will now take notice of a few errors in his statements of facts. And these we shall seek in those parts of his book to which we first referred, on opening it, with the hope of obtaining some valuable information.
Speaking of Rangoon, he says: 'Hither Messrs Judson and Fe Jix Carey, the latter a physician, were sent as the first Protestant Missionaries, in 1807, by the American Baptist Society.' Here are several errors. Mr Carey was not sent by the American Baptist Society, which did not exist till seven years after. He and Mr Chater were the first Protestant Missionaries, and were sent by the English Baptist Missionary Society. Mr Judson did not arrive in Rangoon till 1813.
• They commenced their labors,' says the author, 'by translating the Sacred Scriptures into Burman, and into the languages of Pegu and Siam.' Mr Carey translated a small part of the New Testament into Burman ; but neither he, nor Mr Judson, commenced his labors by translating. They were employed for several years in acquiring the language. Translations of only a small part of the Bible have yet, we believe, been made by our Missionaries into the languages of Pegu and Siam.
• The Emperor subsequently (in 1813) granted them permission to establish a press at Ava, for printing their Bibles. No press was ever established at Ava; and the Bible has not yet been translated, except the New Testament. Dr Judson is now engaged in translating the Old Testament.
In August, 1826,' says the author, 'types had arrived from England at Columbo, in Ceylon, for the purpose of printing the New Testament in the Palee, which is the written language of the Burman empire.' The Palee, or Pali, is precisely as much the 'writ
ten language of the Burman Empire,' as the Hebrew or the Greek is the written language of the United States. The sacred books of the Burmans are written in the Pali, which is, therefore, studied and understood by the learned and by the priests; but the common Burman is a distinct language, and is written in a different character. Other errors might be pointed out in the account of Burmah.
The missionary establishment at Serampore is mentioned in a paragraph of ten lines. 'Here, it is said, 'English Baptist Missionaries have been assiduously laboring since 1799. From this statement it would be inferred, that no efforts were made in India, by the English Baptists, until 1799; but Dr Thomas went to India in 1783, and Dr Carey in 1793, and labored in Bengal, until the missionary establishment was removed to Serampore, in 1799.
The author says: “The Americans established in 1812, a Society for Foreign Missions, which has sent out messengers of salvation to the islands of East and South India.' He probably refers to the American Board of Commissioners; but this was formed in 1810.
These citations are sufficient to show, that the author's statements cannot be implicitly relied on; and it is worse than a waste of time to read a book, if its facts cannot be credited without a constant suspicion of inaccuracy. The writer appears, however, to be a sincere friend of missions; and we hope that his book, objectionable as it is, may have some effect to awaken others to a right state of feeling and of action in reference to the great cause of God.
A Grammar of the Hebrew Lan- designed particularly for beginners. By guage, by Moses Stuart, Professor of Josiah W. Gibbs, Professor of Sacred Sacred Literature in the Theological Literature in Yale College. This work Institution at Andover. Third edition. is an abridgment of the former Lexicon This edition has been almost entirely published at Andover, with improvewritten anew by the author, and is ments from the second edition, which compressed into a much less compass the editor is now preparing. It emthan the preceding ones. At the same braces all the results given in the time, nothing important is omitted, but larger work; and it is adapted to Prof. many deficiencies are supplied. Stuart's Hebrew Grammar.
Characteristics of the Ministers' A Hebrew Chrestomathy, or Selec. Work; a Sermon preached Oct. 22, tion of Easy Lessons, consisting of short 1828, at the Ordination of Mr Calvin sentences, proverbs, brief narrations, Newton, as Pastor of the Baptist Church and plain pieces of poetry, all from the and Society in Bellingham, Mass. By Hebrew Scriptures, with notes, refer. Henry J. Ripley, Professor of Biblical ences to the Hebrew Grammar, short Literature and Pastoral Duties in the explanations, &c. adapted to the be- Newton Theological Institution. ginner in the study of the Hebrew, and designed, in a great measure, Memoir of the Rev. Legh Richto supersede the necessity of oral in- mond, M. A. By Rev.T. S. Grimshawe. struction. By the same author.
Memoirs of the Life, Character, and A Manual Hebrew and English Lex- Writings of the Rev.P. Doddridge, D.D. icon, including the Biblical Chaldee, By Job Orton.
FOR FEBRUARY, 1829.
ble population. We suffered no incon
venience from want of water, though The subject of locating the Tribes mill-streams, like these in Missouri, of Indians on lands west of the Missis- fail in the more dry seasons of the sippi has recently attracted much at year. tention. Our readers have, generally, We came in contact with Osages, been made acquainted with the plan Kanzas, Pawnees, and Shawanees, by exhibited by Mr. M'Coy, which has all of whom we were treated with great been laid before the Government of friendship. The Chickasaws and the United States. Mr. M'Coy, ac Choctaws have sent word that they companied by a number of Chiefs, will come this fall. We have fitted has been exploring the country, and out our Putawatomies and Ottawas, appears, from his communications, to and sent them home. The objects of be much encouraged with the pros- the expedition, in relation to them, are pect. While waiting the arrival of accomplished, and they are carrying the Southern Indians, he made an home to their people feelings and views excursion west of the State of Missouri. which promise a favorable result. We select the following extracts from I expect to return to-morrow to St. a letter addressed to Dr. Bolles, the Louis, to await the arrival of the Corresponding Secretary, descriptive Southern Indians, and should they of this journey:
to make another tour in the
west. Should they not come this fall, Madison County, Illinois, sc Miles the expedition will be completed, I
N. East of si. Louis, Oct. 12, 1828. trust, early the next season. Rev. and dear Sir,
With great respect, Sir, your faithful On leaving the State of Missouri, servant,
ISAAC M'COY. we went westwardly up the Osage river, chiefly on the north side to its source—then bore southwestwardly across the upper branches of Nesho,
The last communication received until we reached the main river-then turned northwest about twenty-five by the Secretary, dated Dec. 16, 1828, miles, and intersected the Santa-Fe presents some encouraging prospects road, sixty miles from Arkansaw river, of a religious nature at this station, and about four hundred and sixty miles among which, it is stated, that one froin St. Louis. We then travelled
candidate for baptism is anxiously north-east to the upper village of the waiting an opportunity to follow Christ Kanzas Indians, on Kanzas river, 120 in that ordinance, and that another, one miles on a direct line west of the State of the hired persons, is awakened to of Missouri—thence journeyed east- deep solicitude on the great concerns wardly to the mouth of Kanzas river, of the soul. But the subject of removand there took the most direct road to al, which is under consideration by the St. Louis, at which place I arrived the Indians, must
necessarily engross much 7th inst. —the 50th day from leaving. of their attention, and for a time emI was favored with health and fine barrass missionary operations. weather-the whole company were mercifully preserved from accident and harm: And our Indians were well
CHICKASAWS. pleased with their tour.
MR HOLMES, Oct. 13, 1828, writes We explored a beautiful country, from Tokshish, ‘Four colored persons, high, rich, and apparently healthy—too who gave satisfactory evidence of a scarce of wood, yet sufficiently sup- change of heart, were admitted to the plied to meet the wants of a considera- privileges of the church. The Spirit