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THE DARK AGES:

SKETCHES OF THE SOCIAL CONDITION
OF EUROPE,

From
The Fifth To The Twelfth Century.

Second Edition.

NEW-YORK:

LEAVITT, TROW & COMPANY.

CONTENTS,

Section J. Taking of the city 7

2. Roman civilization ]5

3. Barbarians 30

CHAPTER II. THE CHURCH.

Section 1. Political relations , 34

2. Superstitions 44

3. Morals 59

4. Literature and art 74

CHAPTER III.—THE MONASTERY.

Section 1. Riseofmonachism 85

3. Monastic life and manners 97

3. Monkish employments ]03

4. Effects of monastic institutions on society 118

PREFACE.

In the following sketch, the author has confined himself to one branch of the History of the Middle Ages. He attempts nothing more than a glance at the social condition of Europe, from the fifth to the twelfth century; political affairs, military transactions, the rise and fall of dynasties, the relation of European states to each other, and the lives and deeds of the heroes of those days, do not come within the range of his plan. He has marked out the first six centuries of the middle ages for separate consideration, because in the twelfth century a new epoch commenced.

Much of what is true of the former period, is not true of the latter. New social elements were then formed, and old ones received new life—it was the dawn of modern civilization. It is difficult to draw a well-defined line between the two ages, but it may be placed somewhere about the twelfth century. Events and institutions which arose then, and

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