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I tell you in darkness, speak ye in light: and what ye hear in the ear, preach ye upon the housetops. And fear not them which kill the body, but are not able to kill the soul : but rather fear him which is able to destroy both soul and body in hell. Are not two sparrows sold for a farthing? and one of them shall not fall on the ground without your father. But the

very
hairs of

your

head are all numbered. Fear

ye not therefore, ye are of more value than many sparrows. Whosoever therefore shall confess me before men, him will I confess also before my Father which is in heaven. But whosoever shall deny me before men, him will I also deny before my Father which is in heaven. And he said to them all, If any man will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross daily, and follow me. For whosoever will save his life shall lose it: but whosoever will lose his life for my sake, the same shall save it. For what is a man advantaged, if he gain the whole world, and lose himself, or be cast

away ? And whosoever shall give to drink unto one of these little ones a cup of cold water only in the name of a disciple, verily I say unto you, he shall in no wise lose his reward. At that time Jesus answered and said, I thank thee, O Father, Lord of heaven and earth, because thou hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast revealed them unto babes. Even so, Father : for so it seemed good in thy sight. All things are delivered unto me of my Father: and no man knoweth the Son, but the Father; neither knoweth any man the Father, save the Son, and he to whomsoever the Son will reveal him.

DOCUMENT E

shut up

ye neither

Woe unto you,

Denunciations. Matt. xxiii 13-39. But woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! for ye

the kingdom of heaven against men: for

go in yourselves, neither suffer ye them that are entering to go in. Woe unto you, scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! for ye pay tithe of mint and anise and cummin, and have omitted the weightier matters of the law, judgment, mercy, and faith : these ought ye to have done, and not to leave the other undone. scribes and Pharisees, hypocrites ! for ye make clean the outside of the cup and of the platter, but within they are full of extortion and excess, because ye build the tombs of the prophets, and garnish the sepulchres of the righteous, and say, If we had been in the days of our fathers, we would not have been partakers with them in the blood of the prophets. Wherefore ye be witnesses unto yourselves, that ye are the children of them which killed the prophets. Wherefore, behold I send unto you prophets, and wise men, and scribes : and some of them ye shall kill and crucify; and some of them shall ye scourge in your synagogues, and persecute them from city to city; that upon you may come all the righteous blood shed

upon

the earth, from the blood of righteous Abel unto the blood of Zacharias son of Barachias, whom ye slew between the temple and the altar. Verily, I say unto you, All these things shall come upon this generation.

O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, thou that killest the prophets, and stonest them which are sent unto thee, how often would I have gathered thy children together, even as a hen gathereth her chickens under her wings, and ye would not! Behold, your house is left unto you desolate. For I say unto you, Ye shall not see me henceforth, till ye shall say,

Blessed is he that cometh in the name of the Lord.

DOCUMENT F

Parables. Matt. xiii 24-34.

Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is likened unto a man which sowed good seed in his field. But while men slept, his enemy came and sowed tares among the wheat, and went his way. But when the blade was sprung up, and brought forth fruit, then appeared the tares also. So the servants of the householder came and said unto him, Sir, didst not thou sow good seed in thy field ? from whence then hath it tares ? He said unto them, An enemy hath done this. The servant said unto him, Wilt thou then that we go and gather them up? But he said, Nay; lest while ye gather up the tares, ye root up also the wheat with them. Let both grow together until the harvest : and in the time of harvest I will say to the reapers, Gather ye together first the tares, and bind them in bundles to burn them: but gather the wheat into my barn.

Another parable put he forth unto them, saying, The kingdom of heaven is like to a grain of mustard seed, which a man took, and sowed in his field : which indeed is the least of all seeds : but when it is grown, it is the greatest among herbs, and becometh a tree, so that the birds of the air come and lodge in the branches thereof.

Another parable spake he unto them; The kingdom of heaven is like unto leaven, which a woman took, and hid in three measures of meal, till the whole was leavened. All these things spake Jesus unto the multitude in parables; and without a parable spake he not unto them.

THE CHOICE

BETWEEN MATTHEW AND MARK

It has been so firm a canon of many critics that Mark's Gospel preceded Matthew's, as well as Luke's, that it is needful to clear the ground by seeing whether the reason for this canon is conclusive, and if we must accept it as limiting our possible results. Now, ugh we are dealing with structural criticism, yet, as the alleged grounds for the earlier date of Mark are textual and verbal, we will turn to this other kind of evidence, to see if it is conclusive. We shall not look to the whole gospel, as that is not here in question ; but to those passages which are not in the nucleus common to all three gospels, and which are only found in Matthew and Mark. It is probable that these passages have a different descent to those of the nucleus. Also, we shall not here look at differences which depend on personal appreciation of a longer or shorter version as the more probable, but rather look at differences which imply earlier or later usage and thought.

We read in Matt., “Is not this the carpenter's son? is not his mother called Mary? ...”(xiii 55). But in Mark, “ Is not this the carpenter the son of Mary . .?”(vi 3). Obviously Mark has the later form, in view of the Virgin-birth.

In Matt. xv 1-2 tbe scribes and Pharisees of Jerusalem make objection about the lack of ceremonial ablutions. In Mark vii 1-2 the Pharisees and scribes are said to have come from Jerusalem, and then to be shocked by the lack of the ablutions. Mark thus represents the unbelievers as coming with an objectless visit, and then starting a difficulty. Matthew has far the more likely account.

In Matt. xix 9 the abrupt change to the 1st person is due to the verbal insertion of the apposite saying from Matt. v 32, “ And I say unto you, Whoever shall put away his wife .

this is transformed to the 3rd person by Mark. But if the Marcan 3rd CHOICE BETWEEN MATTHEW AND MARK 87

person were earlier in Mark x 11, 12, it would never have been transferred to the 1st person, in xix 9 by Matthew.

In Matt. xx 21 places are desired " in thy kingdom ; "in Mark x 37,“ in thy glory.” The kingdom was preached in the ministry, but the glory is a later development.

In Matt. xxiv 36 we rea of that day knoweth no man “not the angels of heaven, but the Father only.” In Mark xiji 39 it is amplified as, “not the angels which are in heaven, neither the Son, but the Father”-clearly a later version. Matthew would never have omitted the Son, but Mark may well have inserted the words.

To those who knew the family, “ Peter and the two sons of Zebedee” (Matt. xxvi 37), would be a natural locution; Mark explains it as “ Peter and James and John” (xiv 33). The “two sons,” rendered simply by the dual in semitic, is a shorter form of thought but not of actual expression, it belongs to the time when Zebedee's house was still the family unit, and would never at a later date be substituted for the names of James and John, when their persons were more thought of separately.

The multitude with swords and staves are said to come from the chief priests and elders of the people (Matt. xxvi 47), who were the legal authorities ; but Mark inserts the scribes (xiv 43), who would have no right to send a guard for an arrest. Again the Marcan form is corrupt.

In Matt. xxvi 61 the accusation is made of saying, “ I am able to destroy the temple of God, and to build it in three days,” which is explained by John (ii 21) as meaning the body as the divine temple. Mark did not understand it, and amplified it as, “I will destroy this temple that is made with hands,” referring to the temple of Jerusalem (xiv 58).

Matthew has the reply, “ Thou hast said,” as in the earlier passage xxvi 25, and in the later passage xxvii 11, and in Mark xv 2; Mark, in xiv 62, uses the unparalleled form “I am" in reply, as trying to be clearer.

Matthew introduces casting lots on the garments (xxvii 35) as agreeing with the prophecy. Mark omits the prophecy (xv 24), and the incident of the lots is then pointless.

In Matt. xxvii 42, “If he be the king of Israel, let him now come down” accords with the superscription ; but Mark (xv 32) introduces “Let Christ the king of Israel descend,” which breaks the continuity with the superscription. Matthew, in xxvii 48-9, says, “one of them ran and took a sponge

and gave him to drink. The rest said, Let be." Mark

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