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like these before us, what are we to Jesuits expect to have converted the do? Shall the tide of evil flow on, chief part of North Wales. But you unrestrained by any spiritual break- will say, What has this to do with water? It may be said, that the best open-air preaching? I answer, Much way to raise one is by means of the every way. For Popery, with a keener circulation of tracts and religious eye than Protestantism, has already books. But, bear in mind that infi- commenced this great work. In Londelity is not only propagated by means don the priests are beginning to adof the press. “The children of this dress the crowds they can gather in world are wiser in their generation the courts and back alleys of such than the children of light." The very parishes as Lambeth, Southwark, &c. agency I here advocate, for defence From the latter place a clergyman of the truth, is already employed by writes to the Church Pastoral-Aid these apostles of evil. In fact, many Society, pressing this on their notice, infidels are made annually by the -he says, “ You may judge of the system of open-air preaching. In character of our population, from the Smithfield and Bonner's Fields,* Lon- fact that Romish priests and friars, don, there are more than a dozen such and sisters of mercy, swarm here. We preachers, pouring forth volumes of had Father Ignatius walking bareblasphemy every Sabbath-day, and foot among us not long since; and gathering large congregations. And continually we meet with priests in while this is going on out of doors, the twos and threes, declaiming in our adjacent churches are well nigh empty. courts and alleys. We may be What then but a direct counter agency sure that this proceeds from no inwill avail to check the evil? Religion dividual or unauthorized policy. Rome would then be far less exposed, than is too well disciplined to allow her now, to sarcastic sneers. Multitudes priests to move a single step without would render homage to its increased the consent of her higher powers. earnestness, and stand amazed at the She has counted the cost, and augured reality of its living power. If those success, else the movement would not who are at present sunk in infidelity have been made. And her ground failed to be converted, yet many a of expectation appears good. When sceptical spirit would doubtless be re- we think of the ignorance of our poor, claimed from final unbelief, and ga- and their innate love for excitement, thered into the true fold of Christ. we may well dread the influence of
2. The same observations apply with cunniug sophistry, backed by large regard to the increased efforts of pecuniary resources, such as will be Popery.
brought to bear on them by this Since the year 1829 these have been agency. It is not too much to expect gigantic. Previous to that time there that in our more densely crowded were but three Roman Catholic col- districts, where it is at work, hundreds leges for the ed
tion of the clergy of perverts will be made, unless some in England. Now there are six; some equally available machinery can be of which are tenanted by foreign ec- found on our part to counteract it. clesiastics, such as Passionists, Fathers And for this I can think of nothing of Charity, Redemptorists, Fathers of but a bold commencement of the same the Conception, and Oratorians. And policy on the part of the parochial who shall number the Jesuits? The clergy. Protestantism need not fear whole country is dotted with their the broad light of day. She need not missions, In Ireland they are su
be ashamed of openly measuring preme.
In Wales they have spent lances with her enemy. Let us bring many thousands upon a magnificent out the Bible front to front with sutheological college near St. Asaph, perstition, and prove our love for purposely to train up missionaries ac- souls by shewing as much earnestquainted with the language and pre- ness for the masses; and then, dear judices of the simple and enthusiastic brethren, we shall rise to a proper Welsh peasantry. In a few years the estimate of the wants of our perishing • Now Victoria Park.
• See last Occasional Paper. Jan. 1851.
countrymen, and be made a blessing persons in London, taking young and to our nation.
old together, belonging to this class. 3. But I press this even still more in If we are to judge by the reports of connection with the amount of vice, Sab- the City Missionary Society, there is bath-breaking, and neglect of public a single district in the parish of worship, universally prevailing. Marylebone, where out of 1,262 adults,
It is needless to say that all these as many as 1,122 live habitually in things for the most part go together. neglect of God's house. Alas, it is And who with his eyes open can fully only a type of what remains behind, measure their extent?
About 36,000 to a greater or less extent through criminals pass through the metro- the whole of the united kingdom. politan gaols, bridewells, and peni- What then shall be done? Can tentiaries every year.
The number we say calmly and dispassionately, of persons taken into custody by the that the state of the country does not metropolitan police, for various in- demand additional, and yet untried, fractions of the law, amounts in a
efforts for its evangelization ? While single year to about 65,000, equal to these things continue, shall we rest the whole population of some of our
satisfied that we have done enough? largest towns.*
God forbid! Rather let us hear it as ith regard to the Metropolis, the a call from God to enter on a fresh field Constabulary Commissioners, after
after of labour. It is clear that our present careful investigation, discovered not machinery does not stem the evil, nor long since, that within the boundaries even bear at all upon it practically; of the metropolitan police there were-
let us therefore at least be animated
to do something. And what can we 10,444 persons who had no visible means of
do more effectually than enter boldly subsistence, but by living on fraud,&c.
into the strongholds of Satan's king4,353 committed offenders, occasional violators
dom, by means of open-air preaching? of the law.
By this means many might be drawn 2,104 known as associates of the above, and to God. I believe indeed that God suspicious characters.
would honour us as his ministers with Who can wonder after this, that the many conversions. Sin at least could sum of £51,890 was spent for the sup
not be so unblushingly dominant as port of three prisons in the year 1848,
it is now in the more degraded parts in the county of Middlesex? Nor is
of our town population throughout the
land. this frightful picture confined to London. In the county of Hertfordshire; The experiment has yet to be tried.
I say all this of course in faith. which is purely agricultural
, £12,000 is annually paid for police and prisons. But, who that loves immortal souls, While taking the country at large, it fare of society, who that desires the
who that values the peace and welcosts us £11,000,000 per annum in the punishment of crimne alone.
happiness of his country, who that Now all these vast masses of our
prays in earnest to see the kingdom countrymen thus living on their shame
of Christ extended, who that rememare totally beyond the reach of any or
bers the precept, “Go ye into the dinary ministerial influence. Churches highways and hedges, and compel and chapels may be situated in the
them to come in,”—will think it an exmidst of them, but they are of no
periment not worth trying? Oh, for avail. It is perfectly awful to reflect sion, that constraining zeal, necessary
that moral courage, that stern decion the multitudes who never enter
to commence the work! The Lord any place of worship. It is calculated that there are at least 1,000,000 of pour it out upon us largely, for His
name's sake! • See Letters on “ Labour and the Poor" in the Morning Chronicle."
[To be continued.]
THE POPE'S ARROGANT CLAIM TO SUPREMACY.
By the Rev. J. Tomlin, Tunkersley Rectory, Yorkshire.
It is well known that the Pope's foundation of the Church of Christ. arrogant claim to supremacy over the Faith is the means by which Peter universal Church of Christ, is main- himself was built on the sole and tained by the Romanists on the au- right foundation, which is Christ, the thority of our Lord's address to Peter, living Rock. Mat. xvi. 18, 19. Our Lord's words 2. The peculiar force and meaning are constantly reiterated in Romish of our Saviour's words are not appacatechisms, and in the preambles of rent in the authorized English transpapal bulls and briefs. Thus, in the lation : “And I say unto thee that recent bull of Pius the Ninth, for thou art Peter, and upon this rock I restoring the Romish hierarchy in will build my Church.” As there is England, he boldly asserts that, “the no antecedent reference in the conpower of governing the universal text to “rock,” the English Protestant Church (was) intrusted by our Lord reader is left to infer from the analogy Jesus Christ to the Roman Pontiffs in of Scripture that our Lord here makes the person of St. Peter.”
an indirect allusion to Himself, as the Although the present sifting contro- Rock, on which alone His Church is versy with Rome has called forth some founded, and which is a well-known able confutations of the Bishop of and familiar image, or metaphor, of Rome's false and audacious claim, and Himself, throughout the Scriptures. especially a masterly one from Mr. But the subtle Romanist tells him Seely, yet as the Papists have not been that Peter, in Greek, means a rock; fairly and fully beaten and driven from and therefore Peter is the Rock on the scriptural ground on which they which our Lord builds His Church. have ventured to take their stand, they The Romanist, however, asserts what will fall back upon their favourite is not true; for, the proper meaning argument for Peter and the Pope's of Peter, or Petros (Tletpos), in Greek, supremacy, and will never quit it till is a stone, and not a rock; and is thus Protestants can clearly show that the properly rendered, John i. 42, on the Romanists have wrested the passage occasion of our Lord's first giving this from its real and obvious meaning, name to " Simon son of Jonas :" (Mat. xvi. 18, 19,) “As they do many “ Thou shalt be called Cephas, which other Scriptures to their own destruc- is, by interpretation, a stone,” (Peter, tion.”
in the margin.) 1. As Peter never assumed any supe- 3. Leigh also says in his “Critica riority over his brethren, nor did the Sacra," Terpos always signifies a stone, other Apostles ever acknowledge or never a rock." concede any pre-eminence to Peter, 4. Moreover, the
Greek we may justly infer, à priori, that a word for rock is petra (Tetpa', and not critical and sound interpretation of petros (Tetpos ), and which is used our Lord's words do not warrant the here in the passage under our consimeaning which the Romanists put deration, as also in other places of upon them. Yet it is singular that Holy Scripture, where a rock is inProtestant writers and commentators tended in contradistinction to a stone. have half conceded the argument to the Thus, in Mat. vii. 24, the rock on Papists by their lax and unscriptural which the wise man builds his house interpretation of the words, and into x is terpa, preceded by the definite ar. which they were too easily led by ticle, and not retpos. some of the early fathers, who said, it 5. Again. The distinctive significawas not on Peter personally, but on tions of πετρος and πετρα are most prethe rock of his faith, or confession of cisely marked in Mat. xvi. 18: "QU EU his faith, that Christ would build His πετρος και επι ταυτη τη πετρα οικοδομησω Church. Now, we nowhere find in μου την εκκλησιαν.”
Here πετρος, και the word of God, that faith is called a stone, stands alone, without even the
definite article; whereas terpa, rock, turning round, he said unto Peter, is preceded both by the definite arti- (T6 TetpW) get thee behind me, cle and demonstrative pronoun,"Tauth Satan!” TN Tetpa,” this the rock, or, this very rock. 8. The folly, absurdity, and wilful “Thou art a stone, (Tetpos) and upon perverseness of making Peter the this the rock I will build my Church. rock, or foundation of the Church of Supplying the obvious ellipsis, the Christ, are here strikingly manifest meaning of our Lord's words may be from our Lord's calling Peter, Satan! thus correctly rendered,—“I say unto immediately after commending him thee, that thou art. Petros, a stone, so highly for his faith. Alas? how (i.e. a lively stone, 1 Pet. ii. 5,) and soon “the gates of hell prevailed” upon this very rock (on which thou against Peter, Rome's chosen "rock." art building) I will build my His sudden and great fall was surely Church.”
a sufficient warning against such an 6. The omission of the definite ar- unscriptural, foolish, and rash interticle before retpos in this passage pretation of our Lord's words in v. 18. must be noticed. Had our Lord in- The foolish builders of Rome have, tended to point out Peter, or Peter's like the Scribes and Pharisees of old, faith, as the rock on which He would rejected “the Chief Corner Stone, build His Church, it is manifest that and, under pretence of building on He would have addressed him by the Peter as a foundation, have really usual personal denominative, o lletpos, built their house upon the sand, like which is much more definite and em- the foolish man in our Lord's parable, phatic than simply retpos. Nothing Mat. vii. 26. And their “refuge of can be more plain than that our Lord lies” will be soon swept away by the intended by this unusual omission of floods and storms of the Lord's righthe article to fix the attention of His teous indignation and wrath, which disciples not on Peter, but on Him
are even now ready to burst forth self, under the appropriate correspond- upon Rome; and great will be the ing metaphor, the "Rock," placed in fall of Babylon ! juxtaposition with a “stone,” and 9. Mark the conduct of the wise rendered most distinctive and empha- man, ver. 24, and the stability of his tic by the definite article and demon- house, built upon “the rock," v. 25, strative pronoun, και επι ταυτη τη πετρα, “Therefore whosoever heareth these X.T 1. "and upon this very rock I will sayings of mine, and doeth them, I will build
Church.” Let us suppose, liken him unto a wise man, which for the sake of argument, that our built his house upon the rock (ETL TOY Lord really intended to found His Terpar): and the rain descended, and Church upon Peter, or Peter's faith! the floods came, and the winds blew, then, it is manifest He would have and beat
that house; and it fell addressed Peter by his usual and em- not: for it was founded upon the phatic name, o lletpos, and would have Rock." also used the same word in the second It will be observed by the attentive member of the sentence, to indicate reader that, in this parallel passage, the identity of the foundation of His the definite article also precedes aerpa, Church with Peter. The meaning, and points to the particular rock on under the present supposition, would which the wise man builds, viz. the then be clear and definite, ou el o lletpos Rock, Christ. Our translators overκαι επι ταυτο τω πετρω οικοδομησο, κ.τ.λ, looked the force of the Greek article,
7. The force of the omission of the and put “a rock” instead of “the article before retpos in ver. 18, is ren- Rock." dered still more obvious by the recur-> 10. The Apostle Paul also alludes rence of the usual personal denomina- to the same beautiful and striking tive only four verses below, viz. in metaphor of our gracious Redeemer; ver. 22 : “And Peter (o lletpos) taking speaking of Israel in the wilderness, him,” &c. And in ver. 23 our Lord (1 Cor. x. 4,) he says, “And (they) addresses him personally and em- did all drink of the same spiritual phatically by the same name :
drink: for they drank of (a) spiritual
Rock that followed them: and that ted Brethren's collection thus comRock was the Christ,” (m de retpa 70 mences : o Xplotos). In the parallel passage,
“ Praise God for ever: Num. xx. 7, 8, we read, “ And the Boundless is His favour Lord spake unto Moses, saying, Take
To His Church and chosen flock, the rod, and gather thou the assembly
Founded on Christ the Rock, together, thou, and Aaron thy bro- His Almighty Son." ther, and speak ye unto the Rock be- 11. We have thus endeavoured, fore their eyes; and (it) shall give under the guidance of the Spirit of forth his water:" Moses and Aaron Truth, by a sound critical interpretawere expressly commanded to “speak tion of our Lord's words to Peter, unto the Rock." The Hebrew is supported by the analogy of Scrip“debartem el ha sela;” the Greek of ture, to rescue this passage entirely the Septuagint,naingate TPOS TNV TET pav. from the Papists, and to show that it "Speak ye to the Rock.'
affords not the slightest ground for phatic the language! The Rock is to building up either Peter or the Pope's be addressed as an intelligent Being, supremacy; but, on the contrary, even as Christ, who was indeed pre- points out, as definitely as language sent, and standing upon the Rock, can do, the only foundation of the (Ex. xvii. 6.) The definite article is true Church of Christ, which is Christ prefixed both to the Hebrew and himself, “ the Rock of Salvation.' Greek names for Rock; thus, ha sela, 12. There is a similar forin of lanand την πετραν. .
guage and metaphor used by our The sin of Moses and Aaron did Lord, which illustrates and confirms not consist merely in smiting the Rock the interpretation here given; it octwice, as is usually supposed, but curs in John ii. 19. Our Lord, on chiefly in disobeying the Lord's com- purging the temple, being asked for a mand, to “speak unto the Rock be- sign of His authority, replied, “ Defore the eyes of the people.” Instead stroy this temple (τον ναον τουτον) and of speaking to the Rock, they spake in three days I will raise it up.' to the people in a spirit of anger and The unbelieving Jews, like the blind unbelief, saying, “Hear now, ye re- Romanists, mistook our Lord's meanbels; must we fetch you water out of ing, and did not perceive that He was this Rock?” Num. xx. 10. In ver. 12 alluding metaphorically to the temple their sin is specially marked out, as of His body, and not to the temple arising from unbelief.
made with hands. Had they been in We have already remarked that a right spirit, and attended to the Rock is a common figure, or emblem, peculiarly expressive terms which He of our gracious and mighty Redeemer, used for “this temple," ver. 19, in the Scriptures: the appropriate tov vaov TOUTO, this very temple," words in Hebrew being sela, or tsur, they would have understood him betin contra-distinction to eben, a stone. ter: the word vaov having both the Amongst other passages, see Deut. definite article and demonstrative xxxii.' 15, Psa. xcv. 1, Isa. xxxii. 2. pronoun, as in the case of netpa, The testimony of our best Protestant- rock. Christian poets may be adduced in Our Lord also uses vaos, and not support of the true interpretation of lepov, the former designating properly our text. For instance, in the beau- the temple, while the latter applied to tiful and well-known hymn, com- all the building and courts of it. Had mencing with,
our Lord intended the latter, He “Glorious things of thee are spoken,”
would doubtless have used the com
mon and appropriate term cepov, as the Christian poet thus alludes to the in ver. 14. security and stability of the Church : 13. We have yet to notice the 19th “On the Rock of Ages founded,
verse of Mat. xvi., which the Papists What can shake thy sure repose ?"
vauntingly allege as an additional
and confirmatory argument of Peter Also, the 725th Hymn of “the Uni- and the Pope's supremacy. We need