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THEREFORE With Angels and Archangels, and with all the company of heaven, we laud and magnify thy glorious Name; evermore praising thee, and saying, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of hosts, heaven and earth are full of thy glory; Glory be to thee, O Lord most High.
brought out of darkness and error into the clear light and true knowledge of thee, and of thy Son Jesus Christ. There fore with Angels, &c.
It has been deemed expedient to omit "as at this time," in the Christmas and Whitsun Prefaces: the time of Christ's birth being uncertain, and the Whitsun festival being kept up at the Jewish "time." Still, "as at this time" might be retained.
Upon the Feast of Trinity only. WHO art one God, one Lord; not one only Person, but three Persons in one Substance. For that which we believe of the glory of the Father, the same we believe of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost, without any difference or inequa lity. Therefore with Angels, &c.*
After each of which Prefaces shall ['fol low immediately'].t
Proper Prefaces. Upon Christmas-day, and seven days after. BECAUSE thou didst give Jesus Christ * for us: thine only Son to be born... who, by the operation of the Holy Ghost, was made very man of the substance of¶Then shall the [ Presbyter'], kneeling down at the Lord's table, say in the name of all them that shall receive the Communion this prayer following.
THEREFORE with Angels and Archangels, and with all the company of heaven, we laud and magnify thy glorious Name; evermore praising thee, and saying, Holy, holy, holy, Lord God of hosts, heaven and earth are full of thy glory; Glory be to thee, O Lord most High. Amen.
WE do not presume to come to this
thy Table, O merciful Lord, trusting in
the Virgin Mary his mother; and that
our own righteousness, but in thy mani-
THROUGH thy most dearly beloved Son Jesus Christ our Lord; who after his most glorious Resnrrection manifestly appeared to all his Apostles, and in their sight ascended up into heaven to prepare a place for us; that where he is thither we might also ascend, and reign with him in glory. Therefore with Angels, &c. Upon Whit-sunday, and six days after.
THROUGH Jesus Christ our Lord; according to whose most true promise, the Holy Ghost came down... from heaven with a sudden great sound, as it had been a mighty wind, in the likeness of fiery tongues, lighting upon the Apostles, to teach them, and to lead them to all truth; giving them both the gift of divers languages, and also boldness with fervent zeal, constantly to preach the Gospel unto all nations; whereby we have been
The American Liturgy adds, "Or else this may be said, the words, Holy Father, being retained in the introductory address. For the precious death and merits of thy Son Jesus Christ our Lord, and for the sending to us of the Holy Ghost, the Comforter; who are one with thee in thy eternal Godhead. Therefore with angels, &c." This is not very desirable. † So it was previously to 1661.
To prevent all mistakes the word "spiritually" is inserted here, and in the prayer of consecration, and also in the post-communion thanksgiving, though implied even now. For a previous exhortation thus runs, "then we spiritually eat the flesh of Christ, and drink his blood." And the 28th Article tells us that the body of Christ is received and eaten "only after an heavenly and spiritual manner." By "à spiritual reception of the body and blood of Christ" is meant "a mental reception, in opposition to a bodily reception: a mental reception of Christ, with all His mediatorial excellency, as 'spiritual food,' in opposition to a bodily reception of His natural flesh and blood. Everything is presented to us in holy Scripture; and the receiving act is faith," (Rev. P Gell's Essay, pp. 98, 99, note). And the Christian beholding
thy dear Son Jesus Christ, and to drink his blood, that our sinful bodies may be made clean by his body, and our souls washed through his most precious blood and that we may evermore dwell in him, and he in us. Amen. T['Then the Presbyter' (or the Bishop
being present), standing up'] shall say the prayer of Consecration, as followeth.
the Paten into his hands:
ing ['them'] according to thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ's holy institution, in remembrance of his death and passion, may ['spiritually'] be partakers of his most blessed Body and Blood: who in the same night that he was betrayed, (a) (a) Here the took Bread; and, when he Priest is to take had given thanks, (b) he brake it, and gave it to his disciples saying, Take, eat, (c) this is my Body which is given for you: Do this in remembrance of me. Likewise after supper he (d) took the Cup: and, (d) Here he is to when he had given thanks take the Cup into he gave it to them, say ing, Drink ye for this (e) is
ALMIGHTY God, our heavenly Father, who of thy tender mercy didst give thine only Son Jesus Christ to suffer death upon the Cross for our redemption; who made there (by his one oblation of himself once offered) a full, perfect, and sufficient sacrifice, oblation, and satisfaction, for the sins of the whole world; and did institute, and in his holy Gospel command us to continue, a perpetual memory of that his precious death, until his coming again; Hear us, O merciful Father, we most humbly beseech thee; and ['vouchsafe to bless and sanctify, with thy Word and Holy Spirit, these thy gifts and creatures of bread and wine; that']† we, receivin the elements the pledges of his redemption, with thankful joy receives them, and thus is quickened to "feed on Christ by faith." And thus "through them, when faithfully received, the Holy Ghost effectually works," (Rev. M. Brock, p. 21). Thus Sacraments are "not physical but moral instruments of salvation," &c. (Hooker, b. v. c. 57, s. 4).
The present rubric is so ambiguous, that the only meaning which can be assigned to it, (See Wheatly, c. i. s. xxii. p. 296, and Bp. Mant's Prayer-book, p. 363), is for the minister to stand "before" the Table to "order" the elements, and then return to the north side to say the Prayer. As all that is necessary for a due ordering of the elements may be done when first placing the elements on the Table, it has been deemed desirable here to return to the original simple form of this Rubric. From 1552 till the last Review the Rubric stood thus, "Then the Priest standing up shall say as followeth." The Scotch Liturgy runs thus, "Then the Presbyter, standing up, shall say the Prayer of Consecration as followeth. But then, during the time of consecration, he shall stand at such a part of the holy Table, where he may with the more ease and decency use both his hands."
+ This alteration is adopted from the American Liturgy. The form of 1549 was adopted in an altered form in the Scotch Liturgy of 1637, whence it was also adopted in a more modified form, and in language nearer to our present Liturgy, in the American Liturgy as given above. Bp. Short says, "It is difficult to understand why the invocation of the second and NOVEMBER-1851.
third Persons in the Trinity was left out [i.e. in 1552]; it has been wisely restored in the American Prayer-Book," (s. 745, p. 542, note). In other respects the American Prayer of Consecration differs widely from ours, being very similar to the Scotch form of 1765. This arises from a Concordate made with the first American Bishop, Dr. Seabery, on his consecration by Scottish Bishops in 1784, (See the Scottish Ecclesiastical Journal, for October, 1851, p. 214, &c.)
The Liturgy of 1549 has been followed, in the retention of only two of the marginal Rubrics, viz., those relating to the "taking" of the paten and the cup, which are quite sufficient for the designation of the elements to be consecrated. The others did not exist in our Liturgy before the last Review. Even these two were omitted in 1552, and only then restored. With respect to the nature of the consecration of the elements, Rev. M. Brock truly observes that "the act of consecration is merely a separation, or setting apart the elements from profane to holy uses," (On the Lord's Supper, p. 8). So again Rev. S. Rowe remarks that "by this act the elements are set apart from all ordinary and common uses, but their nature is not changed. In substance they are the same as before consecration, in purpose totally different," (Appeal to the Rubric, p. 18). In like manner the eminent ritualist Wheatly, speaking of the baptismal water, says, "not that the water contracts any new quality in its nature or essence, by such consecration; but only that it is sanctified or made holy in its use, and separated from common to sacred purposes," (Illustration of the Common Prayer, c. vii. s. iii. p. 339). So also Rev. S. Rowe observes that by the act of conse cration of a church or churchyard, "no indwell. ing holiness is attributed or superstitious honour paid to the building itself, where the living assemble to worship their Lord, nor to the surrounding cemetery where the dead sleep their last long sleep of the grave," (Appeal, p. 21).
died for thee, and feed on him in thy heart by faith with thanksgiving.
my blood of the New Testament, which is shed for you and for many for the remission of sins: Do this, as oft as ye¶ And the Minister that [receiveth the shall drink it, in remembrance of me, Amen.
Then shall the Minister first receive the Communion in both kinds himself, and then proceed to deliver the same to the Bishops, Presbyters'], and Deacons, in like manner, (if any be present,) ['that they may help him that celebrateth' :]* and after that to the people also in order, into their hands, all meekly kneeling. And when he ['receiveth himself or ']+ delivereth the Bread to ['others'], he shall say,
THE Body of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was given for thee, preserve thy body and soul unto everlasting life. Take and eat this in remembrance that Christ
From the Scotch Liturgy. It does not say 'must " help him, but only "may." Until 1661, we had "that they may help the chief minister," in our own.
+ From the Scotch Liturgy. For the Minister thus to address himself in the second person, is in harmony with the Psalmist's example, Psalm ciii. 1-5.
From the Scotch Liturgy. This permits the use of the words to several together. In the American form this is accomplished by the mere omission of the words "to any one," which were only inserted in our own at the last review, a similar direction having been omitted in 1552. To address several persons in the singular number, when necessary to do so, illustrates 1 Cor. x. 17. To the writer however the following form would seem preferable.  To word the Rubrics thus: "And, when he receiveth the bread himself, he shall say "—" And, when he receiveth the cup himself, he shall say," and after each to give the proper words in the first person "given for me,"&c.  Then to give the Rubrics and form of words exactly on the present plan, "And when he delivereth the bread to any one, he shall say" "-"And the Minister that delivereth the cup to any one shall say"-but to print the words "thee," "thy," "body," ""soul," and "heart," in Italics in both prayers, to signify that they are changeable.  And then to add after them a Rubric to this effect: "¶ And 'here is to be noted' that if necessity so require' when the Minister 'delivereth the bread' or 'the
cup to'' others,' he may use the appointed form of words to several Communicants collectively, (the words being considered as addressed to them severally), 'only changing the words' you, your, bodies, souls, and hearts, for thee, thy, body, soul, and heart, as occasion requireth.""
cup himself, or delivereth it to others']* shall say,
THE Blood of our Lord Jesus Christ, which was shed for thee, preserve thy body and soul unto everlasting life. Drink this in remembrance that Christ's Blood was shed for thee, and be thankful.
¶ If the consecrated Bread or Wine be all spent before all have communicated, the [Presbyter] is to consecrate more according to the Form prescribed; begining at Our Saviour Christ in the same night, &c. for the blessing of the Bread; and at Likewise after Supper, &c. for the blessing of the Cup.
When all have communicated, the Mi-
CT Then the Minister shall say,
Then shall the [Minister'] say the
OUR Father, which art in heaven, Hallowed be thy Name. Thy kingdom come. Thy will be done in earth, As it is in heaven. Give us this day our daily bread. And forgive us our trespasses, As we forgive them that trespass against us. And lead us not into temptation; But deliver us from evil: For thine is the kingdom, The power, and the glory, For ever and ever. Amen.
After shall be said as followeth.
O LORD and heavenly Father, we thy humble servants entirely desire thy fatherly goodness mercifully to accept this our sacrifice of praise and thanksgiving; most humbly beseeching thee to grant, that by the merits and death of thy Son Jesus Christ, and through faith in his blood, we and all thy whole Church may obtain remission of our sins, and all other benefits of his passion. And here we offer and present unto thee, O Lord, ourselves, our souls and bodies to be a reasonable, holy, and lively sacrifice unto thee; humbly beseeching thee, that all we, who are partakers of this holy Communion, may be fulfilled with thy grace and heavenly benediction. And although we be unworthy, through our manifold
From the Scotch Liturgy.
+ The Scotch Liturgy might be followed in the omission of the Lord's prayer in this place.
sins, to offer unto thee any sacrifice, yet we beseech thee to accept this our bounden duty and service; not weighing our merits, but pardoning our offences, through Jesus Christ our Lord; by whom, and with whom, in the unity of the Holy Ghost, all honour and glory be unto thee, O Father Almighty, world without end. Amen.
On this [; or both].
ALMIGHTY and everliving God, we most heartily thank thee, for that thou dost Vouchsafe [spiritually] to feed us, who have duly received these holy [symbols] with the spiritual food of the most precious Body and Blood of thy Son our Saviour Jesus Christ; and dost assure us thereby of thy favour and goodness towards us; and that we are very members incorporate in the mystical body of thy Son, which is the blessed company of all faithful people; and are also heirs through hope of thy everlasting kingdom, by the merits of the most precious death and passion of thy dear Son. And we most humbly beseech thee, O heavenly Father, so to assist us with thy grace, that we may continue in that holy fellowship, and do all such good works as thou hast prepared for us to walk in; through Jesus Christ our Lord, to whom, with thee and the
Holy Ghost, be all honour and glory,
world without end. Amen. ¶Then shall be said or sung ['all standing'].*
GLORY be to God on high, and in earth peace, good will towards men. We praise thee, we bless thee, we worship thee, we give thanks to thee for thy great glory, O Lord God, heavenly King, God the Father Almighty.
O Lord, the only-begotten Son Jesu Christ; O Lord God, Lamb of God, Son of the Father, that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us. Thou that takest away the sins of the world, have mercy upon us. Thou that takest away the sins of the world, receive our prayer. Thou that sittest at the right hand of God the Father, have mercy
For thou only art holy; thou only art the Lord; thou only, O Christ, with the Holy Ghost, art most high in the glory of God the Father. Amen.
of his Son Jesus Christ our Lord; and the blessing of God Almighty, the Father, the Son, and the Holy Ghost, be ['upon']* you and remain with you ['for ever']*
Then the Presbyter'] (or Bishop if he he present) shall let them depart with this Blessing.
THE peace of God, which passeth all understanding, keep your hearts and minds in the knowledge and love of God, and From the American Liturgy.
Collects to be said after the Offertory, when there is no Communion, every such day one or more; and the same may be said also, as often as occasion shall serve, after the Collects either of Morning or Evening Prayer, Communion or Litany, [or before and after sermons], by the discretion of the Minister.
ASSIST us mercifully, O Lord, in these our supplications and prayers, and dispose the way of thy servants towards the attainment of everlasting salvation; that, among all the changes and chances of this mortal life, they may ever be defended by thy most gracious and ready help; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
O ALMIGHTY Lord, and everlasting God, vouchsafe, we beseech thee, to direct, sanctify, and govern, both our hearts and bodies, in the ways of thy laws, and in the works of thy commandments; that through thy most mighty protection, both here and ever, we may be preserved in body and soul; through our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. Amen.
['DIRECT']† us, O Lord, in all our
doings with thy most gracious favour, and further us with thy continual help : that in all our works begun, continued, and ended in thee, we may glorify thy holy Name, and finally by thy mercy obtain everlasting life; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
GRANT, we beseech thee, Almighty God, that the words, which we have heard this day with our outward ears, may through thy grace be so grafted inwardly in our hearts, that they may bring forth in us the fruit of [holy and religious lives], to the honour and praise of thy Name; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
wisdom, who knowest our necessities beALMIGHTY God, the fountain of all fore we ask, and our ignorance in asking ;
The words "upon" and "for ever" are adopted from the parallel form in the Confirmation Service as more explicit than "amongst" and "always". Of the two, the words "amongst" and "always," would be more appropriate in the Confirmation Service and in the lips of the Bishop as a casual visitor in the parish, and "amongst" the people, than in the lips of their regular pastor.
From the American Liturgy. The third and fourth of these collects are here transposed.
of that which was consecrated, it shall not be carried out of the Church, but the [Presbyter'], and such other of the Communicants as he shall then call unto him, shall immediately after the Blessing, reverently eat and drink the same.
We beseech thee to have compassion upon our infirmities; and those things, which for our unworthiness we dare not, and for our blindness we cannot ask, vouchsafe to give us, for the worthiness of thy Son Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen. ALMIGHTY God, who hast promised to hear the petitions of them that ask in thy¶The Bread and Wine for the Communion Son's Name; We beseech thee mercifully to incline thine ears to us that have made now our prayers and supplications unto thee; and grant, that those things, which we have faithfully asked according to thy will, may effectually be obtained, to the relief of our necessity, and to the setting forth of thy glory; through Jesus Christ our Lord. Amen.
Upon the Sundays and other Holy-days (if there be no Communion) shall be said all that is appointed at the Communion, until the end of the general Prayer. For the whole state of Christ's Church militant here in earth, together with one or more of these Collects last before rehearsed, concluding with the Blessing. [But if there be a Sermon or Homily, the Offertory and the Prayer. For the whole state of Christ's Church militant here in earth may be omitted].
And there shall be no celebration of the Lord's Supper, except there be a convenient number to communicate with the
[Presbyter'] according to his discre
And if there be not above twenty persons in the parish of discretion to receive the Communion: yet there shall be no Communion, except four (or three at the ·least) communicate with the [Presbyter'].
And in Cathedral and Collegiate Churches, and Colleges, where there are many [Presbyters'] and Deacons, [it is expedient that they shall all receive the Communion with the [Presbyter that celebrates'] every Sunday..., except they have a reasonable cause to the contrary.
¶ And to take away all occasion of dissention, and superstition, which any person hath or might have concerning the Bread and Wine, it shall suffice that the Bread be such as is usual to be eaten but the best and purest Wheat Bread that conveniently may be gotten.
And if any of the Bread and Wine re
From the Scotch Liturgy.
shall be provided by the [Minister] and
And note, that [it is convenient that]
¶ After the Divine Service ended, the
"WHEREAS it is ordained in this "Office for the Administration of the "Lord's Supper, that the Communicants "should receive the same kneeling;
(which order is well meant, for a sig"nification of our humble and grateful "acknowledgment of the benefits of "Christ therein given to all worthy Re"ceivers, and for the avoiding of such profanation and disorder in the holy "Communion, as might otherwise ensue;) yet, lest the same kneeling should by any persons, either out of ignorance "and infirmity, or out of malice and ob"stinacy, be misconstrued and depraved; "It is hereby declared, That thereby no "Adoration is intended, or ought to be 'done, either unto the Sacramental "Bread or Wine there bodily received,
or unto any Corporal Presence of "Christ's natural Flesh and Blood. For "the Sacramental Bread and Wine re"main still in their very natural sub
stances, and therefore may not be adored; "(for that were Idolatry, to be abhorred "of all faithful Christians;) and the na"tural Body and Blood of our Saviour "Christ are in Heaven, and not here ; it "being against the truth of Christ's na"tural Body to be at one time in more "places than one."
The reference to the unconsecrated wine is omitted in the Scotch and American Liturgies.
This rubric respecting Easter Dues is omitted in the Scotch Liturgy, and American.