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Holland is decidedly a country to able facts for the Archæologist will call forth engineering genius and also be discovered by this remarkskill in certain directions. Its shores able enterprise. are lined with great dikes built of Norway granite, timbers, turf and A Frisian manuscript of very sinclay, piled to the height of forty feet, gular interest, and if, as there is every and on the top of which two wagons reason to believe, it is genuine, of may drive abreast. And these are great value has recently come to an absolute necessity to the safety light. It is known as the Dera of the country. The canals also are Linda Book, being so named after an engineering feature of consider- the family in which there is positive able moment; but it is in the evidence that it has been an heirdraining of the inland lakes that loom from time immemorial. The the most striking work is seen. present owner is C. Oera de Linda, No less than ninety of these have the chief superintendent of the been converted into arable land up Royal Dockyard, at the Helder in to this time. One of these-the
One of these—the Friesland, North Holland. By the Haarlem lake-covered an area of influence of a family tradition it has seventy square miles; and occupied been kept through many generasixteen years in draining. But the tions, although both the language draining of the Zuyder Zee will and the writing have been utterly throw even this wholly into the unknown. shade, and will be a work worthy A Frisian scholar, Dr. Verweijs, to stand beside the greatest engi- heard of the work some short time neering victories of the nineteenth since, and obtained permission to century. It covers
area of examine it. The form of Fries in twelve hundred square miles, but whịch it is written is more ancient the water is to be removed from than the most antique literary only seven hundred and fifty of monument of the people. The these ; and this will make Holland, book is endorsed by Hiddo Oera as a country, larger by one-eight- Linda, six hundred and twenty eenth of its whole area than it is years ago, and by Liko Oera Linda at present. It has been found that at a still earlier date. It is dethe land at the bottom is extremely scribed by the former as a history rich, consisting of a clayey earth, of his family and of the Fries peoand with his proverbial agricultural ple. It appears to be an extremely skill, the Dutch farmer may yet ancient copy of books of great antiastonish the world by the abundant quity. The event from which its productions of the bed of the Zuy- dates are taken is “The disappearder Zee. It is expected that the ance or submergence of Atland," works will last sixteen years.
which is said to be about 591 B.C., Pumping is to be kept up for nearly and much of its contents refers to three years. The volume of water dates concurrent with the times of to be lifted and discharged is three Daniel, and the destruction of the hundred and six billions five hun- first Temple. dred and five millions of cubic feet. There is one guarantee for the Of this gigantic mass of water one genuineness of this book which is at hundred and fifty-eight thousand once the source of its scientific value eight hundred and fifty cubic feet and the strongest test of its claims. will be raised every minute.
It has been stated that the book has It is extremely probable that valu- been in the hands of the same
family for many generations. This duties ; and it was during this time has been proved beyond question. that, as she affirms, she visited these The book contains a description of towns built upon the lakes of the Lake dwellings of Switzerland Switzerland. and their inhabitants. Now the Her language is thus translated : fact that there ever were such dwell “My journey was along the Rhine, on ings or such inhabitants was un this side going up, and on the other down, known until the year 1853. The
The higher I went the poorer the people
seemed to be. . . . . Above the Rhine, winter of that year was intensely cold
among the mountains, I have seen Marand dry; and the waters of the saten. The Marsaten are people who lakes fell far below their normal
live on the lakes. Their houses are built level. The inhabitants of Meilen,
upon piles for protection from the wild
beasts and wicked people. There are on the banks of the lake of Zurich,
wolves, bears, and horrible lions ... The took advantage of this circumstance, Marsaten gain their livelihood by fishing and gained from the lake a tract of and hunting. The skins are sewn toground which they raised and sur
gether by the women and prepared with
birch bark. The small skins are as soft rounded with banks. In doing this
as a woman's skin .... they were good they found evidence of the existence simple people. Their wool and herbs of a whole village having been at one are bought by the Rhine people and taken time built in the lake upon piles, and
to foreign countries by the ship captains.
Along the other side of the Rhine it was all the evidences of a certain rude
just the same .... There was a great civilization were shortly forthcoming. river or lake ; also therewith people living Since that time the ruins of im upon piles : but they were not white mense numbers of such villages have
people, they were black and brown men,
who had been employed as rowers to been found, and these lacustrine
bring home the men who had been dwellings hold a very prominent making foreign voyages and had to stay place in all modern efforts to ap- | there till the fleet came home.” proximate to a conclusion as to the In the subsequent records of the " Antiquity of Man.” Now since book by other authors, two later these dwellings were unknown to visits to these lake dwellings are history and science alike up to the recorded. It is a matter of great year 1853, and since this book has interest to have these facts prebeen known to be in the Oera de sented in such a manner. That the Linda family for several generations manuscript is genuine and is a comcertainly, the fact that it describes pilation from very ancient records these dwellings is almost irresistible there seems, in the opinion of the internal evidence of its truthfulness, most competent and critical judges, genuineness and value. The book is very little if any grounds for doubtà collection of the writings of dif ing; and there will, in the event of ferent persons; one of these is the confirmation of this, be a definite Apalonia, chief priestess of a place datum for inferring the age of the called Lindasburgt, which she mi Lake-dwellers, and so a help towards nutely describes; as also a European a more correct conclusion as to the civilization more ancient than that real date of man's appearance in of Greece. Her visit to the pile Europe. dwellers was made, according to this It is very noteworthy that Lieut. record, in the middle of the sixth Cameron, who has just returned to century before the birth of Christ. this country after a remarkably sucIt was a law amongst the Frisians cessful exploration of a portion of that the chief priestess must travel interior Africa, saw tribes there a year before she entered on her | living in the same way.
Prof. Preyer of Jena has been nerve-fibres, and in opposition to making a series of experiments to some leading physiologists regards determine the lowest and highest it as a positive sensation. He points limits of pitch within which it is out that the auditory apparatus, possible for the human ear to per- like the retina, never sinks below ceive musical tones. The minimum the zero of sensation ; and therefore limit for the average ear he found in the state known as silence the to lie between sixteen and twenty- fluid contents of the labyrinth of the four vibrations per second. The ear, and the flow of blood through the maximum limit was forty-one thou- vessels, must give rise to sensations, sand per second. But there are but sensations of which we are unmany persons who are deaf to even conscious, or rather which we do not twelve thousand vibrations per observe, because of their uniformity, second. Thus the capacity to hear constancy and low degree of intensity. largely governs the capacity to Indeed silence varies in intensity appreciate music. The author also just in proportion as the attention is considers the philosophy of silence; concentrated. But it is quite plain and defines it as a state of uniform that complete absence of sensation minimum excitation of the auditory could be subject to no variation.
BOOK JOURNAL. Memorials of the Wesley Family. By not but regret, however, the form which
GEORGE J. STEVENSON. London : the work assumes—the separate memoir
S. W. Partridge and Co. 1876. of each of the Wesleys. It necessitates It is well known that Mr. Wesley, at
continual repetition of the same facts, his death, left a mass of letters and other and destroys the unity of the work. In papers in the hands of three executors,
our judgment, the preferable, though intending that they should select and
far the more difficult, course would publish any they deemed suitable for that have been to weave the various threads purpose. His design was never accom
into a connected narrative.
Mr. Ste. plished. Portions of these papers have
are a storehouse been used by Mr. Kirk and Mr. Tyerman,
of information, trustworthy and, to the but the bulk of them have not been given large majority of readers, fresh. No one to the public, and came, either as copies can study these pages without gaining a or originals, into Mr. Stevenson's hands. clear conception of the personality of Apart from the interest attaching
those who formed the Wesley family. family whence sprang John and Charles
We hope the book will find its way into Wesley, the family itself was a remark- the library of many who belong to the able one.
It occurred to Mr. Stevenson Church which Mr. Wesley founded, and that a history of the family, tracing it as many who share in the undiminished far back as inquiry could reach, and
interest which everything relating to one coming down to the present time, would of England's noblest households must have be acceptable to the religious world, and for every intelligent Christian. would allow him to work up much of the
Methodist Revival Missions : a Small new material in his possession. Of course
Handbook. the idea was taken from Adam Clarke's
By WALFORD GREEN
and JOHN HUGH MORGAN. “Memoirs of the Wesley Family.” The result is the present volume.
This little book is the very grammar of We are so grateful for these biographies, Scriptural and sensible revivalism. It at once fuller and more acurate than breathes throughout the spirit " of power those of Dr. Clarke, that we gladly leave and of love, and of a sound mind." It is unnoticed certain minor literary blem- admirable both in style and spirit. It isbes-of which, indeed, the writer is should be studied by every one who wants conscious, and for which he apologises- to know how to go about a series of and forget that their style is plain, even special services in a believing, businessto the very verge of baldness. We can- like and effective manner.
HAYUAN BROTHERS AND LILLY, 19, CROSS STREET, HATTON GARDEN, E.C.