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cordant devotion. We are very far which had been stopped at the from claiming for the Hymn-Book moment of the monarch’s death, and absolute faultlessness or final com- never suffered to be set in motion pleteness. Methodism never held the since; so that, with all its elaborate doctrine of perfection in psalmody, mechanism, it was allowed no further any more than in periodical litera- service than to for ever indicate the ture. But we do unhesitatingly point to which its hurrying hand record

our deliberate conviction, had reached,when Frederick breathed that, take it for all in all, this is his last. There are a few friends of decidedly the best hymn-book in Methodism, and many foes, who Christendom.

would destine it to some such funeThose who would have had no real office : to signify to all future alteration in the Hymn-Book at all, generations the precise point which we would remind that Providence it had reached at Wesley's death, or has otherwise decreed. You can no at some more arbitrarily chosen more forbid readjustment and expan- moment. But Wesley left the hoursion to the psalmody of Methodism hand moving, and to arrest it at any than to any other part of its high-time would be, not to make it an typed organization. Few things impressive memorial of the great seem to have struck the Shah of man whom God employed to conPersia, in his European travels, more struct its exquisite machinery, but than a chronometer in the palace of a useless monument of the imbecility Frederick the Great at Potsdam, of his degenerate sons.

BY

THE

REV.

B.

A.

M.A.

PATRICK HAMILTON; THE BEGINNINGS OF THE
REFORMATION IN SCOTLAND.*

GREGORY, There is no country in Europe on purified truth worked this marvelwhich the Reformation has taken so lous Revolution. Intensely national firm a hold as Scotland; none where as the Scottish Reformation ultiit has so thoroughly changed and mately became, it is remarkable how purified the national character.

character. purely it was in origin the fruit of The sober, quiet and matter-of-fact foreign influences. From England Scotchman of to-day, with his strong and Bohemia came the first impatriotism and his capacity for a pulses; and almost all those who calm but intense religious enthu- carried them forward to the consiasm, presents the greatest possible quest of the people received, if not contrast to the turbulent, cruel and their earliest light, still their full crafty Scot of the Middle Ages, loyal conviction and their glowing feronly to his family, always at feud vour, abroad : Hamilton at Paris, with his neighbours, and ready to Wishart at Cambridge, Knox himintrigue with France or England to self at Geneva. the injury of his native land. It is The first preacher, the first marprofoundly interesting to trace the tyr of Protestantism in Scotland process by which the power of was one of Wycliffe's disciples : John Resby, burnt at Perth in 1407. | Laird, lacking in courage and the Some fourteen years afterwards a power of speech, could not hold his Hussite from Prague, Paul Crawar, own before the monks who assailed preached the doctrines of the Bohe him. But his wife, requested by mian Reformer at St. Andrew's, the king to speak, made a clear and with a readiness and accuracy of courageous defence, confronting the Scriptural quotation that was long decrees of the Church, and the remembered with wonder. He, too, sentences of theologians, with Holy died at the stake, with a resolute Scripture. The king, severely reness whose effect would not in | buking the prosecutors for “ troubScotland be lessened by the fierce ling honest people,” rose from his invectives which he dealt round upon seat, embraced the intrepid woman, his adversaries. The seed thus and bestowed upon her husband in sown bore fruit, and the next con fee one or two villages, saying, “I fessor was the primate of Scotland intend these to be testimonies for himself, Patrick Graham, Archbishop ever of my good will toward you." of St. Andrew's, whose efforts at Thirty other persons accused along reform were answered by his depri with the Campbells were dismissed, vation and imprisonment for life. with the request to be satisfied with

* “ History of the Reformation in Europe in the time of Calvin,” By J, H. Merle D’Aubigné, D.D. Vol. VI. 1875. Longmans, Green and Co.

Very different was the fate of the the faith of the Church. men from whom descends the un James the Fourth fell next year at broken succession of the pure Kirk Flodden, and Scotland was cursed of Scotland. About the year 1512 with a long minority; and when the

_" the year,” says D'Aubigné,“ in | new king came of age he continued which Zwingle began to search the little better than a child. One of Scriptures and Luther on Pilate's the first events of the regency of staircase at Rome heard that word Margaret Tudor, the Queen-mother, which went on resounding in his was the scandalous contest for the heart' the just shall live by faith,'”. Archbishopric of St. Andrew's, the throne of the Stuarts was occupied vacant through the death of the by the enlightened and ill-fated Primate in the great battle. By the James IV., a prince, in whom English Queen's authority, Douglas, brother influence was stronger than in any of the Earl of Angus, took possesof his forefathers. At that time sion of the castle, from which he there were in the district of Cun- | was driven by Hepburn the candiningham, on the borders of Ayr date of the canons, who after a and Renfrew, certain pious folk who successful assault left a garrison to maintained the doctrines of Wy hold the fortress, and set off for cliffe, being instructed out of the Rome to secure the Papal investiScriptures. Their leader and pro ture. Meanwhile, Forman, Bishop tector was John Campbell, Laird of of Murray, the Pope's candidate, disCessnock, in whose family daily possessed his absent adversary and worship was observed, and the New | secured the prize by force of arms. Testament read in the vulgar tongue Hepburn had to be content with a and expounded by a priest, his large pension, while Douglas comchaplain. Campbell, being accused pensated himself by capturing the before the Bishop for his opinions cathedral of Dunkeld. This miliand practices, anticipated his trial | tary prelate was no barbarian priest, by an appeal to the king, and was but a cultivated man, whose translacited to appear and answer his tion of Virgil is one of the earliest accusers in the royal presence. The monuments of Scottish literature.

as

years Abbot of

as

66 the

new

God's grace.

Meanwhile three boys were grow

of death. When, in 1522, he ing up in Edinburgh and its neigh- returned to Scotland, he carried bourhood, destined to be the instru- the New Testament in his pocket ments of a national Reformation. and the truth in his heart. His In 1500, was born Alexander Ales, old teacher, Mayor, was now lecturknown under the name of Alesius ; ing at St. Andrew's; and thither five years later, John Knox, and Hamilton betook himself and won between the two, at Kincavil, near even from the great scholar Buchanan Linlithgow, PATRICK HAMILTON, admiration of his learning. He had -the first to appear

the been for some champion of the truth. Patrick Ferne, and had supported himself sprung from a noble house, that at Paris from the revenues of his shared the blood royal in the second office. Disgusted with the life of son of a father of the same name,

who the monks, he would never reside plays a not undistinguished part in in his monastery nor adopt the Scotch history. He fell in a famous monastic dress; he did not however tumult in the streets of Edinburgh, separate himself from the church, remembered by the name of Clear- but rather sought public recognition the-causeway. The sad news of his

a teacher, and received full death, by the solemn and earnest ordination "in order that he might thoughts which it called up, was preach the pure Word of God.” the principal means of bringing the About this time young Patrick to the knowledge of opinions” first became of such

importance as to attract the atHe had been carefully and tention of the Scottish Parliament. religiously brought up by his In 1525, at the instigation of mother, Catherine Stuart, daughter Dunbar, Bishop of Aberdeen, an of the Duke of Albany, and grand- act was passed that

no person daughter of King James II. He should introduce

any

book of Luther early manifested a strong taste for or his disciples ; “ Scotland having learning and was sent at fourteen always bene clene of all filth and years of age to the University of vice.” At the same time proclamaParis, where he studied philosophy

tion was

made throughout the under Mayor, a disciple of the kingdom that search should be famous Gerson* and the teacher of made for all persons who already Knox and Buchanan at Glasgow. possessed any of these heretical At that time the writings of writings.

But in the following Luther were eagerly read at Paris,

year the revolutions

of Scotch and his tenets frequently discussed faction overthrew for a while the among the students. In them and priestly party, and Beatoun, Archin the Bible, to which they directed bishop of Glasgow, their leader, him, Hamilton found the true source

concealed himself as a shepherd of comfort and peace to his soul, among the hills of Fife. During troubled by sorrow and the shadow this short interval, New Testaments

in Tyndale's Version were assidu* Gerson, chancellor of the University

ously introduced into Scotland by of Paris, is one of those to whom is the friends of God's Word in plausibly assigned the anonymous treatise Germany. Hamilton now begins to “Of the Imitation of Christ,” that “ little book of gold ” which has probably had a

be known as an advocate of " the wider influence than any other devotional

new teaching." He defends the work in the world.

evangelical principles in public

There was,

power, ordered

an

It was

disputations at the University of much conversation with him and to St. Andrew's, and in Lent, 1527, he have gained from him very high preaches the truth in the Cathedral commendation. of that city and elsewhere. We

however, another have little account of his preaching reason for the visit of the three at this period, except that his Scotchmen to Marburg. Philip Landsentence of death declares that he grave of Hesse had chosen it for had at that time maintained the the seat of a new University, founded heresies of Martin Luther. Beatoun, on strictly Protestant principles, restored to

which were carried so far as to inquiry into his teaching, declared exclude from the faculties even of him a heretic and cited him to Law and Medicine all who did not appear and give account of his assent to the doctrines of Luther faith. He determined to withdraw and combine with science piety from the danger, and accompanied and the knowledge of the Holy by two friends set sail for the Scriptures. Very early on the Netherlands.

register is still to be read the not simply to avoid signature of Patricius Hamilton, persecution that Hamilton left Scotus, Magister Parisiensis ; that Scotland. His design was to visit is, Patrick Hamilton, a Scotchman, Wittenberg and there form the Master of Arts of Paris. acquaintance of Luther and Mel

It was

at Marburg that the ancthon. On the way, however, young theologian held that dispuhe made a long delay at Marburg, tation the record of which, under and before he resumed his journey the title of Patrick's Places, has been the news had arrived that Luther preserved in Fox's Acts and Monuhad been brought by sickness to ments. Hamilton, already disthe very door of death, that the tinguished for learning, and recomplague was raging in his University mended doubtless also by his royal town and that all who could had rank, was requested by Lambert to fled, the students and professors compose some theses on the evanhaving removed to Jena. There is gelical doctrine, and defend them, a tradition that the Scotch Reformer after the fashion then prevalent, was taught by the Saxon, but in the School of the University. D'Aubigné believes it has Patrick assented, and the foundation except in this unaccom- appointed day, announced to the plished design. Hamilton's name numerous audience that he does not

occur in the lists of about to maintain against all comers Wittenberg University. One reason certain truths respecting the Law of his stay at Marburg was a desire and the Gospel. His opening to meet with Tyndale, whose widely passage has been often quoted, circulated writings were printed but is well worthy of repetition :in that town by the Protestant “There is a difference and even an publisher Hans Luft. The French opposition between the Law and the monk, Lambert d'Avignon, was

Gospel. The Law showeth us our sin;

the Gospel showeth us remedy for it. The also present there at the time.

Law showeth us our condemnation ; the His principles were strikingly akin Gospel showeth us our redemption. The to those which afterwards prevailed

Law is the word of ire ; the Gospel is the word of grace.

The Law is the in Scotland, and whose influence on Hamilton's mind was probably very

word of despair ; the Gospel is the word

of comfort. The Law is the word of great; for he is known to have had unrest ; the Gospel is the word of peace.

no

on

was

The Law saith, Pay thy debt; the Gospel in the reform of the Church would saith, Christ hath paid it. The Law saith,

have excited intense, and, perhaps, Thou art a sinner : despair and thou shalt be damned; the Gospel saith, Thy

unconquerable prejudice. Among sins are forgiven thee; be of good

his first converts were the members comfort, thou shalt be saved. The Law of his own family : his widowed saith, Make amends for thy sins; the

mother, his sister Catherine, and Gospel saith, Christ hath made it for thee. The Law saith, The Father of

his brother, Sir James, Laird of Heaven is angry with thee; the Gospel

Kincavil and Sheriff of Linlithgow. saith, Christ hath pacified Him with The young preacher's voice was soon His blood. The Law saith, Where is

widely heard ; from the cottages of thy righteousness, goodness and satis- the labourers he passed to compafaction ? the Gospel saith, Christ is thy righteousness, thy goodness, thy satisfac

nies assembled in the open air : tion. The Law saith, Thou art bound thence to the village churches, and at and obliged to me, to the den and to

length to the great sanctuary of St. hell; the Gospel saith, Christ hath delivered thee from them all."

Michael's in the royal town of Lin

lithgow. Crowds of all ranks flocked This was not the only disputation to hear him, and many received the in which Hamilton engaged, and in truth into their hearts. Among all the preacher of the Gospel ap- these was a young lady of birth peared more prominently than the equal to his own, whom it has only Master of Arts, though he gained in our own time been discovered great reputation for learning. His that he married almost within heart was in Scotland; he believed sight of the stake; thus decisively God called him to return, so in spite breaking with the church, for it of the opposition of Lambert, and must be remembered that he was the refusal of his two friends to not only a priest but also a monk. As accompany him, he embarked for his no mention is made of his marriage native land in the autumn of 1527, in the accusation on which he was ready to meet the death which he condemned, it is probable that it firmly anticipated.

was kept secret. During the short time he had

A few days afterward he received spent abroad, the Regent, under the an invitation to go to St. Andrew's influence of Dunbar, had confirmed and there converse freely with the the ordinance forbidding Protestant Archbishop on the subject of religion books to be imported, and had ex- and reform. The proposed confertended the prohibition to the New ence has generally been regarded as Testament. Nevertheless, Hamilton part of a treacherous scheme formed landed, with his inseparable volume, by the clergy of the metropolitan and proceeded at once to Kincavil, city to get Hamilton into their power and began to speak freely of the and procure undeniable evidence of truth he had learned. His manner his heretical opinions. The historian is described as peculiarly gentle and of these events, was at that time a winning ; his speech, we know from canon of St. Andrew's, and likely to actual specimens, was striking and be acquainted with the more secret impressive, while his matter was the motives and purposes of his clerical very pith of the Gospel. His high brethren. Hamilton himself saw in rank was an additional recommen- the request a summons to death; dation of no small weight in the but glad of the opportunity of first Scotland of that age, when the popu- | testifying to the truth before the lar voice was scarcely heard, and for heads of the Scottish church, detera common man to have interfered mined to obey. At first he was most

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