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the brother, and Catherine, the no agreement with the King of sister, of Patrick Hamilton escaped | England “in the opinions concernfrom threatened death-the one to ing

the authority of the Pope and England, the other to France. kirkmen.The envoy was not, From Edinburgh and St. Andrew's however, withdrawn, but instructed several whose names are recorded, still to press for a personal conferand doubtless many obscurer men,

ence between the two Kings—an found it necessary to flee. "One or event which, of all others, the two received hospitality among Pro- Scotch clergy dreaded, knowing the testants abroad, but many proved

weakness of James and the comthat exile meant destitution. Such manding character of Henry. The was the state of Scotland up to the negotiations dragged on their slow year 1534, when, either from weari- | length, and Barlow's letters, still ness or supposed success, the perse- extant among the State papers, cutors for a while paused in their describe his fluctuations of hope and work.

despondency. At last the bishops The leaders of the Church had, dispatched a message to Rome, beindeed, at this time their attention seeching the Pope to forbid' the engrossed by the negotiations and King of Scotland to hold interintrigues that were going on at the course with his uncle. The secret Court to attach King James either intrigues were revealed to Margaret, to the English or French interest. the Queen-mother, who, by her The young prince was as yet un- vehement rebukes, provoked her married, and the envoys of Henry son to ungovernable passion. A VIII. offered him the hand of an fierce quarrel ensued : the Queen English princess, but only as the declared herself determined to repledge of a hearty alliance with the turn to her brother in London; the political and religious schemes of envoys hastily departed, and the her father. The brilliant prospect King threw himself into the arms of of undivided rule over Britain was the Romish party, and determined held out to James, or at least to to seek a bride at the French Court. his successors, as the price of at- The adversaries of the Reformation tachment to the Tudor cause. On were triumphant; but it is a curious the other hand, the priestly party illustration of the irony of facts, represented the advantages of that the English princess, so much French or Imperial support, the dreaded, was the future Queen merit of loyalty to the Church of Mary; while the French consort his fathers, which other princes whom James brought back with him were deserting, and the hope of the to Scotland was Madeleine de English crown as the supplanter Valois, who survived her marriage rather than the successor of the just long enough to let it be known apostate King. These arguments that she was piously, though unprevailed; Barlow, the clerical am- suspectedly, devoted to the evanbassador of Henry, was graciously gelical doctrines. Her early death received, but the books he brought was a heavy blow to the friends and with him were unread, and an a relief to the enemies of the Gosanswer was returned to Secretary pel. Her place was shortly supplied Cromwell that no means would be by Mary of Guise, in whom the neglected to strengthen the friend- priests were sure of an apt pupil ship between the two Sovereigns, and a powerful ally.

. but that in Scotland there could be The principal promoter both of


the first and the later French mar- distinguished of these was Thomas riage was David Beatoun, nephew Forrest-a man who had more than of the Archbishop, a man who had once attracted the notice and exbeen steadily gaining power, which perienced the lenity of the Church for eight years he was to wield for authorities. He had been the depression of the nobles and the Augustinian canon in the Abbey defence of the Roman Church. of St Colme. Incidentally led Created Cardinal in 1538 and Pri- to study the writings of St. Aumate of Scotland in 1539, he in- gustine, he had by them been fased his resolute and unscrupulous directed to the New Testament. spirit into the body of Scotch He spoke freely of the truth which clergy, and established an ascend- he discovered there, so as to disancy which, rebelled against by the turb the peace of the brethren and nobles and hated by the citizens, cause them to complain to the was broken only by his death. He Abbot. “ Look after your own was of immoral life, and, by all ac- salvation," said he to Forrest," but counts, of no deep religious convic- talk as other men do." The ardent tion. The object of his fanaticism convert professed himself ready was the domination of hierarchical sooner to be burned, but his superior, authority over all men, King and anxious only for quietness, disnoble no less than priest and people. missed him to the charge of the For this he laboured unceasingly, | parish of Dollar. Here his activity with a zeal into which personal am- in preaching, visiting and reading bition may have entered, but which the Scriptures caused him speedily was pure at least from covetousness to be brought before the Bishop of or the desire of vulgar aggrandise- Dunkeld. “ I'm told, Dean Thomas, ment.

said his lordship, “ that you preach Under his rule persecution re

every Sunday. That is too much; vived. It was not generally bloody. take my advice and don't preach For the most part fines, exile and unless you find any good gospel or confiscation were Beatoun's favourite good epistle that setteth forth the weapons; for by striking at the rich liberty of holy Church.” Forrest and noble he gratified at once his replied by wishing that the Bishop enmity against Protestantism and too would preach every Sunday, and the aristocracy, and was able at the would tell him which were the bad same time to maintain his hold upon gospels and epistles, that he might the King by replenishing his empty preach only from the others

. exchequer. A general terror pre- " Thank God," said the Bishop, "I vailed amongst the evangelicals. never knew what the Old and New Many were in prison; wealthy fami- Testament was, and I will to know lies were ruined, and fugitives passed nothing but my portesse and my every day into England, persuaded pontifical ;” and with that sent the that if they fell into the Cardinal's Dean back to his parish. At last hands they would be sent to execu- he attended with others at the tion. Yet the martyrs who actually marriage of a priest, celebrated perished were not numerous. openly, and, as if merely to defy the beginning of 1539-50 we read the Church authority, in Lent, and in Buchanan's History - many that with a plentifully-loaded table suspected of Lutheranism

for the wedding feast. The guests arrested; five were burnt in the were seized and tried before the presence of the King. The most Cardinal and the Bishops of Glas


gow and Dunkeld, the trial as usual her was assigned the milder death was violent and unfair, and sentence of drowning One thing that must of death was passed and speedily have tended greatly to the detriexecuted.

ment of the Protestant cause was A more distinguished victim was its association with English intrigue, then in prison, George Buchanan, and the treasonable plans of a party already known through Europe as a

among the nobles.

Beatoun was most skilful and vigorous writer of constantly struggling against the Latin poetry. Various biting satires unremitting efforts of Henry to upon the Franciscans had drawn cajole or frighten the Scotch court down on him the vengeance of the into supporting his own policy. Church. The martyrdom of the five There is no need to follow the weary Lutherans warned him to expect no succession of diplomatic and treachmercy, so finding one night that his erous propositions; it suffices to guards were all asleep-possibly remember the existence of such drugged by the friends of the pris- | influences and to note the inability oner-he succeeded with great diffi- even of great national calamities to culty in escaping through a window, shake more than briefly the ascendand betook himself to France, where

ancy of the Cardinal.

James at his fame greatly increased, and his last, vainly confident in the revenues faith was confirmed into full per- of the Church and the alliance of sonal conviction. For previously | Catholic powers, rushed rashly into he seems to have been rather a a war which there was neither force literary than a religious ally of the nor genius in his kingdom to conReformation.

duct. The shameful defeat of his Another group of martyrs, pun- incompetent general and panicished at Perth by Beatoun's orders stricken army, at the Solway, was in 1544, furnish a valuable illustra- a disaster that he had no strength tion of the way in which incautious of mind to bear. His reason wanand extravagant words and deeds dered ; his constitution gave way, disgraced the cause of the Gospel, and he died bewailing what he supand, at least in the opinion of that posed the inevitable extinction of sanguinary age, might go far to the kingdom of Scotland. No justify the penalty of death. Robert children survived him except the Lamb, William Anderson and James too famous Mary Queen of Scots, Raveleson had signified their oppo

whose birth was announced to her sition to the monks by dressing up

father on his death-bed. an image of St. Francis to repre- Beatoun had hoped to rule dursent the devil, and then hanging it ing the long minority of the infant in the street; nor was this the only Queen, and had got himself apoutrage of which they had been pointed head of the Council of guilty. Along with them a woman Regency. But his credit was shaken named Helen Stirke was condemned by the disgraceful failure of his for language capable of conveying policy: the faction of the nobles a meaning which, doubtless, she had the support of the victorious never intended. Speaking of the English, and many lords made prisVirgin as but an ordinary though a oners in the battle had been dishighly-favoured woman, she had said, missed without ransom on pledge to "Had I been alive at that time, promote the schemes of Henry. God might as likely have chosen me The Earl of Arran, a favourer of to be the mother of the Lord.” To the Reformation, was declared sole Regent, and Beatoun's rivals felt him at the last to withhold the themselves strong enough to override hostages required by the King of his opposition and order his imprison- England, and the treaty fell to the ment. For a few days the Tudor ground. A more marked personal policy in Church and State seemed triumph was in store for the chamabout to prevail. A treaty was ac- pion of Rome. Secretly, as he in tually entered into for the betrothal vain supposed, the leader of the of Mary to the child Prince Edward, Protestant party, abjured his errors that thus the union of the two and received absolution from the crowns might be brought about. Cardinal, whose tool for the future

Everything seemed settled, when he became. Henry was enraged to the Cardinal regained his liberty, and the uttermost, and his vengeance almost at once re-established his con- was prompt and terrible. An Engtrol in Scotland. During his con- lish fleet appeared without warning finement the clergy had everywhere in the Firth of Forth, landed an refused to perform the offices of the irresistible army who Church : no mass, no funeral, no Edinburgh without opposition, and wedding or baptism, was witnessed in returned by land to their own counthe whole country, and the popular try, ravaging and burning towns, indignation rose high against the villages, castles and fields all the English and their faction. Beatoun, way.

But this served more to skilfully availing himself of the gen- render the heretics hated than the eral feeling, and working on the Cardinal unpopular. feebler mind of Arran, persuaded

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On the death of Herod, Mary re- one of his sons. I passed all My time turned to her native village, from

without fault. I called Mary My mother which she had unexpectedly been

and Joseph father; and in all they said

was obedient to them; nor did I ever so long absent, and where, in toil,

resist them .... or return any harsh word poverty and utter obscurity, the Son or answer to them ; on the contrary, I of God spent all but about five

cherished them with immense love as the years of His earthly life. With re

apple of Mine eye.” ference to this period, it is stated There seems to be an enormous in the Apocryphal “ History of preponderance of argument in favour Joseph the Carpenter," that Mary's of the natural supposition that, after husband had four sons and several the miraculous conception of our daughters by a previous marriage, Lord, Joseph and Mary lived toof whom Justus and Simon and gether in the married state, and Esther and Thamar found for them- that James and Joses and Judas selves, by marriage, new homes;

and Simon, with daughters whose but concerning the others, Jesus is names are not recorded, were subthere represented as saying:

sequently born to them. * Nor is it .“ Judas and James the Less, and the improbable that, on the death of Virgin My mother, remained in the house Joseph, which is supposed to have of Joseph. I also continued along with them not otherwise than if I had been * Farrar's “Life of Christ.” I. P. 96.

taken place when Jesus was about years, at the close of which our nineteen, our Saviour, as Mary's Saviour's ministry commenced, the eldest son, assumed the headship Gospels say not a single syllable ; and support of the orphaned family. and in all the Scriptures Mary is But be that as it may, the same again referred to only four times; halo of romance has been thrown | for from henceforth, in Gospel and around this as around every other Epistle, “ Christ is all and in all.” portion of the history of the Holy The first of these four occasions. Family; for foolish traditions, in was at Cana's marriage-feast, when tended, indeed, to honour, but in by the almost startling words, fact grossly dishonouring the Sa “Woman, what have I to do with viour, tell us of His pulling His thee ?” He gently withdrew Himfather's short planks to any requisite self from her authority; and when, length, and sportively turning His at Capernaum, about eighteen. playmates into kids, or vindictively months afterwards, she sought, with striking dead with His curse the misguided affection, to draw aside boys who dared to offend Him, till the Son of the Highest from His such a storm of indignation was unresting, self-consuming toil, a raised that Mary was positively | second time, in yet more forceful afraid to let Him leave the shelter terms, He tenderly but firmly reof her house. But of these vain pudiated her right to control Him fancies concerning the Virgin's Child still; for now He belongs not to the most happily conceived has thus Mary, but to God and to the world been woven into pleasant verse : His all-atoning blood redeemed. “The young child Jesus had a garden

The Gospels next speak of Mary Full of roses rare and red,

at the foot of the Cross, where was. And thrice a day He watered them, fulfilled but too literally ancient

To make a garland for His head. Simeon's prophecy : “ Yea, a sword "When they were full blown in the shall pierce through thy own soul;"

garden, He called the Jewish children there,

but, amid the anguish and horror And each did pluck himself a rose,

of that hour, the dying Redeemer Until they stripped the garden bare.

gave to her consoling proof that, "And now how will you make your

though He had long ceased to be garland,

“ subject” unto her, she had never For not a rose your path adorns ?'

ceased to be the subject of His filial But you forget,' He answered them,

thought and care.
That you have left me still the

We have no authentic record of " They took the thorns and made a

our Saviour's appearing to Mary garland,

after His resurrection ; but in the And placed it on His shining head; next and only other glimpse which And where the roses should have shown the Scriptures afford us of her Were little drops of blood instead.”

career, we find this holy woman in Yet even this in no way adds to the far-famed “upper room,” with the chaste and simple beauty of the Mary Magdalene and Salome and Gospel narrative, where the only | the few beside who composed the story of our Saviour's childhood is infant Church. The Bible narrative: His visit, with His parents, to the thus, with surpassing fitness, leaves temple, and their sorrowful search the mother of our Lord engaged, for Him when, on returning, they not in receiving, but in offering. had left Him in the Holy City. prayer, in common with other dis

Concerning the next eighteen ciples. Of all her after life, every.

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