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days long gone by, she has been considers that Book (the Bible) and narrow, proud and persecuting ; compares it with what is done in not that when the dark.ages were our church, he will find them very drawing to a close, she was unwill- | contrary to each other, and our ing to walk in the light, and clung doctrines not only to be different tenaciously to old habits. We are from it, but repugnant to it.” every day made aware of the power So the old question remains : as of ancient usages, and are ourselves both cannot be right, which is ? victimised as well as profited by When God turned the captivity of them. And where those usages have His people, and they were found been connected with all that is most once more in Jerusalem, we read sacred, and handed down from father that “all the people gathered themto son, very great allowances must selves together as one man into the · be made. But our quarrel is that street that was before the waterages have passed away, and ample gate ; and they spake unto Ezra time has been given for changes the scribe to bring the Book of the such as better knowledge should Law of Moses, which the Lord had have ushered in, and still that commanded to Israel.” They had. church makes her boast of being been brought into trouble through ingloriously the same. She spoils neglecting it, through the worship all by either adding to or diminish of them that were no gods, and. ing from the Word of God. She through forbidden practices, and now believes in prayer, but after the they cry out to have it read to them. exercise is over her devotees must And what was the answer made ? dip their fingers in something called Was it that the Book which they "holy water;" she exercises faith inquired after was very difficult to . in Christ as Saviour and Mediator, understand, and only intended for but she elevates the Virgin Mary learned men ? Was it that God to a place of reverence equal if not had practically superseded it, and superior; she believes in the Sacra that if they wanted to know anyments as means of grace, but she thing, Ezra, being in the true suc--adds five of her own to the two of cession of those who first received · the New Testament, and then spoils it, would explain it to them ? Not so :them all by insisting upon a Purga we are told that the Book was opened tory still beyond them, which is to " in the sight of all the people," and be the scene of a further purification. that it was read, and that the sense Yea, she believes in the Scriptures was given, and they were “caused as the Word of God, but she says, to understand the reading,” and “all “ Our traditions must interpret the people wept, when they heard. 1 them;" and, as of old, they make the words of the Law.” them “of none effect.” The advice Surely the day will yet come given by the Bishops met at Bononia when Tertullian's description of a to Julius III. contains the honest heretic will be acknowledged to be truth at all events, and one only the right one, namely, such an one wonders that the unmistakable in as flies away from the light of ference was not drawn by Roman Scripture. Catholics, and is not drawn yet. Great changes are going on all They recommend that as little of the around, and never was there such a . Gospel as might be should be read circulation of God's Word. Meanto the people in the Vulgar tongue; while, let us who have it be sure "for," they say, “ if one diligently | that never was there greater cause

to hold to it, and to give the sense, may feel its truth, its force, and its and cause it to be understood, so sufficiency. that now, as of old, all the people

EARLY CHALDÆAN LEGENDS.

CONCLUDING PAPER,

The fourth and fifth tablets are and his dogs devoured him. She altogether too much mutilated to be loved Isullanu and struck him and intelligible. Apparently Izdubar's changed him to a pillar and set him dream was explained to refer to a up in the ground. And me," he tyrant Hambaba, the last, as Mr. concludes, “thou dost love and like Smith thinks, of an Elamite dynasty to them thou wilt serve me.” whose conquest of Erech has been Then Ishtar, enraged at the slight, described in the first fragment of the ascends into heaven to her father series. Heabani and Izdubar, after Anu, and prevails on him to create lengthy prayers to Shammas, start a divine ball which assails Izdubar together to attack Hambaba, who and Heabani, but they overthrow is said to have dwelt in a land of and slay it and send a portion of great trees.

The two heroes jour- the body to Ishtar who makes great ney through this forest which ex- lamentation over the bull. This cites their admiration, and they hold conflict is represented on a cylinder conversation about its magnificence. engraved in Mr. Smith’s volume. The end of the expedition cannot be Ishtar then, having been in heaven, made out farther than that it is suc- resolves to descend into hell to obtain cessful. Hambaba is slain and his

help against Izdubar, and there folpalace plundered. Izdubar now be- lows a most remarkable narrative comes supreme monarch of liberated

exhibiting the belief of the early Babylonia, but at this point his Babylonians respecting the life after calamities begin. His prowess and death. Our information is derived manly strength attract the notice

partly from the continuous series of of Ishtar, the goddess-queen of the tablets we are now dealing with, Erech, who pursues him with her

and partly from another work which love, offering him great splendour though distinct from this plainly and riches with wide-spread con- refers to the same subject. quests if he will be her husband. But the king knows that Ishtar's love is fatal to her favourites. He refuses “1. [To Hades, the country unseen] I her offers in a long speech, in which

turn myself he recounts the ruin of those whom

“2. Í spread like a bird my wings.

“3. I descend, I descend to the house she had formerly thus exalted.

of darkness, to the dwelling of the god Country after country mourns for Irkalla Dumazi, her husband; the wild “4. to the house entering which there eagle she loved and then broke his

is no exit,

“5. to the road the course of which wings; the lion lost his claws which

never returns ; she “drew out by levers;" the horse “ 6. to the house in which the dwellers pleased her for a few hours and then long for light, was seized with shaking and aban

“7. the place where dust is their nourdoned,

ishment and their food mud. She loved a ruler of the

“8. Its chiefs also are like birds covo country and turned him to a leopard ered with feathers.

TABLET VII,

COLUMN IV.

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will enter,

66

see me

"9. And light is never seen, in dark- “ 24. Let me go and thy speech repeat ness they dwell.

to the queen Ninkigal. “10. In the house my friend which I “25. The keeper entered and called to will enter,

Ninkigal "11. for me is treasured up a crown ; “26. this water thy sister Ishtar

“12. with those wearing crowns who “ 28. Ninkigal on hearing this from days of old ruled the earth,

“ 29. like the cutting off of . “13. to whom the gods Anu and Bel 1630. like the bite of an insect it have given terrible names.

“31. Will her heart support it, will her “14. The food is made carrion, they spirit uphold it; drink stagnant water.

“ 34. Let her mourn for the husbands "15. In the house my friend which I who forsake their wives,

" 35. Let her mourn for the wives who "16, dwell the chiefs and unconquered from the bosoms of their husbands de. ones,

part, "17. dwell the bards and great men,

“ 36. for the children who miscarry let "18. dwell the monsters of the deep of her mourn, who are not born in their the great gods.

proper time,” etc. “19. It is the dwelling of Etana, the dwelling of Ner,

While Ishtar is detained below, “20. .... the queen of the lower re- everything goes wrong in the world gions Ninkigal

of love on earth. Shammas, the “21. the mistress of the fields, the

Sun, goes weeping into the presence mother of the queen of the lower regions before her submits

of Hea the king of heaven, and after ** 22. and there is not any one that representing to him the evils from stands against her in her presence. which the world is suffering, be“ 23. I will approach her and she will

seeches his aid. Hea makes a com“24. and she will bring me to

posite creature, whom Mr. Smith her."

calls the Sphinx, and sends it down

into the lower regions. Ninkigal The other tablet continues the trembles at its approach

. and story thus :

launches curses against it. But at

last she has to yield, and issues the "1. To Hades the land of "2. Ishtar the daughter of Sin (the

order to Simtar to restore the spirit Moon) her ear inclined ;

of Ishtar. She is brought out from "3. inclined also the daughter of Sin “the palace of judgment,” seated on

a golden throne, and the water of life “4. to the house of darkness, the dwelling of the god Irkalla.

is poured over her, she is conducted "12. Ishtar on her arrival at the gate back through the seven gates, and at

each one the articles of her apparel "13. to the keeper of the gate a com- and ornaments are returned to her, mand she called : "14. Keeper of the waters open thy

and finally she reappears in the light

her ear,

of Hades,

of day. Thus ends the perilous "15. open thy gate that I may enter. visit of Ishtar to the realm of the "16. If thou openest not the gate and

but she has not obtained I am not admitted,

"17. I will strike the door and the door posts I will shatter,

The subsequent portion of that "18. I will strike the hinges and I will hero's adventures is extremely obburst open the doors ;

scure and fragmentary. Heis smitten “19. I will raise up the dead devourers

with a grievous sickness; he dreams .“ 20. over the living the dead shall

two or three more dreams which Heatriumph.

bani cannot interpret; a new enemy “21. The keeper his mouth opened and

threatens him, and he exhorts Heaspake, “ 22. and called to the princess Ishtar :

bani to fight; either by this or by “ 23. Stay Lady do not do this.

some other foe the wise satyris slain,

gate,

dead;

power over Izdubar.

of the living,

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and Izdubar makes great lamentation over his loss. He then starts upon a long journey which takes him through many mythical regions inhabited by strange beings compounded of men and animals. The object of his wanderings is to

“Hasisadra, son of Ubaratutu," from whose advice he is to gain relief. He crosses a terrible desert, and, after encounters with many fabulous monsters, meets a boatman named Urhamsi, with whom he takes a long voyage of one month and fifteen days over the waters of death. There is an account of his making a great spear, the purpose of which is not apparent.

Ultimately he meets a personage called Ragmu-seri-ina-namari (a name so long that even the author of the tablets has to shorten it to Ragmu), to whom he recounts his conflict with Hambaba and the death of Heabani. He is then introduced to the presence of Hasisadra, from whom, among other things, he learns what to us is the most interesting part of these legends, the story of the Flood, in which Hasisadra himself takes the position of Noah. It is told in answer to a question of Izdubar's : why it is that Hasisadra has been admitted alive to the assembly of the gods.

6 18.....

then will be revealed in the midst

and “19. I his will was hearing and he spake to me “ 20. Surippakite son of Ubaratuta ...

make a ship after this ...

I destroy ? the sinner and life “ 23.

cause to go in ? the seed of life all of it to the midst of the ship.

“ 24. The ship which thou shalt make,

" 25. 600 ? cubits shall be the measure of its length, and

66 26. 60? cubits the amount of its breadth and its height. "27.

into the deep launch it. “28. I perceived and said to Hea my lord :

“29. The ship making which thou commandest me,

“ 30. when I shall have made,
“31. Young and old will deride me.

“32. Hea opened his mouth and spake and said to me his servant:

thou shalt say unto them, " 34.

he has turned from me and “ 35.

fixed over me
"36.

like eaves
above and below

closed the ship
“ 39.

the flood which I will send upon you,

" 40. into it enter and the door of the ship turn

**41. Into the midst of it thy grain, tby furniture and thy goods,

“42. thy wealth, thy women servants, thy female slaves and the young men

* 43. the beast of the field, the ani. mals of the field all, I will gather and

“44. I will send to thee, and they shall be enclosed in thy door.

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TABLET XI. COLUMN I.

"45. Adrahasis his mouth opened and spake and

66 46. said to Hea his lord : " 47. Any one the ship will not make... 6 48. on the earth fixed

I may see also the ship ...

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on the ground the ship.. "51. the ship making which thou commandest me

“ 52, which in

649. 6 50.

COLUMN II,
61. strong
“2. on the fifth day ....it

"3. in its circuit 14 measures .... its frame.

" 4. 14 measures it measured ... over it.

“5. I placed its roof.... I enclosed it, 66. I rode in it on the sixth time; I *** 45. the destroyer Nergal overturned,

“ 14. * 15. " 16. 66 17.

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examined its exterior on the seventh

time;

ver

“ 7. its interior I examined on the eighth time.

“8. Planks against the waters within it I placed,

“9. I saw rents and the wanting parts I added.

“10. 3 measures of bitumen I poured over the outside.

“11. 3 measures of bitumen I poured over the inside

“12. 3 . ... men carrying its baskets, they constructed boxes,

“ 13. I placed in the boxes the offering they sacrificed.

"14. Two measures of boxes I had distributed to the boatmen.

“ 15. To were sacrificed oxen,
“ 16.

dust and
"17. wine in receptacle of goats.

“ 18. I collected like the waters of a river, also

“ 19. food like the dust of the earth also

“20. I collected in boxes with my hand I placed.

Shammas material of the ship completed. “ 22.

strong and “ 23. The reed oars of the ship I caused to bring above and below.

“ 24, they went in two thirds of

“ 40. Ragmu-seri-ina-namari

“41. arose, from the horizon of heaven extending and wide.

“ 42. Vul in the midst of it thundered, and

“ 43. Nebo and Saru went in front,

“ 44. the throne-bearers went mo ntains and plains

* 21.

" 25. All I possessed the strength of it, all I possessed the strength of it silver,

“26. all I possessed the strength of it gold,

27. all I possessed the strength of it the seed of life, the whole

“ 28. I caused to go up into the ship; all my male servants and my female servants,

* 29. the beast of the field, the animal of the field, the sons of the people all of them I caused to go up.

“ 30. A flood Shammas made and "31. He spake saying in the night : I will cause it to rain heavily,

"32. enter to the midst of the ship and shut thy door.

"33. That flood happened of which " 34. he spake, saying in the night : I will cause it to rain from heaven heavily.

" 35. In the day I celebrated his festival

"36. the day of watching fear I had.

"37. I entered to the midst of the ship and shut my door.

"38. to close the ship to Buzursadi. rabi the boatman.

"39. the palace I gave with its goods.

“ 46. Ninip went in front and cast down,

“47. the spirits carried destruction.

48. In their glory they swept the earth;

6 49. of Val the flood reached to heaven,

“ 50. the bright earth to a waste was turned."

COLUMN III,

“1. The surface of the earth like .. it swept,

2. It destroyed all life from the face of the earth.

“3. The strong deluge over the people, reached to heaven.

“ 4. Brother saw not his brother, they did not know the people. In heaven

" 5. the gods feared the tempest and

“6. sought refuge; they ascended to the heaven of Anu.

7. the gods like dogs fixed in droves prostrate.

“8. Spake Ishtar like a child,
“9. uttered Rubat her speech :
“10. all to corruption are turned and

“ 11. then I in the presence of the gods prophesied evil.

“12. As I prophesied in the presence of the gods evil,

“13. to evil were devoted all my people and I prophesied

“14. thus: I have begotten my people and

“ 15. like the young of the fishes they fill the sea.

“16. The gods concerning the spirits were weeping with her;

“ 17. the gods in seats seated in lamentation,

“ 18. covered were their lips for the coming evil.

“19. Six days and nights

20. passed, the wind, deluge and storm overwhelmed,

“ 21. On the seventh day in its course was calmed the storm, and all the deluge

“ 22. which had destroyed like an earth. quake,

“ 23. quieted. The sea he caused to dry, and the wind and deluge ended.

“ 24. I perceived the sea making a tossing;

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