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spider commences to construct a itself-knowing its position—finds door, which shall effectually cover its very roughness an aid in opening the chamber. If this be hastily it and effecting a rapid retreat. examined it looks like a little disc The habit of this creature is to of mortar, lined inside with web, sleep in its chambered recess during and hinged to one side of the the day, but to slightly raise the tubular chamber with a prolonga- valve or cover of its fastness at tion of the lining mortar; but if night for the purpose of watching. carefully looked into it will be Should a cricket or a small animal found to be composed of no fewer of any kind come near enough, the than thirty alternate layers of web Mygale leaps out, seizes its prey, and mortar, each layer being im- and darts back again with great bedded in a smaller, like cups placed rapidity. within each other; and yet the whole is only the tenth of an inch It is well known that a luminous in thickness. The layers of web point, like a piece of lighted wood, are continued so as to form a hinge; if rotated rapidly enough in an eland the edge of the door is bevelled lipse or a circle, produces the effect inwards like a valve, and has a upon the eye of a continuous ring of corresponding bevel in the tube or light. The circle of light appears passage which it covers. This of to be such if the point of light is course makes attack from without made to revolve about ten times in difficult, if not impossible ; for the a second : this is because it takes door cannot be opened inwards, and about the tenth of a second for a when the spider is once in, he luminous impression on the retina can defy any enemy to open it out- to vanish : and therefore the conwards ; for the interior of the cover tinuity of impression is not broken. is not smooth, like the other parts M. Lalanne has just shown by exof the tube-dwelling, but is pierced periment that the same is true of with about thirty holes. These are tactile impressions—the nerves of placed just in the position in which touch are affected in exactly the a lock would be put by the human same way.

If a body that will not builder. Should the Mygale find injure the skin by motion upon it be itself besieged, it pushes its claws made to revolve round the arm or into these holes, and fastens the the leg at the rate of not less than sharp mandibles into the wall of ten turns or revolutions a second, a the dwelling. He then contracts continuous impression arises like his whole body and pulls the door that caused by the pressure of a so tightly close as to defy the bracelet or a ring.

So that it would enemy to open it. On the other

appear that all nervous sensibilityhand the door is quiteindistinguish- luminous, tactile, and—by approxiable from the rough clay amidst mate experiments-acoustic, are dewhich it is found, and the animal pendent upon the same conditions.

431

BOOK JOURNAL.

66

The Prayers of St. Paul: Being an

Analysis and Exposition of the Devotional Portion of the Apostle's Writings. By W. B. POPE, Theological Tutor, Didsbury College, Manchester. London : Published for the Author at the Wesleyan Conference Office. 1876. It is no easy matter to write a fresh and solid book on so well-worn a theme as the Epistles of St. Paul. It is far harder to accomplish the task without the aid of controversy, critical discussion, or popular rhetoric. This, however, is what Mr. Pope has done in the volume before us. Leaving the topics of dog. matic theology round which disputes have raged for centuries, undisturbed, though by no means uninstructed, by the more recent strife of criticism, he gives his attention to a part of the Apostle's writings comparatively overlooked by commentators and expositors.

The prayers and thanksgivings, the devout wishes and ejaculations of St. Paul, furnish matter alike for the pious meditation of the simple believer and for the closest analysis of the fully equipped student.

It is in the combination of these two characters that Mr. Pope stands pre-eminent, and to this is due the originality of his expositions. He applies the most rigid methods of modern exegesis to devotional subjects, with the closeness of a German professor, and in the spirit of a true Methodist preacher.

This is a book for the prayerful private reading of scholars, but not of scholars only. Few will read without benefit, though the full value will be appreciated only by those who are trained to follow close reasoning, to catch the force of wellweighed words, and to see all the meaning of compressed thought. Suggestions abound that will bear much expanding and popularising; and there are few works of recent date more precious to the reader who can make use of a good model, without servile imitation.

The whole manner of treatment exhibits to the Bible-student a method of study that must bear rich fruit when applied to

or even by other minds to the inexhaustible field of the great Apostle's letters. One highly important problem receives much elucidation from these pages, yet still demands further inquiry—What was the practical ideal, and what the average attainment of Christian devotion and holiness in the

earliest times ? To determine this ques.
tion, not vaguely and by deduction
from general principles, but accurately
and by rigid analysis of evidence, would
be of immense service, not only to the
historian, but also to the seeker of the
religious life. To the reader of Mr. Pope's
exposition, it must soon become abun-
dantly apparent how lofty, yet constantly
present, is St. Paul's standard of Chris-
tian excellence. As a theological defence
of the doctrine of Entire Sanctification,
showing how the conception pervades
the Pauline writings, the present volume
is extremely valuable.
Memorials of the Rev. David Thomas,

B.A., of Bristol. Edited by His
Son, H. A. Thomas, M.A. Hodder

and Stoughton. 1876.
This volume contains ten Sermons by
Mr. Thomas, to which a brief Biographical
Sketch has been prefixed by his son.
The story of the Life of David Thomas,

quiet and uneventful,” is soon told, so far as it can be known to the outside world, for he left no diary, nor any papers from which an elaborate biography might be compiled, and his son has done wisely in making his sermons the chief part of these Memorials. Of the sermons themselves it would be difficult to speak too highly. They are calm, earnest, thoughtful, practical, and our only regret in reading them is that so few have been printed. We most heartily wish them a very extensive circulation. The Church and Liberties of England :

The True Character and Public
Danger of the Present Extreme Move.
ment in the National Church. With
Dedication and Appendices.
NEVISON LORAINE, Vicar of Grove
Park West, London, Author of "The
Voice of the Prayer-Book,” etc.
Introduction by the Very Rev. the
DEAN of CHESTER. London: Smith,

Elder and Co. 1876. In this small volume, the substance of a single lecture, Mr. Loraine has revealed the great danger to which the English Church is exposed by the covert work of the extreme Ritualistic party. It is almost inconceivable that, under pretence of devotion to the interests of the Anglican Church, any men with common-sense can practise on themselves, or any man with common honesty can practise on others, the deceit which, as this book testifies, is being wrought at the present

By

other subjects,

time. Mr. Loraine's allegations are based on quotations made from religious manuals and other works openly or secretly circulated by English clergymen. Calmly, but effectually, the writer exposes the wily tricks by which the foundations of Protestant sentiment in this land are being undermined. The practices complained of are as unworthy of English clergymen, as the teachings are irrecon. cileable with the spirit and the very words of the Book of Common Prayer.

To no class more than to moderate High-Churchmen does this book appeal. It is surely the duty of this section, if of any, to draw the line clearly and without hesitancy, beyond which it will not allow itself to pass; while it is an equally incumbent duty to bear faithful and firm witness against acknowledged error. Only thus is it possible to escape the imputation of connivance which may lapse into the sin of compliance, and to avoid strengthening the hands of dangerous foes. Mr. Loraine's is a timely note of warning which should be sounded throughout the length and breadth of the land. A Course of Addresses on the Word and

Works of God. Delivered to an
Evangelical Association of Young
Men. By MAURICE LOTHIAN. Edin-
burgh : Johnstone, Hunter and Co.

1876. After an experience of nearly fifty years in Sunday-school teaching, the author of this book formed an association of young men, with a view to retain the older scholars under further instruction, and to establish them in the profession of a religious life. The Addresses in this volume are selected from those given to this association during the twenty years of its existence. They are written in a good spirit, with a good purpose, and in a plain and homely style. It is no detraction from their utility that nothing ori. ginal or novel is aimed at. If this is not a book for the theologian, it is, perhaps, therefore the better fitted for the class for whom it was prepared. The Addresses were intended for young men, and designed to establish them in the Christian faith, and to guard them from the assaults of infidels and sceptics. Wisely the

writer has confined himself to beaten paths : the old arguments are on the whole the best. The Christian faith rests on independent ground ; its positive arguments are its truest defences. Mere replies to opponents, however skilful and conclusive, are not the real supports to faith. It is the wisdom of the young reader to make himself acquainted with the firm basis on which his confidence may repose, and the impregnable defences behind which he may stand, before he ventures forth to battle. Equally is it the wisdom of the teacher of the young to set forth the grounds of belief, before exposing the weakness and error of infidelity. This our author has done.

To Sunday-school superintendents and teachers, this volume may be commended as supplying good examples of addresses to young men ; while young men who are desirous of establishing their faith, both in the authority of the Scriptures and the leading doctrines of the Evangelical Churches, and to provide themselves with arguments against the infidel and the scoffer, may find this a useful and interesting compendium.

are

or

The Biblical Museum. By JAMES COMPER

GRAY. Old Testament. London :

Elliot Stock, Of this publication we have received the prospectus and the first part. It is constructed upon the same lines as those which were laid down for the New Testament division. Upon each passage

notes, critical explanatory; notes homiletic; notes illustrative ; & more or less apt anecdote or quotation; and marginal references, and pitby sentences. Criticism we must reserve till the appearance of the first volume. So far as we can judge from the portion examined, this issue is marked by the same excellencies and defects that have characterised Mr. Gray's previous works, which we have frequently pointed out. The excellencies are many, the defects comparatively few. Mr. Gray combines interest and fulness with brevity and precision, but he is often fanciful and occasionally unscholarly. The “ Biblical Museum,” however, well deserves, and is likely, to be popular,

HAYMAN BROTHERS AND LILLY, HATTON HOUSE, FARRINGDON ROAD, E.C.

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