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without effort, strong." It betrays By the Conference of 1820, he no “ ardour to adorn,' He neither was appointed to the Edinburgh resorted to catch-texts, nor to catch- Circuit as third minister, his resitopics. For months in succession, he dence being at Dalkeith ; where he expounded the peculiar doctrines of took the pulpit always on the weekMethodism to minds which had been evenings, and two Sundays out of steeped from infancy in Calvinistic three; the third being usually spent dogmas. Popularity, as an end, he at Edinburgh. He soon became as neither sought, nor could be satis- great a power in Dalkeith as he had fied with. But his sermons were ever been at Haddington, but seems carefully prepared—a pile of them to have been more directly and is now in our possession. He knew traceably successful in the conversion full well that it were fanatical to of souls. Edinburgh was too large hope for excellence as a preacher any and pre-occupied a city to be deeply more than as a medical practitioner, and widely moved by a visit once in without indefatigable painstaking three weeks, frequently intermitted Simplicity of plan and oneness of through the mortal illness of his impression would lend a novel wife. In April, 1821, after months charm to his discourses, for a of painful decline, his wife died. Scottish audience; extreme prolixity He is perhaps the only Methodist being characteristic of the national minister who was bridegroom and divinity of the day; insomuch that widower during his probation. His studying it strongly reminds one of diary contains many touching refergoing a nutting in the tangled wild- ences to this affliction, e.g.: wood, with all its ways and by-ways, paths and cross-paths, turns and “Septr. 3rd, 1820. This is the day of the
Lord. sub-turns, so that without incessant
The country perspective is
exquisitely beautiful. When I look into looking back one must inevitably the street, only an occasional passenger get confused and lost. His appear- is seen to step silently along, like an ing twice a week in the same pulpit
individual observed to pass ... impressed gave him purchase over the public
with awe, from within and again into,
the precincts of a court. Blessed are mind. Once on the Sunday, and
the courts of Thy house! I am surrounded one week evening, is the normal with spiritual privileges and temporal number of times for addressing the
blessings; but there is a worm at the same congregation. Had he been
root of every earthly gourd of protection
and shade. My Ann... Lord, 'if it be rolling round a Circuit, Sabbath
possible, let this cup pass from me!' after Sabbath, he would have"gath- “Nov. 17th. In a week from this date very
little ministerial“moss." four months will have elapsed since it He thus notes the close of his
pleased God to lay His hand on the wife
of my youth ; and alas, how very little three years' ministry at Haddington:.
have I profited by this long-continued August 19th. I rejoice to think that affliction ! Death has been the frequent the charge of my flock has passed into subject of my thoughts, but that has not, other hands ... I have laboured for their as it should have done, attached me to good ; but neither to the extent, nor with Christ. The prospect that ... the light the perseverance, zeal and love, that I of my eyes may be taken from me... might have done. To regret the past is, when it wrings tears of agony from me, in itself, an idle task ; it can only be pro- does not always lead me to Christ. . . ductive of good as it leads to repentance She has not been able to read, and only and reformation. God of mercies, grant now and then to hear reading.... God of me the former, and urge me to the latter !” mercy, wilt Thou take away -?"
(To be concluded.)
NOTES ON THE SCIENCE OF THE MONTH.
BY THE REV. W. H. DALLINGER, F.R.M.8.
The relation existing between comets and oxygen. No new substanceand meteors is , now firmly estab- such as has been indicated in the lished. We have from time to solar corona—could be discovered. time pointed out the facts on which But meteorites differ in structure, this generalization is based. Con- some of them being much more firmatory evidence is constantly stony in nature than others. One being adduced by collateral experi- of these fell in Iowa on February ment;- especially from the re- the 12th, 1875, and on examining searches of chemists. It
this with great care he found that Professor Graham who first proved it gave off carbon dioxyde, with a that meteorites contained hydrogen small admixture of hydrogen, when which must have been occluded gently heated ; while at a red heat under immense pressure : and it this state of things was reversed ; was in course of observation shown the hydrogen being most powerfully that precisely these conditions conditions present.
In fact, the spectrum existed when eruptions occurred in obtained was exactly that which the glowing envelope of the sun. Mr. Huggins has obtained from the Solid and gaseous matter is driven nuclei of comets; the hydrogen out to vast distances through an band being wholly lost by the atmosphere of hydrogen - hence strength of the three bright bands meteorites are the erupted matter of the carbon spectrum. The inof innumerablesuns wandering about ferences made from these observain space, and as the several suns tions are-1. That stony meteorites bear their vassal worlds through are distinguished from iron ones the trackless abysms of space by having as their chief gaseous these wandering masses of erupted components oxydes of carbon. matter are compelled into orbits, 2. The proportion of carbon diin common with the larger nebulous oxyde given off is greater at low masses which are vagrant through than at high temperatures. From space, and become comets, and which we may conclude that the eventually by the" lagging behind" temperature of even the nuclei of of their gaseous and incohesive comets is not high. 3. The amount matter become meteor streams and of these gases contained in a large fall into the sun and on the planets meteorite or group of such, is meteors—a large
of enough to give the spectrum which supply as fuel to the sun.
the nuclei of comets afford. 4. The Professor Wright of Yale College spectra of the meteorite and that has been making some very
in- of several observed comets are teresting and instructive experi- identical. ments on the meteorites which have It would thus appear that a fallen on the earth.
comet is composed, as was keenly scope was the instrument employed. surmised by many, of the materials He found hydrogen, the carbon which make up meteorites. The oxydes and the spectra of nitrogen components are in all probability
in a discreet condition and give off close connection between them. carbon dioxyde under solar heat, (4) The height of the prominences and the gaseous carbons being has not diminished much; while driven off and streaming away into the brightest parts of the solar space, reflect solar light and partly photosphere, which in 1871 were account for the phenomena of tails. found nearest the poles, have disBut this latter certainly not alto- appeared wholly from that region, gether. There are phenomena in and are now confined to the zones relation to these enormous material in which spots are usually found. extensions called “tails " which are When it is remembered that there yet wholly inexplicable.
is a close connection between the In further elucidation of this sun-spot periods, and the periods very fascinating subject, M. G. of greatest and least magnetic Tissandier sends to the French disturbances on our earth, the value Academy the results of his examin- of such observations is clear. ation of the powder which he has Another interesting fact in collected from the air at great
reference to solar matters is the altitudes. This dust is found to determination by Mr. Baxendall of be largely composed of rounded a direct relation between solar and pear-shaped corpuscles which spots and the amount of solar are attracted by the magnet and
radiation. There be little are composed of magnetic oxyde question that the variation in of iron. Their origin he believes the solar surface, arising from the to be cosnical :—that is to say greater or less number of solar that they come into us from space spots, affects its light-giving power as the débris of meteorites which to the worlds far out beyond us; have been fused in their passage
so that in fact our central star is through the air and dissipated as
in the strictest sense
variable” microscopic dust.
sometimes brighter and at other P. Secchi gives the results of times when the spots are largest his continued researches upon the and most numerous—far less sun; the sun-spots and pro
brilliant. Mr. Baxendall's obserminences, or flames, which are vations show that with the erupted from the sun's glowing number of the spots the intensity envelopes. The observations have of the sun's heat increases and been continuous since 1871, during diminishes. But the result is which time the spots have passed remarkable; when the solar radiafrom the period of maximum size and tion is greatest the earth's heat is frequency towards that of minimum. least: but this arises from the He has been able to determine (1) fact that greater radiation of solar That the daily number of pro- heat means greater evaporation from minences has diminished regularly the surface of the ocean; hence from fifteen to four, and the more moisture in the air; and from minimum does not yet appear to
very cause less of the sun's have been reached. (2) The area rays reach the earth's surface ; over which the spots extend has and so by evaporation a greater diminished in even a more marked cooling results. Now the largest degree. (3) The great eruptions portion of the earth's surface is of metallic vapours have entirely covered by water, and so the ceased since the large spots have principal result of increased solar disappeared; thus making clear the radiation is increased evaporation
from the water-area of the earth, 1 from that of the dead one. Mr. which by increasing the moisture Wyman collected recently observasimply diminishes the heat we tions to prove that plants are to receive.
be found in springs at over 200° Since our November “ Notes Fahr. Cohn, who is a careful remarkable series of additions to observer, had found in the Carlsbad the asteroids has been made. springs no vegetation at a higher November the 1st and 2nd, M. temperature than about 125° Fahr., Palisa discovered two. In little while Max Schultze made experimore than a week afterwards M. ments to prove that protoplasm Paul Henry discovered a third and stiffened in plant cells at less M. Prosper Henry a fourth, and than 110° Fahr. But surely no M. Palisa a fifth, and shortly after inference can be made from this. this the same observer discovered Cohn, who takes a very moderate a sixth.
This brings up the view shows that plant-life may be number to one hundred and fifty-six; vigorous at a very much higher making six planetary discoveries in temperature than this; and to a month, and sixteen in a year. take living plants whose life habitat
M. Flammarion has given some has been in moderate temperatures, very interesting evidence lately and subject them suddenly to confirming previous observations higher ones is not to give them the as to the rapid and remarkable same chance as nature affords by changes which are taking place in way of adaptation. There can be the zones of the planet Jupiter. very little doubt that lowly forms These changes are both in the can exist, after continuous survival, colour and form of the zones and at temperatures not much below are such as could not be produced 150° Fahr. by the influence of the sun. They clearly indicate activity on the Dr. Du Chaumont has been planet itself, which can only be recently dealing with the question accounted for by the action of heat. of the relation between food and Jupiter is almost certainly going work in organized beings. For a through geologic changes which long period in the history of are fitting him for future habitation. physiology, it was held as true that Meanwhile he probably affords heat bodily force was due to chemical to his four moons which makes change in the muscles themselves, habitation on them possible.
and that the nitrogenous matter
in food repaired the waste. Recent For some years evidence has researches into the relation of been offered tending to prove that heat to work, resulting in the great it is possible for living forms to law of the conservation of energy, exist at very high temperatures in have led to the conclusion that hot springs. Nature's capacity to active force in the body is produced adapt organism to circumstance is chiefly by the potential energy most marked : and the objection stored up in the carboniferous food, raised by some Biologists to the which is set free by oxydation. By facts on account of the changes direct calculation it appears from which temperature effects on al- experiment that the work done in buminous substances is we believe walking three miles. an hour is weak; for the chemistry of the equal to about one-tenth the work living organism differs very widely done by a direct ascent; a hard
day's work would be equivalent to become a hundred animals. Circulawalking twenty-four miles in eight tion of a vital fluid is as much hours. Helmholtz calculates that vegetable as animal : breathing, five times as much energy is used sleeping, and even the capacity to in the internal work of the body as become intoxicated, belongs to is expended in ordinary productive plants. But it was long held that work; and in cases of severe work the great, indeed the only difference the proportion of internal work to between the two kingdoms was productive work is still greater. that whilst the animal could only The greatest amount of potential feed on prepared organic compounds, energy possible for a continuance the vegetable could elaborate an is seven thousand foot-tons; and this organic compound from inorganic would yield six hundred foot-tons elements. It has been noted in of productive work.
this Magazine that the former The recent publication of the hypothesis can be no longer mainresults of his long labours tained, for animals have been Drosera rotundifolia and kindred proved to elaborate their
lifeinsectivorous plants, to which we substance from simple inorganic briefly referred in our last “ Notes elements of a suitable kind; and has taken away the last feature it has long been known that there which was held to distinguish the were plants, such as the mistletoe, vegetable from the Animal King- which were parasitic upon others, dom. In the earlier days of Bio- and could only live by the organic logy, it was held that motion was juices provided by their host: and a distinctive test of an animal as now it is proved that there are opposed to a vegetable : but it is whole genera of plants
of plants that now known that while there are depend very little on their roots animals far less capable of motion for sustenance, but they are prothan the cedars of Lebanon, there vided with elaborate sensitive organs are vegetables swifter in their and perfect digestive apparatus for motion than the eagle or the swallow. appropriating organic substances In the same way sensitiveness was of the highest structure—which once held as peculiarly animal : it indeed must have animal matter, is now shown* that there are plants to live. There is consequently no more delicate in their tactile sen- universal distinction left between sibility than man himself. The the two great “ Kingdoms ; and "budding” and “grafting" known whilst it is as true as
ever that to appertain to vegetables is equally popular distinction
popular distinction is easy-as manifest in the animal world; for example between a horse and there are animals which if cut into
a cucumber, or a rose-bush and a a hundred pieces would simply monkey-yet to science the two
“Kingdoms” form together one * See this Magazine. P. 571. 1875. great organic whole.
BOOK JOURNAL. The Course Fulfilled. A Sermon preached the Deceased, and a Plea for the
in City Road Chapel, London, Sep- Mission Work he officially representtember 6th, 1875, on the Death of the ed. By FREDERICK J. JOBSON, D.D. Rev. Charles Prest, General Secretary London : Published for the Author of Wesleyan Home Missions. With a at the Wesleyan Conference Office. Sketch of the Life and Services of This Sermon is valuable and well