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The papyrus


which it is written was discovered names of the kings which appear in by Ebers a German archæologist, | the writing. The date assigned is during a visit to Egypt in the 1552 B.C.; a period when the winter of 1872-3. An Arab from Israelites were in bondage in Egypt, Luxor brought him some Arch- and when, by the received chronology, æological specimens of no special Moses was twenty-one years of value; but he was led to believe age.

This book with forty-two that he had in his possession a others held in the highest veneration rare treasure. This the Arab at by the Egyptians was said to have length produced. It was a metal- been translated from still older lic case containing a papyrus roll sources by Hermes the king, who wrapped in mummy cloths. Its in the middle ages was looked upon great value at

“the father of chemistry” and by Ebers, and by the liberality whose influence still lingers in our of a fellow-countryman the arch- word “hermetical." The remainæologist became possessor of this ing books treated of Governprize.

said ment, astronomy, cosmogony, geoto have been found between the graphy, religion and priesthood. bones of a mummy in a tomb of On all these subjects many manuthe Theban Necropolis. It con

scripts in the form of papyrus rolls sisted of a single tightly rolled have been found from time to time. sheet of very fine papyrus which But it had been affirmed by Clemens was of a yellowish brown hue, about Alexandrinus, that six books existed a foot wide and between twenty on the subject of medicine which have and thirty yards long. This huge remained undiscovered : and these manuscript is divided into probably now are for the first time hundred and ten pages all of which brought to light. are carefully numbered, save two, The first page of the scroll opens the twenty-eighth and twenty-ninth, thus :-" The book begins with the omitted probably from some super- preparation of the medicines for all stition attaching to them. The portions of the body of a patient. writing is Hieratic, a running form I came from Heliopolis with the of hieroglyphics : bearing the same great ones from Het-aat, the Lords relation to hieroglyphics as the of Providence, the Masters of " cursive MSS. do to the Eternity and Salvation.” After “ Uncial," in Greek. Even to the preface, we get a “chapter those who know nothing of hiero- treating of the taking of medicine. glyphic characters, as employed by | The medicines approach. The exthe Egyptians, it is quite possible pulsion of everything is accomplished to perceive (when placed side by from my heart, from my limbs. side) the relation existing between Powerful are the charms on the the hieroglyphs proper, and these, medicines. Beginning: I think their cursive or phonetic represen- of the time when Horus and Set tatives. It appears that the priests were conducted to the great Hall of chiefly employed this hieratic writing, Heliopolis, so that counsel might

The age of this wonderful book be taken on the Hodes of Set and has been determined with confidence, Horus. words which are to be by the form and style of the spoken on the taking of medicines characters used, by the examination in their regular order and freof a calendar which occurs on the


This was the priestly back of the first page, and by the physician's charm.

The chapter


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the nerves ;

headings, or titles of sections are as could not abstain, there is neverfollow : “Of the preparation of theless no gibberish or nonsense in medicines;” “Of salves for removing it. On the contrary it shows that the uhan ;

“Catalogue of the complex receipts could be written various uses of the Tequem tree;' with clearness and administered " Medicines for alleviating ... with care in the sixteenth century diseases of the abdomen ;

before Christ. The writing is in book of the

eyes ;

" " Mendicaments red and black; and after some of for preventing the hair turning grey, the receipts the word “good” has and for the treatment of the hair ; been written by a later hand, "Salves for strengthening the showing that it had been in actual nerves ; and Medicines for healing As more than archæology is

“Medicine for curing dependent upon the correct interdiseases of the tongue;" “Medicines pretation of this interesting scroll, for the removing of lice and fleas; there can be little doubt that it will "Medicines for ears hard of hear- receive much consideration from ing; ” and the “ Secret book of the historians and men of science in all physician. The science of the civilized countries. beating of the heart and the In consonance with ancient Egyptknowledge of the heart as taught ian affairs Dr. Birch has written a by the priestly physician Nebsecht." paper in the “ Transactions of the

Ebers only translates at present Society of Biblical Archæology the first two pages of the book; but which may be studied with profit by he gives a synopsis of the remainder. certain Biologists. He has given a There are many prescriptions given most interesting account of the with much care.

The following is a representations of dogs from ancient specimen:-"To remove illness from Egyptian sculptures and records, the stomach. Rub up the seed of by which it is clearly shown that the Thehui plant with vinegar and the racial differences now known give the patient to drink.

to exist amongst this species also “The same for sick bowels.

existed then. The figures show Caraway seed. 1.64 dram

animals like the

modern greyGoose fat


hound, mastiff, bull-dog, turnspit Milk

1 tenat

and Eskimo dog. One of these is Boil stir and sat.'

inscribed as “ The dog of the white In examination of the patient, he antelope ; and Dr Birch learns is directed to lie outstretched. from Mr. Bartlett of the Zoological Diodorus declared that the priestly Gardens, London, that hounds of physicians of Egypt formed their a similiar form are still used to diagnosis principally on the position chase gazelles and other antelopes which the patient assumed in bed. in North Africa. This is another

There can be no doubt that when proof that within the limits of human the contents of this ancient docu- experience a species apparently ment are fully known, it will most susceptible to variation has not constitute the most valuable con- "under domestication ” given tribution ever possessed to our proof of varietal change. This must knowledge of the ancient Egyptians: decidedly prolong the period over and its translator states that notwith- which the production of * varieties" standing the interspersion of in- extends, provided they are only cantations, charms and conjurations produced in the manner specified by from which the priest-physicians

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the theory of natural selection.




The Economy of Thought. By T. Hughes. with bis former "biographers and critics,"

London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1875. and is written in Dr. Rigg's best style. For an author it is quite as necessary

His judgment of the most recent bioas for a public speaker that he should

graphers of Wesley is strikingly corrobohave something to say and that he should rative of the estimate expressed in this know how to say it. The first qualifica

Magazine. (January and February, 1871.) tion Mr. Hughes undoubtedly possesses.

His treatment of earlier writers also is Not to mention previous publications,

just and kindly. We should, however, the present volume displays an amount

hardly attribute to Southey “spiritual of earnest and vigorous thinking that

insusceptibility.” His lack was rather fully justifies its writer in giving it to

that of spiritual experience. He had seen the world. This, joined to an extensive

littleof spiritual religion in actual life. Dr. acquaintance with the metaphysicians of

Rigg also makes a Christian and knightly all ages and climes, bestows a high value

defence of some noble and saintly charac. upon the work. To map out the whole

ters who had received rough handling “Economy of thought” is a prodigious

elsewhere, e.g., Grace Murray and Sarah undertaking, from which many men of

Ryan. But even he bears much too hardly no mean parts and learning would shrink on poor Miss Hopkey, and makes too appalled. Yet the praise of success can

mucb mystery about a very simple matter, not be justly withheld. The mere reading

-the mutual captivation of the most atof the headings of the fifty-six chapters

tractive young gentleman and the most would prove that Mr. Hugheshas surveyed

attractive young lady in the little Colony the entire ground; its general outline

of Savannah. That Wesley was deeply and plan are clearly visible to his own

in love, and that he indulged himself in mind. Nor does a closer scrutiny disap

attentions to the object of his affections point : it further reveals the same syste

which won her love in return, is all too matic comprehensiveness. The book, too, plain. The strength of his passion was is unique ; there exists, we believe, in the

shown by his grief and mortification on English language, no other that treats of her marriage to another. And the bitterthought not merely logically and psycho- ness of her sense of wrong and slight, logically but in its relation to such when Wesley having won her heart, threw matters as Education, Religion and

it back upon her--in deference to the Theology as well. The conclusions arrived

decision of the German elders—was shown at are generally solid and trustworthy.

by her immediate perpetration of social But the manner of the work will mili. and domestic suicide, by marrying a man tate most seriously against its service- altogether unworthy of her. Alas / she ability. Its author does not know how accomplished her purpose, if not “to to say his something. The author of “The

draw repentance from her lover," at least Economy of Thought ; ” “ The Human to wring his bosom.” The last three Will : its Functions and Freedom;" “ The chapters form the most valuable part of Ideal Theory of Berkeley and the Real

Dr. Rigg's book : Wesley the Preacher ; World ;” “ Prayer and the Divine Order,” Wesley as a Thinker; and Wesley's might attain position among religious Disposition and Character. In these philosophers could he but express himself respects Wesley never before received in a manner worthy of his subjects and full justice. The charm of the book is his genius.

unfortunately lessened by the incessant

drawing off the attention from the real The Living Wesley, as he was in his Youth Wesley, to the fictitious Wesleys of con

and in his Prime. By J. H. RigG, troversy and misconception. This gives D.D., Author of “Modern Anglican the volume too much the appearance of Theology,” etc., etc. London : Pub- a collection of reviews, a considerable lished for the Author at the Wes

portion of it, in fact, having originally leyan Conference Office. 1875. taken that form. We cannot but indulge This is a restored portrait. Dr. Rigg

the hope that this is but an instalment, a clears away blurred and distorted repre

sort of project for a future Life of Wesley, sentations of Wesley, and gives a picture

for which Dr. Rigg has the requisite of him, which being truthful and well- qualities in a higher degree and in happier drawn, could not fail to be at once attrac- combination than any one who has yet tive and impressive. The first part deals

taken that splendid task in hand. HAYMAN BROTHERS AND LILLY, 19, CROSS STREET, HATTON GARDEN, E.C.

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