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INSTRUCTIONS TO PROMOTE LEGIBILITY.

33

The learner may sometimes find it convenient, in the writing of proper names and words not in common use, to be more explicit in relation to vowels, diphthongal sounds, and doubtful consonants; for which

purpose

the following instructions are given. They will, however, be found less necessary, as the writing and reading become more familiar, and should only be used to prevent obscurity.

RULES. 1st. As a, I, 0, are the only vowels ever used alone, they may be easily distinguished as follows, i; that is, a above, I in the centre, and O below, the line of writing.

2d. At the beginning and end of words make use of the same distinctions, •i or y

3d. To show certain omitted vowels in the middle of words, place a comma' over the word as follows, thus :

; 4th. For diphthongal sounds place the comma under the word, as follows, 7 for ou; and for oy.

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• a or e

oor u

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for a ore

for i ory

. for o or u

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5th. In doubtful cases, let

be made heavi- f

k

a

er than

Arbitrary Characters. Enough has been already said in relation to Arbitrary Characters, and therefore a single remark must suffice. The Compiler of this work, after having learned, at great expense of memory, some hundreds of arbitrary signs, has at length abandoned the whole, except the following,

O The world
+ Jesus Christ

These are so very

appropriate as not to X Christianity

be soon forgotten. * Christian Religion

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SHORT HAND SHORTENED.

The preceding system is complete in itself, and has no dependance on the following instruction. It is, therefore, carnestly recommended that beginners have nothing to do with short hand shortened, till they are quite familiar with short hand. They may then increase their facility of writing, by adding other links to the chain of abbreviation, without weakening those which precede.

The learner will here discover no characters with which he is not already familiar; although, from the manner in which they are made and located, they receive additional powers. And, notwithstanding the instruction here given is considered quite sufficient, still, the learner may, upon the same plan, go much farther by the use of other stenographic letters above or below the line—and all this, without material encroachment upon the fundamental principles of the system; but it is no more necessary for the common stenographer, than conick sections or fluxions to the humble arithmetician.

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Instructions.
Ist. Make an inverted me for him, am, most.

p p peculiar, people, practical.

“ hand, heart, how. b

९ " but, because, believe. 1 o

66 law, live, large.

was, what, without.

6 them, then, this. 66 ious 66 virtuous, righteous, religious. 2d. Make a horizontal touch – above the line of wri. ting for and the, or by the; and the same touch - below the line for in the, or of the.

3d. Make two dots above the line of writing, for for the, or from the; and the same below the line, for with the, or was the.

Remark.—When signs are placed above or below the line, to represent a word or words, they should not stand near the preceding or following words, lest they should be taken for parts thereof.

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1st CHAP. OF GENESIS.-See Plate 17.

1. In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth.

2. And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep. And the Spirit of God moved upon the face of he waters.

3. And God said, Let there be light: and here was light.

4. And God saw the light, that it was good · ind God divided the light from the darkness.

5. And God called the light Day, and the larkness he called Night. And the evening and he morning were the first day.

6. And God said, Let there be a firmament in he midst of the waters, and let it divide the vaters from the waters.

7. And God made the firmament, and diided the waters which were under the firmanent, from the waters which were above the irmament: and it was so.

8. And God called the firmament Heaven. ind the evening and the morning were the seond day.

9. And God said, Let the waters under the eaven be gathered together unto one place, and 2.2t the dry land appear: and it was so.

10. And God called the dry land Earth; and he gathering together of the waters called he Seas: and God saw that it was good.

11. And God said, Let the earth bring forth frass, the herb yielding seed, and the fruit-tree rielding fruit after his kind, whose seed is in tself, upon the earth: and it was so.

12. And the earth brought forth grass, and

herb yielding seed after his kind, and the trec yielding fruit, whose seed was in itself, after his kind : and God saw that it was good.

13. And the evening and the morning were the third day.

14. And God said, Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven, to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days, and years:

15. And let them be for lights in the firma. ment of the heaven, to give light upon the earth: and it was so.

16. And God made two great lights; the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night: he made the stars also.

17. And God set them in the firmament of the heaven, to give light upon the earth,

18. And to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness: and God saw that it was good.

19. And the evening and the morning were the fourth day.

20. And God said, Let the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creature that hath life, and fowl that may fly above the earth in the open firmament of heaven.

21. And God created great whales, and every living creature that moveth, which the waters brought forth abundantly, after their kind, and every winged fowl after his kind : and God saw that it was good.

22. And God blessed them, saying, Be fruit sul, and multiply, and fill the waters in the seas and let fowl multiply in the earth.

23. And the evening and the morning were the fifth day.

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