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M Lellan 231
71. THE VULTURE OF THE ALPS,
72. The Two ROBBERJ,
18. THE LANDING OF THE PILGRIM FATHERS, Mrs, Hemans, 239
OR POINTS USED IN PRINTING.
The following points or marks are those most frequently used in written composition, and serve to show more clearly the writer's meaning, and the pauses and intlections required in reading.
The Comma (,) usually denotes the shortest stop in reading.
The Period ( . ) indicates the end of a sentence, and requires a full stop. It is also used after all abbreviations; as, Mfr. for Mister, Eng. for England.
The Note of Interrogation (?) indicates that a question is asked; as, What is the matter?
The Note of Exclamation (!) is used after expressions of strong emotion, earnest addresses, &c.; as, Liberty! Freedom! Tyranny is dead !
The Marks of Parenthesis ( ) are used to enclose a word, phrase, or remark, which is explanatory, and which might be omitted without injury to the sense; as, Time (so it is said) is money.
The Dash (-) is used to denote an unfinished sentence, a sudden turn, an abrupt transition, or that a significant pause is required; as, “ The pages of history – how is it that they are so dark and sad ? "
REMARK. – The dash may be used after other points, to increase the length of a pause, and also instead of the marks of parenthesis.
The Apostrophe (') denotes the omission of one or more letters ; as, ne'er, for never, tho', for though. It is also the sign of the possessive case of nouns; as, The boy's pen, The boys' pens.
The Hyphen (-) is used to separate syllables, and also the parts of a compound word; as, cit-i-zen, town-house. It is also used at the end of a line, when part of a word is carried to the beginning of the next line.
Quotation Marks ("6") are used to show that the exact words of another are given; as, There is much truth in the proverb, “ Light gains make heavy purses.” A quotation within a quotation is marked by single points ; as, He exclaimed, “ The 'wide, wide sea' is before us.”
Brackets, or Crotchets, [ ], are chiefly used in citations to enclose an explanation, or correction, inserted by some other person than the author; as, " She Nature) gave him (man) alone the power of laughing."
The Index, or Hand (17), is used to show that special attention is directed to a particular passage. Sometimes three stars, arranged thus (***), are used instead of the Index.
The Brace ( m) is used to connect two or more words or lines with something to which they are related ; as, James
Charles Marks of Ellipsis (***) indicate the omission of letters, or words ; as K**g G****e, for King George. Sometimes a long dash, or a succession of dots, is used instead of the stars ; as, L-M-y, for Lord Murray.
The Diæresis ( o ) is placed over the second of two vowels, to show that they must be sounded separately ; as, aërial.
The Asterisk, or Star ( * ), the Dagger, or Obelisk (), the Double Dagger ( 1 ), the Section ( $ ), Parallels ( II ), and the Paragraph ( 11 ), are marks, used in the order here given, referring to the margin or the bottom of a page. Small Italic letters or the Arabic figures are sometimes employed for the same purpose,
“ In just
Articulation is the utterance of the various vocal sounds represented by letters, and combinations of letters, in syllables.
Correct articulation is the basis of good reading. It implies a clear and accurate utterance of each syllable, a due proportion of sound to every letter, and a clearly-marked termination to each syllable or sound before another is commenced. It requires an exact knowledge of the elementary sounds, and their use in words as determined by the most approved custom. articulation,” says Austin (Chironomia),“ the words are not to be hurried over, Lor precipitated syllable over syllable, nor, as it were, melted together into a mass of confusion. They should neither be abridged, nor prolonged, nor swallowed, nor forced, and, if I may so express myself, shot from the mouth : they should not be trailed, nor drawled, nor let slip out carelessly, so as to drop unfinished. They are to be delivered out from the lips as beautiful coins newly issued from the mint, deeply and accurately impressed, perfectly finished, neatly struck by the proper organs, distinct, sharp, in due succession, and of due weight.”
The following Exercises in Articulation are designed for pupils as a daily discipline, during the entire time in which this volume is used. Every reading-lesson should be prepared for by an exercise in articulation, even though a short one. The sounds and words should be accurately and forcibly uttered, and especial attention should be given to such sounds as are liable to be perverted or suppressed. The importance of a thorough training in this department is especially commended to teachers.
Concert exercises upon the table of vowel sounds, with frequent changes of key, and with different degrees of force, sometimes with all the power of which the voice is capable, are well calculated to develop command of voice and promote accuracy in pronunciation. Similar exercises on the table of consonant sounds should not be neglected, since the defective utterance of the consonants is one of the chief causes of bad articulation. The tendency of the voice in reading is to prolong and dwell upon the open vowel sounds, while many of the conse pants are slid over or omitted.
TABLE OF VOWEL SOUNDS.
This table is designed for an exercise upon the vowel elements. These should be pronounced alone as well as in combination with the words given as exam. ples. Let the class first pronounce the table in order, thus: A long, Fate, ă; A short, Fat, ,, &c.; then pronounce the column of elements alone.
Remarks on the sounds of the letters will be found on page 12; also, under the Exercises on the vowel and the consonant sounds.
The following vowel sounds cannot be easily pronounced alone, as distinct elements, so as to be distinguished from some of the other sounds. See remarks on a long before r, u intermediate, and on the obscure sounds, page 15.