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and spectators; but I could get a view of the former dined with their parents, for such we found these only by standing on tiptoe, and peeping over the strangers were. But this was not the only interest shoulders of the bystanders. There was a vast variety they had for us: in the lady, we recognised the pretty of physiognomies, some of which merited a second little Dutchwoman;' and in the gentleman, a fairglance; but my attention was at once arrested by a haired, phlegmatic-looking man, whom we had often pair of yellow gloves — buff gloves would

seen playing high also, but seldom at the same time as correct, but the French call them gants jaunes- his wife. which covered with the nicest precision two small As the guests at table were very few, we inevitably hands resting on the table immediately in front of me, formed a sort of acquaintance; and when we strolled in close proximity to two piles, one of gold, and the into the garden to take our coffee after dinner, Monother of five-franc pieces. I looked down, and beheld sieur and Madame V- accompanied us; and this a very neat, but at the same time extremely elegant being our custom every afternoon, we naturally grew little Leghorn bonnet, trimmed with a ribbon of the tolerably intimate. We clubbed together for carriages same colour; but the wearer was sitting with her to go to the balls, and she frequently took country back to me, and I could not see her face, so I moved drives, and invited me to accompany her. On these round to the other side of the table to take a view of occasions, she always took Eugénie with her, who was her.

evidently her mother's darling; and in addition to her Can you tell me who that lady is ? 'I said to an beauty, was dressed à ravir, and very expensively. Englishman who stood beside me.

Que c'est charmant,' she exclaimed to me one day, No, I cannot,' said he; 'we call her the pretty little while looking at the child with adoration, d'avoir Dutchwoman; but I really don't know whether she is une jolie petite enfant gatée comme celle là !' The Dutch or not. I rather think she is from Paris.' boy she was much less enthusiastic about; and as we

She looks Parisian,' I answered. "She is dressed frequently heard cries and screams issuing from their to perfection, and si bien gantée!'

apartments, which we were informed proceeded from Yes," he said ; “it is quite a pleasure to watch those Monsieur Adolphe, who was naughty, we were inclined pretty little hands and well-fitting gloves as she plays; to think that his peccadilloes were looked on with a and whether she wins or loses, her countenance never less indulgent eye than his sister's. The father, howchanges. She plays high, too, and with very bad ever, was very fond of him, and did all he could to luck.

make amends for any coldness that might exist on the I watched her for some time; and when she rose part of the mother and nurse. from the table—a considerable loser, by the by-the At length Monsieur V - informed us that he was attraction was gone, and I left the room.

under the necessity of going to Paris for a few days, I found, when I got back to the hotel, that the rest and he requested my son and myself to pay his wife of my party had been equally interested in this fair some little attention during his absence, which we stranger; and that to their inquiries of who she was, willingly did ; and though Lord N-K— objected they had received the same answer as myself.

to her that she was not grande dame, and Monsieur de For several days—though we saw her every evening L-remarked that it was wonderful to see how at the table, always in a new pair of admirably fitting frequently the English, who are the most exclusive gloves, playing high, and generally losing-we obtained people in the world in their own country, will rush no more information about her: no one, indeed, seemed into intimacies abroad with strangers; still, nothing to be able to give any, though she still remained an could be more discreet than Madame V—'s demeanobject of general interest; and everybody exclaimed: our, or more quiet and elegant than her dress ; and we Elle est charmante cette petite femme, et toujours si continued to like our pretty little Dutchwoman, whom, bien gantée!'

by the by, we soon found had no claim to the appellaWe lodged that year at the Grand Hotel Britannique, tion, for she was a Parisian. She laughed when we which we selected because it had a garden in which a told her the name she generally went by in Spa, and little child that was with us could run about, and we she knew no more than ourselves why she was called soon observed that she had found two playmates of so. I think it must have been a conclusion drawn nearly her own age. They were French children, and from her husband's appearance, who looked more we understood that they belonged to a lady and gentle-Dutch or German than French, being fair, heavyman who were lodging in the hotel, but whom we had featured, and somewhat stolid. not happened to see. The eldest of these children was When Monsieur V- returned, he confided to my a beautiful little girl between six and seven years of son that he had been to Paris, where they resided, to age; the other was a boy, called Adolphe; a fine child, fetch some money, as they had been so unfortunate at but not pretty, nor particularly attractive. I thought play that they had lost the whole sum destined for he bore marks of his Dutch origin: he looked rather their summer excursion. This ill-luck, however, did heavy.

not deter them from the gaming-table; on the contrary, We lodged in a pavilion in the garden, and the door they returned to it with additional gusto and revived being always open, the children and their maid, Louise, hopes, but with no better fortune. used often to come into the apartment occupied by Shortly after this, we had a great influx of the our child; and one day Louise brought a request that Parisian literary and artistic world : Jules Janin, the Mademoiselle Edith might be permitted to accompany fattest of the fat; Pousand; Charles Renaud; Rachel; Mademoiselle Eugénie et Monsieur Adolphe, who were Levi, the publisher, from the Rue Vivienne, and going to take a ride on a donkey. We consented ; and now publisher at Brussels, being banished from so the intimacy increased from day to day; but still we Paris, whose general air and manner realise fully had never chanced to have a near view of the parents, the agreeable idea of a red republican, which he is. till one morning at breakfast, the garçon inquired Pousand, the author of several celebrated plays, whether we had any objection to dine at five o'clock appeared to be a simple, unpretending man; but instead of four, because there was a lady and gentleman Charles Renaud I became intimate with, and liked in the hotel who would join the table d'hôte on that exceedingly. He was about thirty years of age, with condition ; but they at present ate in private, because handsome features, good complexion, fine teeth, dark four was too early an hour for them. We made no hair and beard, and large clear blue eyes, that looked difficulties; and accordingly, when the dinner-bell full of truth and kindness. He was a popular poet in rang, the lady and gentleman appeared, accompanied France, and was almost the only person I ever met by Mademoiselle Eugénie and Monsieur Adolphe, who, with in my life who owned to being happy. Oui,' young as they were, according to French usage, always said he, when I expressed my surprise at the avowal.

je suis heureux ; j'ai une bonne santé, une petite for- he had loved, 'not wisely, but too well,' the woman tune qui me suffit, une mère que j'aime et qui m'adore, he murdered! How her shadow must walk beside mes compatriotes ont la complaisance d'agréer mes him by day, and stand by his bedside at night! And poésies—je ne suis pas plus mal qu'un autre (a modest how true is the old saying, that Still waters run deep. allusion to his handsome person); enfin je suis heureux.' In ten days from that time he was dead !

THE MONTH: He left Spa in the highest health and spirits; caught cold on his arrival in Paris, and died of a pleurisy.

SCIENCE AND ARTS. How I pitied the poor lone mother who 'adored him!' The Art Treasures Exhibition at Manchester conHe was very fond of travelling, and there was a tinues to be a principal subject of conversation among poem of his commencing ‘Loin de vous ma mère,' artists and amateurs, and the example set by running which he had written while in the east; but he said excursion-trains from places within an easy distance she had suffered so much during his absence, from of Manchester, has at last been followed here, and now a report of his death, that he should take no more we have trains running from London at remarkably long journeys while she survived. His body was low fares, with the privilege of remaining four days, a conveyed to his native place in the south of France, week, or a month. Few who have any love for art attended by many of the most eminent literary persons will neglect this opportunity-a rare one-of viewing from Paris.

the best works of the greatest masters, brought To return to Madame V- We found she was together into close neighbourhood from their widely acquainted with all these people; and after their scattered homes, admitting of careful study and comarrival, she was much occupied with them; they parison, to say nothing of the pleasure. A visitor frequently made excursions into the country, and will not be long in discovering that the paintings are formed apparently a very joyous society altogether. the chief object of attraction; and for him who wishes

At length the end of the season arrived, and we took to observe critically, Dr Waagen's Guide, published by leave of each other to go our different ways. Madame Mr Murray, is available; while for the working-classes V— gave me her address in the Champs Elysées, there is What to See, and Where to See It, sold in the saying she hoped to see me, and that she had evening building for one penny. The completest part of the receptions twice a week; and Monsieur V

con- Exhibition is the engravings; in which the observer fided to my son that they had lost upwards of seven may trace the history of the engraver's art through hundred pounds, and had scarcely money enough to a series as admirable as it is extensive. take them back to Paris-in short, he borrowed two The Metropolitan Board of Works have just made hundred francs, lest they should run short, which their required annual report to government concerning was faithfully returned by the earliest post after their their proceedings for the past year. As regards the arrival.

projects and proposals for new streets, clearing away Three months afterwards, I was startled by the incumbrances, and opening up continuous thoroughintelligence that Madame V. was dead-murdered fares, it has a bearing on art, for architecture will by her husband in a fit of jealousy ; and we learned come into play. The Thames embankment question that she had been an actrice, and that he, the son of a -one of the noblest improvements the metropolis is rich merchant of Marseille, had fallen in love with capable of–has again been under consideration; and her. He took her from the stage, married her against a special report has been laid before the board on the the consent of his friends, and generously adopted the mighty question of sewage and drainage. The surbeautiful little Eugénie. Adolphe was the only fruit veyors recommend that there should be an outfall on of the marriage.

each side of the river, far down in the estuary of the Whether Monsieur V-had any legitimate cause Thames; that all the towns, villages, and hamlets for jealousy, does not seem clear; but the morning along the route should drain into them, and bear a after one of his wife's receptions, at which he had not portion of the cost, which is estimated at five millions appeared, and on which occasion she had urged the and a half. company to remain to a late hour, alleging that she The commission appointed to consider the question had not slept for several nights, and that if she went as to the site of the National Gallery, have decided to bed she should not sleep now, he entered her that the present site is the best-a decision that will boudoir, where she was occupied with her broderie, and rejoice thousands, to whom the removal of the pictures demanded the key of her escritoire, which she con to Kensington would have been a complete and lasting temptuously refusing to deliver, he suddenly stabbed deprivation. To say nothing of the thousands of her. Eugénie, who was present, ran out screaming to working-people, there is many a busy clerk or tradesLouise, Papa tue mamma!' whilst the unfortunate man, who; while passing Trafalgar Square, spares a man rushed forth to avow his crime, and give himself minute for the pictures, who would never see them up to the police. The magistrate, who was well were they miles away. Sir Charles Barry shews that acquainted with him, considered the thing so improb- by pulling down the present ugly building, and taking able, that he concluded he had gone suddenly mad in ground from St Martin's Workhouse and the from losses on the Bourse, and was sending for a barracks in the rear, room would be gained for an physician, when Monsieur V. said: “You don't edifice that would adorn the site, and contain all the believe me? Come and see !'

paintings likely to be bought or bestowed for a hundred The officers accompanied him to the house, and years to come. found it too true. Madame V lay dead on the The Archæological Institute have chosen Chester as hearth, weltering in her blood, which flowed from five their place of meeting for this summer-an excellent wounds near the region of the heart.

centre point for antiquarian research. The president, I believe he was found 'guilty, with extenuating Lord Talbot de Malahide, made a few remarks in his circumstances ;' and after a short imprisonment, he opening address on the subject of treasure-trove, which left France for the West Indies. Adolphe was adopted we repeat here, as they are of importance to archæoloby his relations; but poor little Eugénie, so pretty and gists. "The meeting,' he said, were aware that, so friendless, we heard, was sent to a boarding-school. according to the present state of the law, any article

What a reverse for that enfant gâtée, the petted and of value composed of the precious metals found was the cherished! What a tragedy for the first chapter the property of the crown, or the grantees of the of her history!

crown. The consequence was, that in a great number And what memories for the husband, with that of instances the most valuable articles discovered had outwardly calm but inwardly passionate nature; for found their way to the crucible instead of to the

British Museum, or to some local collection. This of a floating leaf, it flows off like a pool of quicksilver.' matter was felt to be a grievance elsewhere, as well as This, however, is the fact as regards the upper surface in England; so much so, that in Denmark, where there only. It has long been familiar to the natives, who was one of the best museums in Europe, the law has poetically liken the virtuous man among the wicked to been altered merely to meet the grievance. They give the lotus-leaf in the water, yet unwet by the water.' to the party finding a right to certain compensation, "On examining carefully into the cause of this,' at the same time reserving to the state the right of continues the doctor, 'I found the lotus-leaf covered pre-emption on giving such compensation. His lord with short microscopic papillæ, which entangle the air, ship added that a similar law was desirable in England, and establish an air-plate over the whole surface, with and that it could be made without violating the rights which, in reality, the water never comes in contact at of property. We think so too.

all. Another peculiarity connected, but not necessarily An observer at San Francisco has recorded that so, so far as I could discover, with this, was the sinsixteen earthquakes occurred in California in 1856, of gular respiratory pores of the lotus. The leaves, when which thirteen took place between sunrise and sunset. full-sized, are from twelve to sixteen inches in diameter: Only three of the shocks, however, were strong enough on cutting off a leaf six inches broad, the stalk of to arrest attention during the busy hours of the day.- which was less than a third of an inch in diameter, I From other parts of the United States we hear that was able to collect thirty-three cubic inches of air in endeavours are being made to shew planters and agri- an hour, when the vital energies of the plant must culturists that a valuable resource is open to them in have been injured by its mutilation. At this rate, a the cultivation of the Sorgho. The soil and climate of tank covered with lotus-leaves would produce daily an some of the southern and western states are eminently atmosphere four feet in depth throughout its whole suitable for the plant, and there is good reason to surface.' The doctor believes that the same phenobelieve that its introduction would afford another menon as exhibited by water-fowl, is not due to the proof of the greater profit to be derived from free presence of grease or oil, but to the presence of an airlabour than from the labour of slaves.-In France, plate, so that the water never comes in contact with M. Dumas reports, after an official visit by authority the feathers at all. The trimming process, so carefully to the silk-producing districts, that he found but little performed by water-fowl, is probably an application of or no disease among the silkworms reared on hillsides oil or grease, with the object of separating or dressing open to a constant circulation of air, while in the the little fibres of the feathers 80 as to produce an valleys they have perished by thousands. One grower, arrangement fitted to entangle the air. whose estate covers a small hill in a generally low Then follows the suggestion: ‘Might not the manudistrict, has all along had healthy worms and perfect facturers of waterproof cloth or clothes take a hint eggs, to the astonishment and admiration of his less on this point from the economy of nature? Could fortunate neighbours. Here, again, is evidence that they manage to produce a surface such as would disease is not fate, but may be controlled by entangle and retain a film of air, no India-rubber varcircumstances.

nish or other water-tight material would be required; More cotton-wider cultivation of cotton, is still the while the texture would permit the free transmission cry in the northern counties, growing more and more of respiration or moisture from the body, which earnest ; so that we may think something will come of Mackintosh's and other similar contrivances obstruct.' it at last. What if increasing cultivation of this essen- Communications made to the Botanical Society of tial product should prove to be one of the beneficial Edinburgh reveal certain curious facts, some of which influences in the ameliorations we shall have to appear worthy of general notice. Mr J. Lowe shews introduce into India! In another respect, there are that the parasitic growth in Porrigo favosa is identical resources that may be developed with advantage to all with a common species of fungus, Aspergillus glaucus ; concerned. Some of the good folk at Dundee are of and a small piece of scab from a case of Porrigo iupinosa, opinion that India could supply us with enough, and placed in a solution of raw sugar, germinated and more than enough, of fibrous material for our manufac- produced numerous species of the minute plants; 'with turing purposes quite independent of Russia. As yet, a considerable number of other epizootic forms.'-And our knowledge of the wild plants which produce long the same author, treating of the physiological effects and strong fibre is very imperfect; and as the best attributed to darnel (Lolium temulentum), remarks that means of arriving at anything like certain or useful the virulence of the herb appears to depend on the data, we would suggest the sending out of a competent place of its growth, varying according to locality, person to explore parts of India and the Archipelago Darnel grown in the Botanic Garden (at Edinburgh) for fibrous plants especially. We all know that Mr produced no effect when taken in doses of half an Fortune was sent to explore the tea-countries of ounce. The observations of Professor Christison on China by the Horticultural Society, and that good | the hemlock (Enanthe crocata), shew an analogous came of it. India is now a great political question : result, this plant being a virulent poison when grown we have all along urged the necessity for dealing with in England, but innocuous in Scotland. A similar that country on the most enlightened principles; and example is seen in the Cannabis indica, which only we trust that ere long those principles will prevail. yields its gum-resin when grown in a hot climate.' And regarded in a scientific and commercial point of Electricians are interested in a 'triple contact pile' view, our eastern empire becomes to us of incalculable invented by Professor Selmi of Turin, which has some importance.

special merits. It is, to quote the description, conDr Buist of Bombay has communicated to the Royal structed on the principle that-given a pair of two Society a short paper On the Causes and Phenomena different metals, of which the positive element is of the Repulsion of Water from the Feathers of Water- entirely submerged in the liquid, and the negative only fowl and the Leaves of Plants,' which, interesting in half submerged, there results an absorption of the itself, embodies a suggestion which may perhaps be oxygen of the atmosphere on the line where the air, turned to account by practical men. Concerning the the liquid, and the negative element meet, which leaves of lilies and of the lotus, particularly the latter, oxygen goes to depolarise this element, and performs growing abundantly in tanks near his residence, the the function of the nitric acid in Bunsen's pile, and of doctor remarks: When the lotus-leaf is placed under the sulphate of copper in Daniell's pile.' water it reflects light like a mirror, so that the image The negative is formed of a spiral band of copper of any object, if presented to it at a proper angle, is loosely twisted so as to present a large surface to the seen by the spectator as if the surface were one of action of the liquid in a small space. A plate of zinc polished metal. When water is thrown on the surface is used as the positive; but iron, lead, tin, or any oxidisable metal will answer the purpose. For zinc, and cozy chimney-corner, mentally explore the most the liquid employed is a solution of sulphate of potash. secret recesses of those forbidden regions. Ere we do This pile is alike cheap and simple. It has been for so, however, let us cast a retrospective glance at the some time in use at the telegraph office in Turin, and predecessors of the present clubs. in the work of electro-plating. The zinc only is decom- The most famous of the earlier London clubs was posed ; the copper and liquid serve for a long time the Mermaid, said to have been founded by Sir Walter without deterioration.

Raleigh, and attended by Shakspeare, Ben Jonson, The ever-to-be-memorable Peace-fleet of war- Beaumont, Fletcher, Selden, Donne, and others, the steamers has sailed to lay down the Atlantic cable. elite of the Elizabethan era. Alas! there was neither The preliminary experimental trials went off satisfac- a Pepys nor a Boswell at that time to hand down to torily; and before these lines appear in print, the us the crumbs of wit that fell from the table of those grand feat will perhaps be accomplished, and England giants of old. We are merely tantalised by Beaumont will be in telegraphic communication with America. thus alluding to them, when writing from the country

to his friend and fellow-labourer, Fletcher : CLUBS AND CLUB-HOUSES.

What things have we seen

Done at the Mermaid! heard words that have been IF that most amusing of antiquaries, Jonathan Old

So nimble and so full of subtle flame, buck, of Monkbarns, had been requested to give an

As if that every one from whom they came explanation of the word club, he, in all probability,

Had meant to put his whole wit in a jest, would have said that it was a bludgeon, with which

And had resolved to live a fool the rest the abbots of the olden time armed their tenants, and Of his dull life. thence the monkish vassals were termed kolb-kerles or clavigeri. If the same query had been propounded to

Another noted club, of nearly the same period, a modern statesman, he might reply, using the semi- was held in the Apollo room of the Devil Tavern at slang, parliamentary phraseology of the day, that a Temple Bar, on the site now occupied by Childs' wellclub was “a fortuitous concourse of atoms; and, in known banking-house. Ben Jonson wrote in choice support of his explanation, quote, if he knew them, and elegant Latin the convivial rules (leges conviviales) the lines of Dryden:

for this assembly, which were engraved in letters of

gold on a black board, and suspended over the fireThe grosser atoms, tumbling in the stream

place. The board itself is still preserved by the Of fancy, meet, and club into a dream.

Messrs Child. Over the door of the club-room was A card-player, in all likelihood, would give another placed a bust of Jonson, and a number of verses, definition of the word ; 80 we shall at once refer to commencing Dr Johnson, who tells us that a club is 'an assembly

Welcome all who lead or follow, of good fellows meeting under certain conditions.'

To the oracle of Apollo; But what is a good fellow, according to the worthy

Here he speaks out of his pottle, doctor's acceptation ? It is, says the learned lexi.

Or the tripos his tower bottle: cographer, 'a companionable, sociable, merry fellow.'

All his answers are divine ; Now, this definition is scarcely satisfactory, for Gold

Truth itself doth flow in wine; smith speaks of a “humdrum club:' surely there could

Hang up all the poor hop-drinkers, have been but little merriment, companionship, or

Cries old Sim, the King of Skinkers. sociability in it; and during our own travels through old Sim' was Simon Wardloe, the landlord of the life, we have heard of “sulky, disagreeable," and even tavern, and the original of Old Sir Simon the King, .nasty 'clubs. We would, then, briefly say, that a club the favourite song of the boisterous Squire Western. is an association of persons, subject to certain rules; further, that the club, as a social institution, may Puritanic tendencies of the Protectorate, were alike

The convulsive struggles of the civil war, and the be traced in its progressive course, from an adven- unfavourable to the extension of the club-system. titious, free-and-easy, hail-fellow-well-met kind of an After the Restoration, however, clubs again came into assemblage, open to all comers of a certain station, vogue, not as the resort of men of learning and genius, to a strictly exclusive society-from small convivial but the haunts of fiercely imbittered politicians; and, meetings, in houses of public entertainment, where in many instances, were little more than vile hotbeds respectable strangers had free access, to a second of riot and immorality. Men of letters—the wits as phase, when, the clubbists taking sole possession of they were termed—then frequented the

coffee-houses ; the apartment, strangers were not admitted except and Dryden at Will's, and Addison at Button's, exerby the introduction of members ; and from thence cised a considerable influence on the taste, manners, downwards to the present day, when clubs, having and even fashion of the age. become large, wealthy, and influential associations, build houses, or rather palaces, for themselves alone, rary men, artists, and actors, was founded in the reign

The Beef-steak Club, composed principally of litefrom which, as a general rule, all strangers are rigor- of Queen Anne.' Its president was distinguished by ously excluded. Still, though the modern club-system wearing a miniature golden gridiron attached to a may, to a certain degree, have ministered to exclusive green ribbon. Peg Woffington, the actress, was the ness, it has at the same time weakened, if not in only female member; one Estcourt, a popular comedian many instances broken down, the barriers of caste ; of the day, long held the responsible office of steak while by substituting the economical and utilitarian provisor ; and Dr King dedicated his once well-known principle for the mere convivial, it has had an undoubtedly favourable effect on the general refinement poem, The Art of Cookery, to this club. of society. It is to those metropolitan celestial empires

He that of honour, mirth, and wit partakes, in parvo-those central, flowery lands of Pall-Mall, St May be a fit companion o'er beef-steaks; James's Street, and Waterloo Place, as yet untrodden

His name may be to future times enrolled by the footsteps of outer barbarians, that we wish to

In Estcourt's books, whose gridiron's framed of gold. introduce the reader. True, we cannot pass together There is still a beef-steak society of noblemen and beneath their lofty portals ; but by invoking the dusky gentlemen, having apartments in the Lyceum Theatre, haunter of the printer's chapel—the attendant imp of who meet at five o'clock every Saturday, between the mighty press-the modern Asmodeus, a thousand November and July, to partake of a beef-steak dinner. times more powerful than the crippled demon of Le Their dining-room is most appropriately fitted up; the Sage-we may, without moving from the easy-chair doors, wainscotting, and oaken roof being carved with innumerable representations of gridirons. Indeed, land, and jealously guards the sacred interior from every piece of furniture in the room either assumes the profane footsteps of unlicensed strangers. This the shape or is adorned with the emblem of that useful trusty janitor must know every member of the club, culinary implement; while, suspended from the centre by eyesight at least, and is supposed to be able at of the ceiling, hangs the original gridiron of the all times, but with suitable tact and discretion, to society, which, to say nothing of the many fires it answer all inquirers respecting the whereabouts of any withstood in its days of usefulness, is the survivor of individual clubbist. Thus, he will tell you whether & two conflagrations. Twice has the building in which member be in the house at what time he generally is it was preserved been burned to the ground, and there—whether he be in the country, on the continent, twice, like another phanix, has the renowned gridiron or elsewhere. He does not, however, know the private and cherished relic been rescued from the ruins. This addresses of all the members, these being required, by society, however, eschewing the appellation of a club, the rules of the club, to be given in confidence to the denominate themselves "The Steaks,' and dedicate secretary only-many gentlemen, like the renowned their meetings to 'Beef and Liberty.'

Mulligan of Ballymulligan, so pleasantly described by Three clubs, still in existence, started into being Mr Thackeray, living there;' that is, in places differabout the same time as the Kit-kat: these are ing very much as regards fashionable locality, style, White's, Brookes's, and Boodle's-so named from the and other obvious et ceteras, from the club-house, to tavern-keepers at whose houses they were first estab- which their letters are directed. Adjoining the vestilished. Politics and gambling were their principal bule, there generally is a small reception-room, where bonds of union. White's was Tory; Brookes's, Whig; a stranger, who may happen to call upon a member, is Boodle's, more a resort for quiet country gentlemen permitted to wait, if his manner and semblance satisfy than active politicians. The latter is still the country. the experienced scrutiny of the lynx-eyed porter. gentleman's club; to its committee are referred all There is a tribe of 'gents,' readily recognised by the disputes and misunderstandings connected with fox- initiated in London life, whose not over-clean linen, hunting, and the decision is considered final; while hands, and faces, sparkling jewellery, dark searching the two former are less distinctively political than in the eyes, and largely developed nasal organs, unmistakably olden time, and gambling has long since died out with denote a certain class of the pure Caucasian race. the six-bottle men. It was in the reign of the second These persons, on the strength of a legal fiction, conGeorge that these clubs, taking the management of nected with the well-known firm of Doe & Roe, manage their respective establishments into their own hands, to gain admission to most of the public and private laid the foundation of the modern system. At that places in England; but they might as well attempt to time, the literary wits of a previous era had either invade the harem of the sultan as the sacred recesses died out, or slunk back into the obscure insignificance of a club-house. Indeed, a learned judge not long of Grub Street, poets and pamphleteers being effectu- since declared, in his official capacity, that a club ally excluded from the new clubs by the high terms house was a sanctuary inviolable by sheriff-officer, of subscription, as well as by the ordeal of the ballot- writ, summons, execution-in short, by the whole box. One of the old rules of Brookes's is, that 'every artillery and small-arms of legal procedure. person playing at the new quinze table do keep fifty From the entrance-hall branch off the various apartguineas before him.' Gambling, however, was only ments on the ground floor: one is a spacious morning one of the many vices of that immoral and unintel or lounging room, amply supplied with newspapers lectual age-of the period when Beau Nash flourished, and writing materials for the free use of the members. and the Duke of Cumberland was friend and patron of Theodore Hook is said to have written several of his Figge the prize-fighter ; when Quin's brutal person- novels on club-paper in the morning-room of the alities passed for wit; when Colley Cibber was poet- Athenæum, and his favourite seat is still considered laureate; and when Samuel Johnson was glad to eat an object of interest by the members of that club. an eleemosynary plate of victuals behind the screen in Adjoining this apartment is the coffee-room, differing Cave's back-shop.

in little, except its superior magnificence, from the A stranger, when exploring that part of the west coffee-room of a first-class tavern. Rows of small end of London which forms, as it were, a sort of tables, projecting from the sides, leave a wide open neutral ground between the dwellings of the aristocracy space in the centre. These tables are laid for breakon one side, and the more fashionable business streets fast and luncheon, from about ten in the morning till on the other, cannot fail to be struck by the magnifi-four in the afternoon; then, like a scene in a pantocence of some twenty large buildings, thickly scattered mime, the whole is at once changed, and arrangements over a small compass of ground. If he inquires to made for dinner. There are also smaller apartments, whom these splendid palaces belong, he will be told where members making up snug little parties can dine that they are club-houses; and subsequent experience together, and freely discuss affairs of pleasure, politics, will inform him that the mansions of the highest or business, unrestrained by the publicity of the nobility, even the palace of the Queen, are inferior, in coffee-room. Most clubs have a strangers' room, to point of architectural decoration, to many of these which a member can invite a non-member friend to remarkable edifices. Further, when our stranger is dine with him; the non-member, however, cannot go told that these buildings were erected by private into any other part of the house; still, a club-dinner associations, not with any view of gain, but merely for is no penance to him, though the eater is exclusively social and economical purposes, he must candidly confined to the strangers' apartment. confess that they are such as no other city in the On the basement, beneath the ground-floor, are world can exhibit.

situated the main vital organs of the establishmentThe internal arrangements and fittings of the London the kitchen and cellar. Our humble abilities are club-houses equal, if they do not surpass, in magnifi. unequal to the task of describing these most important cence the architectural embellishments of the exterior. parts of club anatomy; nor is it necessary: the kitchen Though no two of these establishments are perfectly of the Reform, when under the command of the great alike, yet they all possess a general similarity of gastronomic regenerator' himself, has already been arrangement, which we shall now endeavour to describe. described in this Journal-so we shall at once pass A noble entrance-hall is approached from the street upwards. by a small and comparatively unornamented vestibule. From the hall, a grand staircase leads the way to A portly hall-porter, who receives all letters, and is the drawing-room, on the first floor. Though fitted attended by two or more liveried pages, to carry up in a style of the most costly elegance, this spacious messages, is the presiding genius of this debatable , apartment ever has as 'lack-lustre' an appearance as

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