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the eye of the fool whom the melancholy Jaques met By way of consolation, however, for this pay-upon'i' the forest.' Could it possibly appear otherwise ? delivery system, the member, if he has, or fancies he a drawing-room without ladies--a universe without has, any complaint to make against the charges, quality its central suns! On visiting-days,' however, ladies of viands, wines, or cooking, can enter his protest on are permitted to have a peep at the dreary splendour, the back of the bill, which is duly laid before the which they alone could fitly embellish. Adjoining the committee, and seriously investigated. drawing-room is the library, generally well stored with A clubbist, for about half-a-crown, can get as good a books and attended by a resident librarian. One club, dinner-exclusive of wine-at his club, as he would the Athenæum, possesses upward of 25,000 volumes, pay half-a-guinea for at a tavern; moreover, he is not and sets apart the considerable sum of L.500 per expected, whether he wants it or not, to drink a pint annum for the library alone. Generally speaking, the of wine for the good of the house ;' nor to give an card-room is on the same floor as the library and evidently anticipated shilling to the thankless waiter; drawing-room. In all clubs, games of mere chance all gratuities to club-servants being strictly forbidden. are strictly forbidden, on penalty of expulsion; and Previous to the establishment of clubs, the poor gentlethe highest play permitted even at whist is half- man who found himself adrift on the great ocean of guinea points. The billiard and smoking rooms are London life, had but two choices—the extravagant mostly situated on the upper story. The extra tavern-dinner, or the cheap and nasty cut at the greasy expenses of the card and billiard tables are defrayed and odorous cook-shop. Another element of cheapness by a small fee paid by each member who uses them, in the club-system is, that no charge is made for bread, and not out of the general fund; it obviously being table-ale, sauces, or pickles; nor is table - money unjust that members who do not play should be called charged but at dinner-that is to say, after the tables upon to contribute to the amusement of those who do. are changed at four o'clock. Consequently, a member

The club is managed by a committee, carefully may lunch on bread and ale free of charge; or if he chosen from among the most scientific gourmands, and order cold meat, chop, or steak, he may, under the skilled connoisseurs in wines, on the roll of member- denomination of luncheon, make a cheap and excellent, ship. The post is one of honour, but the responsi- if not luxurious dinner, any time previous to four bility is equally great, as the reputation of the club o'clock. principally depends on the skill of the committee in A person who desires admission to a club must be the art of good living. Except on very important proposed and seconded by two or more members; his occasions, such as the appointment of a new cook, name is then placed on the candidates' book; but his when certain experienced members are selected to election does not take place till—through vacancies assist the managing committee, the latter rule abso- occurring in the club by deaths or resignations—all lute, and command the whole working-staff of the the previous names on the same book have been establishment. These consist of a secretary, house- admitted or rejected. There are at present several steward, cook, butler, coffee-room clerk, clerk of the thousand names on the candidates' lists of the London kitchen, head and under waiters. The female servants clubs. Not long since, the Athenæum, which consists of are more particularly under the superintendence of a 1500 members, had no less than 1600 candidates waitmatron, and comprise, a still-room maid, who prepares ing in regular order for admission. The election is by tea and coffee, a needle-woman, with a number of ballot. In some of the smaller and more aristocratic house and kitchen maids. One of the puzzling pecu- clubs, a single black ball excludes the anxious aspirant; liarities of club economy is, that the inferior servants but the majority of clubs are not so ridiculously parare always invisible. Possibly the greater part of the ticular; generally speaking, one black ball in ten is the house-work is done at early hours in the morning; fatal number equivalent to rejection. Immediately but however that may be, a man may be a member of after an election, the secretary writes to the successful a club for years without ever seeing one of the female candidate, enclosing a printed copy of the club-rules, servants.

and requesting prompt payment of the entrance-fees A French writer has, in a few words, given a fair and annual subscription for the current year. When general description of a London club. He says, it these are paid, and not till then, the newly elected is a sort of private restaurant, with the advantages of member is entitled to all the rights and privileges of the very best viands, wines, cookery, and attendance his club. As may naturally be supposed, the entranceat the lowest possible expense; and, we may add, that fees and annual subscriptions of the various London the mode of transacting business is well calculated clubs differ considerably in amount. The entranceto prevent mistakes, and serve as a check upon each fees vary from eight guineas to thirty. The lowest department. For instance, a member wishing to dine, annual subscription is five, the highest ten guineas : in fills up a printed form of dinner-bill with whatever most clubs, however, it is not more than six. dishes he may choose to select from the carte of the Our limits, even if it were desirable, do not admit a day. The bill is then passed to the head-waiter, who detailed description of the London clubs. Suffice it to sends it down to the clerk of the kitchen, and the latter say, that four are military and naval; three, political ; appends the established price of each dish as it is sent one at least claims to be literary ; one represents the up to the coffee-room. The bill thus filled up is passed universities; another consists solely of gentlemen who to the butler, who, in turn, charges in it whatever wine have travelled in foreign parts; while the remaining the member has ordered ; and it is then delivered to clubs, though they do not claim any particularly distincthe coffee-room clerk, who sums up the entire amount, tive character, may be described as compounds of the adding a small charge for what is termed “table-money.' above, strengthened by a further intermingling with This charge, which averages from sixpence to a shilling, the legal, mercantile, and financial elements of the according to the rules of the club, is to defray the community. contingent expenses of the dinner—the clean cloth, vegetables, cheese, and other minor condiments. The bill is then presented to the member, and paid at sight;

DOUGLAS JERROLD'S WITTICISMS. for however much the various clubs may differ in their JERROLD was, beyond all doubt, the prince of English regulations, the spirit of the following rule, copied wits in his day. His witticisms were generally made on from the laws of the Carleton, is common to all : the prompting of the occasion, and surprised every one

Members are to pay their bills for every expense by the quickness with which they were conceived and they incur in the club before they leave the house, the uttered. What made their freedom from premeditation steward having positive orders not to open accounts the more certain, they very often consisted of some clause with any individual.'

of a sentence-perhaps of but a single word—which only was sense as taken in connection with what some other of admiring a sight so strange and beautiful. It was rather person had just said. Jerrold, who was a little spare in form and colour than in size that these ice-islets were man, with an oval, pallid face, a keen gray eye, and remarkable. In quaintness of form, and in brilliancy of resolute mouth, usually sat somewhat aside from what colours, these wonderful masses surpassed everything I might be called the current of conversation, and only had imagined ; and we found endless amusement in opened his mouth when he could cap something with a watching their fantastic procession. At one time, it was a bon mot. It is universally acknowledged that such good knight on horseback, clad in sapphire mail, a white plume things, when put in print, fall greatly short of the impres- above his casque; or a cathedral-window, with shafts of sion they made when first uttered by their author; neyer- chrysophras, new powdered by a snow-storm; or a smooth theless, the few which here follow, taken down some years sheer cliff of lapis lazuli; or a banyan-tree, with roots ago, will perhaps give a faint idea of the style of the man. descending from its branches, and a foliage as delicate as

At a dinner of a society connected with the fine arts, the efflorescence of molten metal; or a fairy dragon, that where a queen's counsel happened to be present, the Law breasted the water in scales of emerald; or anything else was unexpectedly toasted, out of compliment to him. The that your fancy chose to conjure up.—Lord Dufferin's learned gentleman blundered out a few sentences, stating Letters from High Latitudes. that he did not see how the law could be considered as one of the arts- * Black !' rapped out Jerrold, like a dart from a bow.

A FLOWER OF A DAY. On a literary friend producing a volume of miscellanies under the title of Prose and Verse, Jerrold bantered him Old friend, that with a pale and pensile grace about it, as ‘Prose and Worse.'

Climbest the lush hedgerows, art thou back again, A tedious old gentleman, meeting Jerrold in Regent

Marking the slow round of the wondrous years? Street, and having stopped him, posed himself into button

Didst beckon me a moment, silent flower? holding attitude, while preparing to grapple. Well, Jerrold, my dear boy, what is going on ?' *I am,' quoth the wit, instantly shooting off along the pavement.

Silent ? As silent is the archangel's pen, A dull foreigner was indulging in a rapturous description

That day by day records our various lives, of the beauties of the Prodigue. "As to one song in par- And turns the page—the half-forgotten page ticular (naming the song), I was quite carried away.' 'Is Which all eternity will never blot. there anybody here that can sing it?' said Jerrold. Somebody told Jerrold that George Robins, the auc

Forgotten? No, we never do forget: tioneer, was dead; and, of course,' added the gentleman,

We let the years go; wash them clean with tears, “his business will go to the devil.' 'Oh, then, he'll get it

Leave them to bleach i' the sun and open day, again,' said the wit. A friend was telling, one evening, where he had been

Or lock them careful by, like dead friends' clothes, dining, and what he got to eat. "There was one article I Till we shall dare unfold them without pain; never saw before; none of you could guess what it was- But we forget not-never can forget. it was a soup made of calves' tails.' 'Extremes meet,' was Jerrold's remark.

Flower, thou and I a moment face to faceA literary friend, who had set up a neat barouche with

My face as clear as thine, this July noon a pair of grays, drove Jerrold out one day into the country. As they passed through a village, the people came to

Shining on both, on bee and butterfly, their doors to behold the pretty equipage. 'I think they 're

And golden beetle creeping in the sunrather struck with our grays,' remarked the charioteer.

Will pause, and lifting up page after page, 'I wonder what they would say of our duns?' quoth The quaint memorial chronicle of life, Jerrold.

Look backward, backward. He had a theory in the spirit of the Caudle Lectures, that women rather liked that their husbands should stay

So, the volume close! out late occasionally-'it gives them a wrong.'

This July day with God's sun high in heaven,

And the whole earth rejoicing; let it close !
Twenty thousand people, at least, were all scuffling I think we need not sigh, complain, or rave:
together like ants in an ant's nest, or tadpoles in a pool. Nor blush: our doings and misdoings all
The whole valley, through which ran the creek or brook,

Being more 'gainst Heaven than man, Heaven doth for several miles was in the act of being turned upside

them keep down. Close as the crowd could press upon each other

With all Its doings and undoings strange so as to leave the prescribed number of feet for each party, they were digging, delving, throwing up eartlı,

Towards us. Let the solemn volume close; carrying away bags of it, supposed to contain the gold, to

I would not alter in it one poor line. the creek, and there delivering it to other crowds, who, at a long line of cradles, were in as great a bustle, throwing My dainty frower, my innocent white flower, in the earth, rocking it to and fro under deluges of water With such a pure smile looking up at heaven, from tin dippers. There was an incessant noise of rattling With such a bright smile looking down on me cradles and shouting voices. Strange figures, all yellow

(Nothing but smiles! as if in all the world with clay, and disguised in bushy beards, and veils to keep off the flies, seemed too desperately busy to have time to

Were no such things as thunder-storms or rains, breathe. It was all one agitated scene of elbowing,

Or broken petals battered on the earth, swearing, hacking, hewing, and shovelling. Not a tree Or shivering leaves whirled in the frosty air was left standing over the whole great space, and the sun Like ghosts of last year's joys)--my pretty flower, flamed down on unsheltered heaps and holes of gravel, Open thy breast : not one salt drop shall stain with a burning, sweltering force.--Howitts Tallangetta. Its whiteness. If these foolish eyes are full,

'Tis only at the wonder and the peace,

The wisdom and the sweetness of God's world. Here, at all events, was honest blue salt water frozen solid; and when, as we proceeded, the scattered fragments thickened, and passed like silver argosies on either hand, Printed and Published by, W. and R. CHAMBERS, 47 Pater. until at last we found ourselves enveloped in an innumer

noster Row, LONDOx, and 339 High Street, EDINBORGH. Also

sold by WILLIAM ROBERTSON, 23 Upper Sackville Street, Dosis, able fleet of bergs, it seemed as if we could never be weary and all Booksellers.


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as a curious jumble of odds and ends, thrust into a THE SOUTH KENSINGTON MUSEUM.

new iron building, shaped very much like three It is curious to watch the attempts of the English monster steam-engine boilers placed side by side, and government to become a manufacturer, a teacher, an situated so far from the heart of London that a long instructor in art. Nothing can be more clumsy than journey is necessary to get to it; but if regarded as the mode in which these attempts are usually made, an attempt to give practical value to the labours of and few things more uncertain than the amount of many disconnected commissions and boards, and to success that will follow. There is sound reason for surmount difficulties of almost every kind, it becomes this, which we should do well to bear occasionally in really a creditable and most interesting display, shermind. In a despotic country, such as France at the ing that many of our government officers are proud present time, the will of one man is paramount over to do their work well if they can only have free scope all. If a district of Paris be covered with mean for the exercise of their good sense. dilapidated houses, there is one man whose strong will The history of this museum is almost as curious as suffices to determine the razing of those houses, and its contents-as the reader will presently admit. the building of a sumptuous new street on the site; Nearly twenty years ago, the government timidly but if such a work be needed in London, there is no became an educator in art, by establishing a School of centre of power that can control all difficulties, and Design at Somerset House, having for its objects the make them bend to a predetermined plan. Our state training of designers, who might perchance improve is representative and departmental, surrounded with the patterns and designs for manufacturers. But the checks to insure honesty; but these very checks success was not brilliant: some persons sneered, some are the sources of delay and inefficiency. Despite grudged public money, manufacturers were listless ; the sarcasm of a popular writer, the government and in twelve years very little was achieved. At employés feel no great pleasure in determining “how last the Great Exhibition of 1851 shewed us that not to do it;' nor do they feel proud or satisfied with though good makers of useful things, we re not so the achievements of a 'circumlocution office,' or with successful as our continental neighbours in throwing é routine and red tape.' They are bound to observe beauty over the articles produced; the Society of Arts formalities, or they would fall into disfavour with the and the government took the matter up warmly; and heads of departments; and these heads cannot change as a result, the School of Design was expanded into a the system without the aid of parliament; and par- Department of Science and Art,' to train teachers in liament cannot change the system without the counte- art; to aid committees in establishing schools of art; nance of the people; and the people are not always to hold examinations, and reward successful students; certain whether particular duties should be left to the to form a collection of books, pictures, and works of executive, or be intrusted to private enterprise. With- art; and to circulate these specimens among provincial out touching on the well-worn subject of the Crimean schools of art. Science, in its non-artistic relations, war, let us only glance for a moment at the building became gradually separated from art, and led to the of the new houses of parliament. The structure has establishment of a School of Mines and a Museum been nearly twenty years in hand, it has cost five of Economic Geology, under distinct superintendence. times the original estimate, and it is found to be badly Then, as a further stage, the commissioners of the arranged both for seeing and hearing. Well, who is Great Exhibition found tlremselves in possession of a in fault? "Nobody did it.' No one person or depart- large sum of money, and a collection of trade speciment will consent to bear the blame. "Too many mens, which they did not well know what to do with. cooks,' &c., is a saying applicable by analogy here. Next, the Society of Arts made a curious collection The Treasury, the Board of Works, the IIouse of of articles relating to art and manufactures, and Commons, committees of the Commons, the House of offered it to the government, if room could be found Lords, committees of the Loris, and many royal for it. Then, again, the Commissioners of Patents commissions, were severally and separately engaged had many curious models of patented inventions, with in authorising works to be done to the building; but no place in which to deposit them. Furthermore, an there was no one power supreme over all these ; and Architectural Exhibition of valuable plaster-casts hence the gorgeous but heterogeneous and costly was formed. Lastly, Mr Vernon, Mr Turner, and result.

Mr Sheepshanks made munificent gifts to the nation The South Kensington Museum, recently opened, may of pictures which could not find house-room at the be used as an illustration in a double sense. If it be National Gallery. judged by autocratic and æsthetic rules, it will appear Here was an embarras de richesses ! Good things

in plenty, but nowhere to place them, and no one man an iron building. The schools are open only to empowered to decide on their destination. There students—mostly young men and women training to were male schools of art, and numerous art-specimens, become teachers of art and pattern-drawing in proat Somerset House ; there was a female School of Art vincial schools—whereas the museum is open to the in Gower Street; there was an elementary class at public every day of the week. If an art-critic, standing Smith Street, aided by the Board of Trade ; there was in front of the buildings, were to judge them by any a Mineral Museum at Craig's Court, connected with artistic canons of taste, he would laugh them to the Ordnance Geological Survey ; there was a Museum scorn; for the whole affair is marked by irredeemof Ornamental Art at Marlborough House, and the able ugliness, and can be excused only on the plea Vernon and other pictures at the same place; there that the structures are temporary. The Department was an Architectural Museum in a sort of stable in of Science and Art betrays a consciousness of this; Cannon Row; there were models of patented inven- for it is pointedly stated that the iron building tions stowed away in an empty room in Kensington was constructed under the direction of the comPalace; and there was a collection of art-furniture at missioners for the Exhibition of 1851, and not passed Gore House, purchased by the commissioners of the over to the Department until after it had been comGreat Exhibition for presentation to the nation. No pleted. A wayfarer, whether an art-critic or not, one knew where to place these numerous articles; no becomes somewhat cross when he finds that the new one had power to build a structure for their reception; Cromwell Road, where this South Kensington Museum no one could answer to the House of Commons that is situated, is a mile from Hyde Park Corner, two the requisite funds would be well spent; no one could miles from Regent Street, three from Temple Bar, four decide where the site of such a building should be; from the Bank, and five or six from Spitalfields or no one could authoritatively settle the destiny of the Whitechapel—a great obstacle this to those who would National Gallery, in relation to any new scheme; and enjoy the museum, but who would willingly shun the the House of Commons, bewildered by a multiplicity labour of wading through a stream of human beings of advisers, was just as likely to do wrong as to do miles in length. In the buildings themselves, and in right. The result is most curious. Marlborough the distance from the heart of the metropolis, the House contains the Vernon and Turner collections, authorities have not made a happy choice. Having awaiting future decision; the Museum of Economic by this grumble got rid of our ill-temper, we will Geology, in Jermyn Street, contains the Craig's Court enter the door, prepared to do justice to the interior. collection, greatly augmented ; Somerset House has The apartments or compartments are certainly well turned out its schools and art-people, and sent them fitted to display the various collections ; for the conto South Kensington; it has also got rid of its learned structors, troubled by no scruples touching architectural societies, now located for a time at Burlington House, style, have placed the windows and sky-lights just which has recently been purchased by the govern- wherever they would best throw light: as a consement without any clear conception of what to do with quence, everything is well seen. And now for the it; and, lastly-under the well-founded supposition collections. that the House of Commons will spend many more The Museum of Ornamental Art forms the nucleus or years in deciding which of its numerous advisers on main part of the whole. It is this with which the art and education are most worthy of attention--all public have been familiar at Marlborough House, parties have prudently assented to the construction of augmented from various quarters, especially at the time a temporary building to hold the unhoused national of Mr Bernal's sale. The whole series now amounts to collections of odds and ends, until the various doctors no less than 4000 articles; but just at the present have ceased to disagree about grander plans.

time, about 1000 specimens are in the Manchester The South Kensington Museum should therefore be Art Treasures Exhibition; many hundred others are regarded as a temporary expedient, to avert perplexi- in circulation for exhibition in the various provincial ties which no man, no department, has the authority towns where schools of art have been established; thoroughly to conquer; it is an attempt "how to do while several, of a delicate and costly character, are it,' in spite of 'circumlocution;' and if a visitor will kept packed away until a fireproof exhibition-room good-naturedly view it in this light, he will forgive the has been constructed for their reception. Hence this anomalies, and will come away with a conviction that museum is just now in a transitory state. It is, neverthe collection, or collection of collections, is one of the theless, classified into seventeen divisions, calculated most curious ever displayed to public inspection in the to impart ideas of tasteful art-workmanship in the metropolis.

following articles : carvings, sculptures, bronzes, terraA word concerning the site, and another for the cottas, and wax or plaster models; painting, wallbuildings. The commissioners of the Great Exhibition decoration, paper-banging, illumination, printing, and joined with the Treasury in purchasing a large area pattern-designing; cameos, intaglios, medals, and seals; of open ground between Hyde Park and Brompton, mosaics, pietra-dura work, marqueterie, tarsia work, for national purposes ; and the prince-consort advo- parquetage, buhl work, piqué work, and other kinds cated a plan for building on this spot an immense of inlaying; furniture and general upholstery ; basket series of museums and galleries, to hold the numerous and cane work; leather work, stamped leather, and public collections. Pending the legislative consider- bookbinding; japanned or lackered work; glassation of this large question, a few temporary buildings painting; glass manufactures ; enamels; pottery; have been put together at the southern part of this locks and keys, goldsmith's work, damasquinerie, niello area, near Brompton; and these constitute the South work, and examples of forged, cast, stamped, pressed, Kensington Museum and Schools of Art,'* under the chased, engraved, and etched metals; arms, armour, control of the Department of Science and Art. The and accoutrements; watch and clock work; jewellery, whole of the government schools of art, with the personal ornaments, and objects in precious materials; various collections belonging to them, are now removed and, lastly, textile fabrics, costumes, garment tissues, to this group of buildings, but the museum contains lace, embroidery, carpets, and tapestry hangings. A in addition numerous collections of other kinds-placed mere glance at the items in this list will shew how here for the reason before intimated—namely, that exhaustless the collection might become, and hor there is no room for them elsewhere. The schools are highly interesting; for the articles are not collected a series of brick and wooden erections; the museum is and jumbled merely to make a slow. There is a

reason assignable for their retention--because they are * This name may possibly deceive some visitors as to the really beautiful; because they illustrate a particular locality, which is really Brompton, not Kensington.

style of art; because they shew the difference of tastes

between different countries; because they mark pro- small amateur cabinets of specimens, tables of atomic gression of taste in some one country; or because they weights, &c.; geography and astronomy, illustrated by were the production of some one whose art-workman- globes, atlases, relief-models, diagrams, camera slides, ship has become famous. Models and casts from planispheres, and so forth; natural history, with just the great ruins of Italy and Greece; drawings and such a number of specimens in botany, entomology, photographs of architectural ornament; copies of the mineralogy, and fossil geology, as may suffice to teach wall-decorations of Raphael's time, including those of by actual examples; household economy, shewn in the world-renowned Loggie of the Vatican; a series useful little contrivances bearing on the comfort of illustrative of the history of wood-engraving; electro- everyday-life; musical instruments and apparatus type casts from some of the choicest specimens of pertaining to the musical art, with any novelties that artistic metal-work in the Louvre, the Musée de relate to facility in teaching; school apparatus, humane Cluny, and the Musée d'Artillerie; collections to shew in purpose and ingenious in construction, for teaching how far the Mintons and Copelands of England have the blind and the deaf and dumb; physical training, risen to an equality with the imperial manufacturers illustrated by the apparatus now used in various at Sèvres ; beautiful old carved coffers, cabinets, linen- schools for athletic exercises, bracing the muscles, chests, and escritoires, in oak, ebony, walnut, and &c.; general education, applied chiefly through the marqueterie, displaying the taste and skill of Italian, medium of object-lessons, such as the singular KinderFrench, and Flemish art-workmen in past ages. It is gar system, introduced from Germany; fine arts, needless, however, to go on with this list; the above so far as taught in schools by the aid of models and are a few of the objects in the museum; and when the casts; and, lastly, school buildings and fittings, illusofficers of the department tell us that they have 4000 trating suggested improvements in the arrangements such, ready to be properly labelled if circumstances and fittings of school-rooms. What renders this collecallow them to be all exhibited at once, the reader may tion more interesting is, that each division or group judge what a treasure of pleasant things the nation has its own library, its own shelves of books relating to really possesses here.

the matters under notice. The Educational Collection is another of the groups The Commissioners of Patents' Museum is a third in this iron building. It may be considered as useful collection, wholly distinct from the two above described. rather than artistic; but it is not wholly wanting in The commissioners of patents are publishing the specithe latter quality, and is well worthy the notice of fications and diagrams of all the patents ever granted the friends of good-sense education. Its origin was in this country for new inventions, far exceeding simply this: When the Society of Arts reached the twenty thousand in number; they also possess numer. good old age of 100 years, in 1854, it celebrated the ous beautiful models of patented inventions. It was event in many worthy ways. Among other schemes, resolved, therefore, that as no other convenient numerous literary and scientific institutions, philo- depository offered, the South Kensington Museum sophical societies, mechanics' institutes, athenæums, should receive the models, and one copy of all the and lyceums, suggested the formation of a museum to printed works of the commissioners. In addition, illustrate the progress of the educational art, in refer- there have been obtained from various quarters about ence to the books, diagrams, models, casts, implements, a hundred portraits of the most eminent inventors and and school appliances, introduced in various countries mechanicians this country has produced. The visitor for educational purposes. The society warmly took may therefore gaze with admiring wonder at Scott up the matter; and hence the opening of the Educa- Russell's superb model of the oscillating steam-engines tional Exhibition at St Martin's Hall, described in the for the Great Eastern; or smile at the little model Journal in August of the above-named year.* All the of the petticoat weaving-machine ; or pore over the chief school-societies, all the training-schools, all the specifications and diagrams of thousands of patents; blind-schools, all the deaf and dumb schools, many of or study the portraits of the Watts and Arkwrights of the publishers of educational books, and individuals past days, or the Fairbairns and Whitworths of the and societies in various countries of Europe and present. America, warmly responded to the appeal made to The Trade Collection is a fourth among the list them. After the close of that exhibition, a large of those in the iron building. It arose out of the number of the articles were presented to the govern- Exhibition of 1851. A circular was sent to all the ment; and these, aided by subsequent acquisitions, exhibiters, 'pointing out to them the advantages of form the educational collection at South Kensington a systematic collection from different classes of objects They are grouped into about twelve classes; the which they respectively exhibited, and requesting articles in each class being so arranged as to enable their co-operation in forming such a collection. _The all persons engaged in teaching to see, collected into object was to preserve a record of things in the Exhione group, the most recent, the best, and the cheapest bition which might be of use for future consultation, forms of apparatus and means of imparting knowledge and which, in the form of actual specimens, would be in its several branches—with the prices of the speci- far more valuable than the most complete catalogue mens, and where they can be obtained-enabling them or the most careful diagrams. It was proposed to to compare one specimen with another, and to select register the discovery and uses of various materials. that which may best suit their requirements. The The collection was to serve as a means of reference curators also tell us, that it has been an object in for commercial, scientific, and artistic purposes.' The labelling the specimens, to do so in such a manner as exhibiters entered warmly into the plan, and offered will convey as large an amount of information as liberal contributions of specimens; but unfortunately, possible; appealing, in some measure, like diagrams through circumstances into the secret of which we in lectures, through the eye to the understanding. It are not admitted, the commissioners of the Great is only fair to say that this intention has been realised Exhibition found themselves unable to carry out their in a very happy way. We may run over the twelve plan; and for six long years, some of the lower rooms divisions thus: mechanical models and drawings of of Kensington Palace have contained such of the steam-engines, pumps, wheel-work, and other matters specimens as it was decided to keep; and the packaiding to teach the principles of mechanism ; illustra- ages were never opened until the spring of the present tions of the physical sciences, in models and speci- year. The truth is, as was before implied, these mens relating to electricity, galvanism, heat, optics, varied treasures have come upon the nation so rapidly, and the like; chemical specimens and apparatus, with that house-room for them has hitherto been wanting.

Various considerations have induced the commissioners * Chambers's Journal, No. 32.

to distribute, at some future time, all the specimens of

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