Imágenes de páginas


this Trade Collection among national and provincial intelligence of his misfortune just as he was engaged museums and learned societies, enabling them, in some with his favourite, the Marquis de Giac, in his darling instances, to complete their collections, and in others pastime of throwing the dice-merely looked up with to make important additions to them. This Trade à slight air of astonishment at the officer who had Collection, then, although interesting and valuable in a high degree, may be regarded as temporary, so far brought him the message, and asked : "What are they as the South Kensington Museum is concerned.

all gone?' The Economic Museum is a development, on a larger

· All, sire. scale, of one of the divisions in the Educational Col- Well, Giac, that is a good joke,' said the king, lection. It was formed by Mr Twining, and presented laughing and turning to his favourite. by him to the government. The object has been,

Yes, sire,' answered Giac; ‘and the misfortune could to collect specimens, models, plans, diagrams, and not have befallen your majesty at a luckier moment.' drawings, relating to everything that concerns the

Why so ?' daily wellbeing of the working-classes-such as building designs, building materials, furniture and fittings,

The men, sire, had arrears of pay owing to them, household utensils, fabrics and clothing, food and and the treasury is empty.' At this moment a page cookery, fuel and household stores, &c. Such a series, announced the Comte de Richemont, constable of it is evident, may be almost without limit; and even France; and the countenance of the marquis, which to the extent of Mr Twining's small collection-made had hitherto borne an expression of careless gaiety, in a feeling of hearty and wholesome benevolence instantly changed to one of extreme seriousness, and there are abundant contrivances well worth peeping his face turned deadly pale. into. The Sheepshanks Collection is in one sense out of time looking towards the officer, who was still waiting,

"My cousin is welcome!' cried the king, at the same place here, seeing that modern English paintings have little to do with the miscellaneous contents of the and giving him to understand, by a motion of the museum generally. Yet, what was to be done? A hand, that he was dismissed. gentleman munificently offers a collection of pictures *Well, Giac?' said Charles, in a tone of wonderment, worth many thousand pounds, and we have nowhere to as his favourite, whilst expecting the entrance of the place them: better, then, deposit them in a series of constable, left the dice-box standing untouched before well-lighted rooms in the new building, constructed at him; 'the throw is with you.' a small expense for that purpose, than lose the gift

"Sire'- stammered Giac, as he arose in embarwhile artistic doctors are quarrelling about a new

rassment from the table. National Gallery. If viewed in this light, the Sheep

• What is the matter?' shanks Collection may well please us, despite its locality. About 250 oil-paintings by modern English

Your majesty is aware that the constable is not masters, and numerous drawings and etchings, formed friendly towards me. As your treasurer, sire, he may the gist; to which other specimens have since been think it my fault that the deserting troops had not added. Here we may enjoy for hours long the received their arrears of pay, and I fear he may wish products of Bonnington, Burnet, Clint, Collins, to be revenged.' Constable, Cooper, Cope, Creswick, Danby, Eastlake, Nonsense, Giac! Do not give yourself any concern Etty, Frith, Horsley, Jackson, Lance, Landseer, Lee, on that account. I, your king, will protect you.' Leslie, Mulready, Roberts, Stanfield, Stothard, Turner, "But circumstances might occur, your majesty'Webster, Wilkie, and other well-esteemed knights of said the marquis, trembling. the easel.

“There is nothing to fear. You have my royal One thing more we must say—that the whole of word'these collections are capitally lighted; and that on Here the conversation was interrupted by the two evenings of the week a successful novelty has entrance of the constable. been introduced-lighting by gas for artisan-visitors

• Welcome, good cousin, to Bourges !' cried Charles. who cannot come during the day. This is a beginning I have already heard what has taken place at St that may lead to important results elsewhere.

Jacques de Beuvron. The wicked traitors! - But And now, if the reader fails to admit that the what brings you to me, worthy cousin ?' South Kensington Museum is well worth a visit from

I am come, sire,' answered the count, 'to return to all, the fault must be in the writer of this article, and you my sword of office, as it is no longer able to restore not in the museum.

the lost condition of France.'

Not so hasty, cousin l'cried Charles, knitting his

brows. 'It is not my fault that the cowardly merTHE KING’S WORD.

cenaries have left us.' NEVER had the position of a king presented so hopeless

It is not mine, sire,' answered the constable, proudly an aspect as that of Charles VII. of France, in the and with emphasis. year 1456, two years before his deliverance by Joan

"I know, I know,' said the king. “You are a faithof Arc. Almost all the ports and fortresses in the ful servant. The count bowed coldly. hands of the English, an army which it was difficult majesty," said he, 'and assembled an army to protect

“When I received the constable's sword from your to maintain, without allies, an empty treasury, and no your throne, I did so upon one condition: I promised prospect of soon again being able to fill it-those were to support the troops at my own cost during a period the circumstances in which Charles found himself, of four weeks, at the end of which time they were to when one day, during his sojourn at Bourges, he be paid by your majesty, and you promised to send me received information that the last remains of his army a hundred thousand dollars for that purpose.' had, in the preceding night, set fire to their camp, and

* Very true, cousin.' gone over to the enemy. With the defection of these

· Four months have elapsed since then; I kept my troops, under the command of the Count de Richemont, promise, but the money did not arrive. The troops constable of France, the cause of Charles appeared to and threatened, but without avail: the traitors deserted

refused to serve any longer without pay. I entreated be irretrievably lost.

secretly. It would not have happened, sire, if you had Such a disaster would have driven any other kept your word as well as I kept mine, and had sent monarch to despair; but Charles- who received the the money as you promised.'


•What!' cried Charles, rising from his seat, and pale under the displeasure of the constable. It was, therewith rage; 'I did not send the money?'

fore, that same evening that the door of the prison No, sire.'

opened, and the mayor of Bourges, attended by two 'No? And the money has been collected from the sheriffs, appeared before the marquis. A long roll of country for the purpose! .. What has become paper in the hand of the former announced to him that of it?'

his fate was decided. Ask the Marquis de Giac, your majesty: perhaps My Lord Marquis de Giac,' said the mayor, after he knows,' answered the constable coldly.

clearing his throat, and unrolling the paper, draw The marquis, who had hitherto listened to the near, and hear the sentence which the good city of conversation in a state of the greatest anxiety, replied Bourges, according to right and conscience, passes to the king's question :

upon you.' Sire,' said he, out of the hundred thousand dollars, The prisoner, by nature not timid, and endowed with the Chevalier d'Ange was paid the bet he laid with a certain strength of soul which enabled him to meet your majesty; and the rest I took in part-payment with fortitude inevitable evils, arose courageously, and for the three horses I had brought from Burgundy.' walking up to the mayor almost with an air of pride:

So the money has gone for a bet and three horses !' 'Let me hear it!' said he. “But, pray, use not cried the constable, angrily turning to the marquis : many words.' 'you are truly an excellent treasurer!'

As you command,' replied the mayor, bowing low Whether I am so or not,' answered the marquis as he spoke; and then he proceeded to read, with all scornfully, “it is not your business to decide. The the pomposity of his office, as follows: The supreme constable bit his lip without making any reply, and administrator of the laws of the good and true city of then fell on one knee before the king, and presented Bourges decrees, according to right and conscience, his sword :

that Arthur Phæbus Charles, Marquis de Giac, be 'Here, sire,' said he, 'is my sword back again.' held guilty of having improperly and fraudulently No, my cousin, we will not accept it,' cried Charles; squandered the royal treasure, and that he be accord'for we know none more worthy to whom we can ingly attainted of high treason, and condemned to confide it. The constable appeared to consider for a suffer death by the sword.' minute, and then, with a side-glance at the marquis: "How? Death?' cried the prisoner, more in anger

“Since you command it, sire,' said he, ‘I will retain than in terror. my sword, hoping long to wear it to the honour of my * Allow me to proceed, my lord marquis; I have not king and France; but I must make one condition, yet done,' said the mayor; and he read on: ‘In conwhich I hope you will grant me.'

sideration, however, of its having pleased his majesty, . Most willingly, cousin.'

our most gracious king and master, to pardon with *As constable of France, continued the count, 'I his own royal word the said Marquis de Giac, and to exercise the highest jurisdiction within the provinces grant him his life, so shall the sentence pronounced confided to me, as well as within the district of the upon him be commuted and changed to a penance, town of Bourges.'

which commutation, however, can only be obtained Riglit!'

by the condemned declaring in his own handwriting 'Allow me then, sire, to make use of this power; that he is willing to undergo the sentence of death, and permit that the same obedience may be shewn to and to renounce the favour of the royal pardon offered me that would be sliewn to yourself.' Charles appeared him.' for a moment embarrassed, and then, with a side-look And what is the penance which I am to prefer to at his visibly anxious favourite: “It shall be so, death-in what does it consist ?' asked the prisoner, cousin,' said lie, but with one stipulation : you must turning pale. answer to me with your honour for the safety of the 'It is as follows,' said the mayor, reading further: head of the Marquis de Giac.'

" That Arthur Phæbus Charles, Marquis de Giac, shall 'I answer for his life, sire,' said the constable. Then bind himself to put to death with the sword to-morrow turning to the marquis :

morning before sunrise, in the open market-place of ‘My lord marquis,' said he, 'you are my prisoner.' Bourges, one of the criminals at present convicted

of murder.' A few hours after the visit of the constable to Uttering a cry of rage and horror, the prisoner sank King Charles, the Marquis de Giac was a prisoner in on the bench of his cell, and the door immediately Bourges, on the charge of having squandered the closed upon the retiring mayor and his attendants. money belonging to the royal treasury. This, at least, When we consider the degradation attached to the was the form under which the constable had proposed office of public executioner in the middle ages, the to himself to retaliate upon the marquis, for a long contempt in which the man who filled it was held, list of offences he had been for some time commit- and his low position in a civil community, we shall ting with impunity, feeling himself safe under the be able to form some idea of the refined cruelty conespecial protection of the king. The prisoner was fully tained in the so-called penance inflicted on the Marquis aware of the danger of the position in which he was de Giac. To come in contact, even in the remotest placed, although the word of the king, as well as degree, with that administrator of criminal justice, that of the constable, was undoubted security for his was held to be a disgrace which not even the royal life. But are there not punishments infinitely more authority was sufficient entirely to obliterate; and painful than death? Are there not tortures insuffi- the meanest citizen would have preferred death to cient to destroy the thread of life, yet, in comparison that act which the authorities of Bourges liad imposed, with which, death itself would be a boon ? And under the name of a penance, upon a man of ancient what was there to hope from the protection of a weak and honourable race, and one who had long stood and frivolous king, at the time when the will of the high in tlie favour of a crowned head. constable was of greater weight than that of his master?

At the dawn of day, on the 5th of June 1456, an Giving himself up to these reflections, his head agitation began on the market-place of Bourges, resting on his two hands, the marquis sat in a corner which announced that something, as unusual as it of his dark and dismal prison, awaiting the arrival of was important, was about to take place. Out of all the messenger who was to make known to him his the houses, streets, and alleys streamed men and women fate ; for in those days no lengthened process was of all ages, who assembled round a circle marked out necessary for the condemnation of one who had fallen with posts in the middle of the market-place, the


entrance to which was strongly guarded by well- by a desperate stroke of the weapon which he held in armed soldiers. Although the morning twilight did his left. not afford a clear sight of what was prepared upon Returning the sword to the executioner, and turning the enclosed spot, still there was a general idea of to the judicial authorities, whilst the blood streamed what was to follow, and those who stood nearest could from his arm, he said : 'Go, tell the constable, gentlediscern a lightly erected stage, the sight of which left men, that the Marquis de Giąc has no hand with no doubt as to its object. It was a scaffold, which which to perform the duty of executioner'awaited its victim.

He could say no more, but fell fainting from loss The expectation and the interest depicted on the of blood. countenances of the constantly increasing mass, was Before the expiration of an hour, the marquis very decidedly different from that which was usually received the pardon of the constable, who admired observed on like occasions. This difference had its courage still more than he hated political crime.* rise in the circumstance that the present occasion was not one of a common execution, but, as was already

OLD SAWS NEW SET. known to the inhabitants of Bourges, an example of the administration of justice hitherto altogether with. I have a great respect for poor Richard and Dr out precedent. Besides this, the unusual time of day, Benjamin Franklin, and have tried in my time to turn as well as the place, contributed much to lend solem- some of their famous maxims to account; but I find, nity to the whole; for a gallows had never before been from observation and experience, they do not always known to be erected within the precincts of the dwell- yield the admirable results they promise. They are ing-houses of the citizens of Bourges ; and added to sober-looking, sensible-seeming precepts

, but somehow hand of a man who, although he had not been particu- they fail on being reduced to practice; or rather, I larly beloved by the people, had at least always been might say, they are to a great extent impracticable, looked up to by them with respect.

and do not admit of being wrought into everyday As at length, during the continuation of that rust- procedure. I begin to be in doubt whether they are ling and confused noise which is inseparable even from so wise and canny as they are commonly considered. a silent multitude, the daylight increased by degrees, I desire, therefore, to make a protest against a few of and announced the approaching rising of the sun in them, and to state, in my rambling way, what I fancy the east, a deep and awful stillness suddenly prevailed. Through a passage formed by the crowd, à picket of may be said on the other side. I don't care much soldiers approached the fatal ring; surrounded by about being logical: if anything illogical occurs to me these soldiers was a miserable cart, in which sat the which seems pertinent to the occasion, I shall say it, executioner, and by his side a haggard-looking man, without regard to consequences. I wish the ghosts of who was evidently about to suffer the death of a male- Poor Richard and Dr Franklin, and all other maximfactor. At a little distance from the cart, followed a mongers, dead or living, to understand, that some of clergyman, accompanied by a man, whose face was their renowned sayings are becoming questionable ; perfectly pale, but whose carriage was firm and proud, that here, at anyrate, they shall for once be quesand his aspect imposing. His dress, richly embroidered tioned. Anything they may have to say in the way of with gold, but to which the armorial ornaments were nevertheless wanting, shewed him to be of high rank. reply, shall have due consideration; but meanwhile, It was the Marquis de Giac. When he appeared, a they are to be politely and respectfully informed, that suppressed exclamation of sympathy ran through the they are not any longer to pass for the perfect and crowd.

infallible sages they have been hitherto esteemed. In the meantime five members of the judicial body By way of beginning, let us look at this celebrated of Bourges had approached the scaffold from an oppo- saying, which so many of us can remember having site direction, and after laying several rolls of paper heard quoted for our admonition, when perhaps we down upon a table, awaited earnestly and silently the

were too young and heedless to take much notice of approach of the condemned. A few moments after, the victims appeared upon the place of execution. 'The it, and were accordingly in no great danger of being clergyman drew near to the culprit who had been con

misled by it: victed of murder, prayed with him for a short time, Early to bed, and early to rise, and then led him to the fatal seat; after which, amidst Makes a man healthy, wealthy, and wise. the breathless stillness which prevailed, the senior of the five judicial officers proceeded to read aloud, first Can anybody in his senses take that for truth? I the sentence of the murderer, and then that of the mean to say, I have seen it a thousand times contraMarquis de Giac, to whom he turned at the conclusion dicted by matter of fact. If there were any truth in with these words:

it, I think I know who would have been a rich and a "I demand of you, Arthur Phoebus Charles, Marquis wise man. It would have been Boots at the innde Giac, whether you are willing, under your own fellow most exemplary for early rising, and who, both handwriting and signature, to give yourself up to the from principle and disposition, always goes to bed as royal mercy, and thus escape the sentence of death which hangs over you?'

soon as possible. He even sometimes goes to sleep * No,' answered the marquis, in a firm voice.

in his boot-house, or in a hayloft in the middle of the “Then, continued the officer of justice, "you will day; and, to shew that his habit in this respect is no have to perform the penance imposed on you, and do pretence, is usually very difficult to awaken. Earlier the part of executioner to the delinquent who has been than the middle of the day, we think, nobody could adjudged to suffer death at the hands of the headsman.' reasonably be expected to seek repose; and thus

Saying this, he made a sign to the executioner, who Boots may be said to fulfil the first demand of the drew from under his cloak a sword, which he presented grave maxim as literally as it is possible to fulfil to the Marquis de Giac.

it. An indescribable expression of anxiety was depicted that he is always first up in the house. During

Then, as to rising early, it is well known on every countenance. After a short pause, the marquis, pale as death, seized the sword with a firm most of the year, he is up long before the sun rises : grasp, bared his right arm, and- A shriek of horror burst from the crowd-he had cut off his right hand

From the German of Schubar.

he has the traveller to call who is going by the coach have to pass in future, at a reduced value, as old or an early train, the hot water to get ready for iron. the gentleman who shaves by candlelight, a score or Something similar, we apprehend, must eventually two pair of boots and shoes to polish, and to clean the be the fate of another of these popular sayings : knives for breakfast ; and all this has to be done before Diligence is the mother of good-luck, and God gives

all things to industry. The inventor of this, perhaps, anybody else is moving. Boots plainly fulfils the

may be excused for his short-sightedness, as he did not second condition-that of getting up betimes. And live in the nineteenth century; consequently, he had now, what is the result in his experience? Is he wise never known or heard of the distressed needlewomen. or wealthy ? Not at all. If Boots has any character These singular nuns of industry, as we are credibly at all, it is probably a character for stupidity. The informed, are in the habit of labouring for sixteen or most one ever sees in him, is a little flippant shrewdness eighteen hours a day to earn tenpence-finding thread of the Sam Weller description—a quality as little like and buttons for the work out of their wages. Here, wisdom as Day and Martin polish is like sunshine. surely, is diligence with no offspring of good-luckBoots certainly does not profit on the score of wisdom that it cannot even procure a sufficiency of dry bread

industry, which is so far from obtaining all things,' by his early rising ; neither can he be said to gain and decoction of chickory without sugar! What can much by it in the way of healthiness. He has gener. an industrious needlewoman, seeking for consolation ally a besmutted, dingy, unwashed, unwholesome, and among proverbs, think of this one, except that it is comfortless appearance, which betokens anything but bosh ? Put not your trust in proverbs, will be her healthiness-betokens rather a worn and forlorn and natural prayer and admonition to all shirt-makers, vagabondish state of mind and body. Boots, perhaps, seeing that whatever application they may have to is dissipated—drinks at the barrel when he is sent to they have little or none at all to them. Those, like

the affairs of more favourably conditioned people, draw the beer, spends his sixpences not unlikely in the present, which are founded on economical con• goes' of ardent spirits, disdains contact with soap and siderations, are utterly inoperative within their sphere water-lives, upon the whole, a shabby and reckless sort of circumstances, and cannot be urged upon them of life, thinking that the kind of thing most accordant with any shadow of justice or propriety. And with his calling. Rarely does he even so much as black what is true in their case, is true also in regard to his own boots, which, moreover, are commonly without numerous other sections of the community. What laces. Clean-shirt days are epochs in his existence, good-luck’ from diligence ever befalls the great body like angels' visits, few and far between. Boots is their lifetime, when work is to be had, are, to say the

of day-labourers who, for six days in every week of scarcely reputable, looks usually like a blackguard, least of them, more or less industriously employed ? and is not unfrequently the great original he looks ; If all things' are to be gained by industry, these yet he is pre-eminently the man who is first up in a laborious people ought to have a considerable accumorning, and, whenever he has opportunity, goes to mulation in the savings' bank; but it is notorious bed in the afternoon-goes to bed, therefore, sooner that they have nothing of the sort-notorious that than any other bed-requiring creature, for we count most of them find it difficult to make ends meet nothing of his often being up till midnight, as that on Saturday nights, and that the majority are subject may be reckoned the beginning of the next day with How are facts like these to be reconciled with the

to the inconvenience of being perpetually in debt. him; and with all this early rising and early bed-going, bland assumptions of the maxim? You might as Boots is still—just what you see him.

well attempt to reconcile the proceedings of party Early to bed, and early to rise,

politicians, after coming into office, with their pre

vious professions while in the ranks of opposition.' makes Boots

Good-luck and prosperity are no more the necessary Neither healthy, nor wealthy, nor wise.

consequences of mere habitual diligence, than good

performances are the results of liberal promises in Well, I think that much is proved. The maxim political administration. The great gains promised to practically carried out, as in this individual case, turns industry are dependent on other conditions ; on comout to be a fallacy. Nobody need tell me, that as there plicated concurrences of circumstances, in which indusare 'no rules without an exception,' so Boots is to be try comes in as only one of many elements, and that, accounted an exception. I maintain with pertinacity usually, by no means the most significant. Industry, that Boots comes strictly within the rule. He thoroughly to be profitable, must be directed to remunerative complies with the conditions set down for his observ- pursuits; and even then, success will be to large ance to gain the proposed end; and if he does not gain extent determined by fortunate combinations of opporit, it is not because his case is anyway exceptional, but tunity, adroit contrivance, lucky chances, and ingenious because the rule has no relation to the consequences expedients, in conjunction with which, mere industry ascribed to it. Early rising is no doubt a wholesome will often play but a very subordinate part. Why, habit at certain seasons of the year, and may be recom- then, should poor, struggling, hard-toiling people be mended as being in most cases conducive to bodily tantalised by such preposterously foolish saws as this welfare; but any one who expects to become either we are considering? It has no manner of application healthy, wise, or wealthy, by simply getting up and to their confused and perplexed circumstances; it can going to bed betimes, will not have long to live to see afford them no comfort in any crisis: and as a reproach the folly of the experiment. No pike-staff can be for their lack of acquisition, it is senseless, and merci. plainer than the fact, that a man's success in life lessly cruel. Let it be banished to the limbo of absurd depends not on his early rising, but on what he does and obsolete thrift-lumber, and never be reproduced, and thinks about when he is up. You may rise before save as a ludicrous curiosity, to shew the senselessness the lark, and go to rest with the domestic poultry, and of what formerly passed for wisdom ! be neither physically, mentally, nor pecuniarly the The next pretentious fallacy we have to notice takes better for it, unless you observe at least a few other the form of a plausible admonition: "Keep thy shop, conditions, which the maxim under consideration does and thy shop will keep thee.' This seems a simple not take into the account. Poor Richard's saw, then, enough rule for avoiding bankruptcy, and we can fancy needs to be new set; and if it is not sharpened up a a youthful adventurer setting out with it as part of good deal, and turned nearly into a new one, it will his stock-in-trade, with the confident expectation of


obtaining quick and profitable returns. But if he has seven shops since my apprenticeship expired, and not nothing better to rely upon, we do not see how he can one of them ever kept me. Poor Richard, I say, is a keep out of the Gazette. Mere sticking to his busi- greenhorn, and his saws are bosh. ness will not save him, for a certainty. He will find in the long-run that success in shopkeeping depends somewhat on the amount of capital he can command SOCIAL PROGRESS AT THE ANTIPODES. for carrying on his enterprise ; a little upon the demand there may be in his neighbourhood for the articles he proposes to supply; and also a little on the The traveller is struck at first sight with the fine phy. extent and kind of competition to be encountered in sical development of the New Zealanders. A knowledge the same line of business. There will be other con- of their language, and a little familiar intercourse with tingencies that will more or less affect the specula- them, will convince him that they also possess a solid tion. From his eagerness to go into business, he may substratum of sound common sense, and only require have selected an unfavourable situation à situa a corresponding intellectual development to place them tion where, in fact, no new shop happens to be on a level with the Anglo-Saxon race. In deference wanted, and where the utmost standing behind the to European custom, I write New Zealand and New counter will not avail to attract customers.

You Zealanders; but these terms are absolutely ignored by could not very well drive a trade in jewellery in the natives, who are even unable to pronounce the Seven Dials, nor would refined confectionary be like words, since the letters d, l, s, and z do not exist in to answer in Spitalfields. A bookseller's shop would their language. meet with little patronage in an agricultural village, Their practical etlinology, like that of the Chinese, and a toy-shop would seem an insult and an abomina- is of an extreme simplicity. All mankind are divided tion on a genteel terrace where the houses are occupied into two classes-namely, Maoris, or natives of what by old maids. A baked-potato stand would hardly do we call New Zealand, and Pakehas, or strangers. The in Pall Mall, and whelks and periwinkles would meet words Maori and Pakeha are of frequent occurrence but a slow sale in Mayfair. It is not, therefore, by at the antipodes, and have some peculiar applications. merely attending closely to the shop that the shop Common spring-water is called wai maori-that is, can be made to keep the keeper: there must be an maori or native water; while ardent spirits are desigadaptation in the shop to existing wants; the pos- nated as wai piro, or, in euphuistical English, strongsession of capital by the shopkeeper to enable him to smelling water. While examining a lieavy wooden maintain his ground till custom comes; a surrounding spear, twenty-five feet long, which I bad drawn out population, sufficiently numerous, with disposition and from under the eaves of the roof of a chief's house, his ability to purchase what he has got to sell; and not wife condescended to inform me that it was 'he pu too much competition to hinder him from obtaining Maori' (a Maori gun). reasonable profits. All these several conditions are The settlers who have picked up a smattering of the taken no account of in the maxim; and hence, as a Maori language, will tell you that Pakeha means a rule of guidance, it is irrational and misleading; and white man; but I have known it frequently applied any one who is weak enough to hazard his success by the natives themselves to African and West-Indian upon it, will be likely to pay a very paltry dividend in negroes, beside whose sable skins the imbrowned the day of his insolvency. It may indicate one of the Maori seemed only a darkish variety of the pale-face. manifold conditions of success, but taken as the sole The ordinary mode of interchanging a casual greetand full expression of the law through which success is ing among the Maoris is very characteristic of their to be attained, it is as pitiful a generalisation as was plain common sense. They do not say: 'How do you ever invented by the stupidity of man. It is about do?' or 'How do you carry yourself?' or 'How that on a level with the famous advice of Master Subtle to goes he?' (comment ça va-t-il ?) Such unmeaning Abel Drugger in the Alchemist :

phrases are employed only by the most highly-civilised

nations. The Maori approaches with his usual frank On the east side of your shop, aloft,

and independent bearing, with a natural smile that Write Mathlai, Tarmiel, and Baroborat;

discloses teeth of perfect regularity and whiteness, Upon the north part, Ruel, Velel, Thiel.

gives you a hearty shake of the hand, and exclaims They are the names of those mercurial spirits

simply: “Tena koe !' (that's you !) He knows that That do fright flies from boxes.

Beneath your threshold bury me a loadstone,

the whole philosophy of casual greetings consists in To draw in gallants that wear spurs : the rest

the acknowledgment of acquaintanceship; he expresses They 'll seem to follow.

this recognition in a formula at once simple and sufii

cient; while he shiews by the smile that brightens his "That's a secret, Nab!' as Captain Face says; and usually impassive features, and by the sparkle which some such serviceable secret is revealed in our stolid lights up his fine dark eyes, that he is glad to see you maxim for getting on in shopkeeping. Whoever may and to be recognised by you. "Tena koe!' is the have a fancy to try it by itself, will see how he will invariable salutation on ordinary occasions; but when succeed with it.

friends meet after a considerable absence, a ceremony These three specimens of the wisdom of our ances- more impressive than a mere recognition takes place. tors and their economical philosophy, may suffice in Sitting down, embracing, crying (tangi), and moaning, the meantime for the reader's consideration. Some the two friends keep up a continuous rubbing of noses persons, I know, pretend that such saws were not (hongi), which sometimes lasts half-an-hour. The made for individuals, or even classes, but for the great tangi gives to the meeting an air of the deepest body of the people; that they are mere deductions emotion; the hongi seems indicative of extreme friendfrom the common experience of mankind; that they ship; it is also considered an inviolable pledge of proare general rules of life, too brief to detail the con- tection and safety wlien given by a host to his intended ditions they imply; and that those conditions are too guest. In the evening of a long day of toilsome well understood to make the detail necessary. Maybe marching over rugged mountains, and painful scram80; but I take things as I find them written down; bling through deep precipitous ravines, in a country and out of his own mouth I condemn poor Richard. i whose inhabitants have scarcely ceased to be regarded have myself been getting up early all my life, pursuing as treacherous savages and fierce cannibals, when project after project, but have made no hand of any. approaching some secluded pah, on which depended my I have tried diligence and idleness day about, but hopes of refreshment and rest for the night, I have neither was the mother of good-luck. I have kept often given the customary premonitory shouts, and

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