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was given—the lift stopped, and we were ushered into it in; or, in other words, by a constant use of this the making department.

article of dress, we run the risk of checking the Here we found ourselves surrounded by a multitude respiratory organs, which is very hurtful. We may of very nice-looking girls, most of them tastefully mention on this point, however, that the girls in the dressed, and all of them particularly clean and tidy. works who wear the shoes constantly, find no ill effects The reader can suppose a room-equal in area to the resulting from this cause. largest class of ball-rooms-beautifully clean and well- There are a number of other curious things to be lighted, and in this room a double row of white deal seen at the Castle Mills. For example, the machine tables, with four of our female shoemakers comfortably for making lasts is a really wonderful piece of seated at each, and he has thus got the outline at least mechanism. The steam-engine itself, of one hundred of our picture. We should like to devote some time horse-power, is well worth examination; and, indeed, to fill in the groups of figures and add a little colour- the machinery through the works generally is of a ing, but it would be out of place here. As to the very high order, most of it, we believe, of American wages of the girls, we may state that, after undergoing origin. We cannot enter at present on the other a nominal apprenticeship of three months, they are branches of the manufactory-the machinery bands, paid for what they can earn, which ranges from nine tubes, springs, and such things; but we may remark, to twelve shillings per week.

in conclusion, that the India-rubber manufacture One of those young ladies—who, by the way, came seems to have become established in Scotland, and we from the States—was now selected to shew us the wish it all success. We have no jealousy at all that whole process of making a shoe. So far as we could it has been done by American capital and skill- quite observe at the time, she pursued the following the reverse. This circumstance, indeed, will suggest order.

the important reflection, that, after all, the spirit of 1. She took up a last,

commerce is the true bond between civilised nations, 2. Which she wrapped round with a piece of inside the best agent for improving the condition of the lining.

people, and the only legitimate source of national 3. She then stuck on the insole.

wealth and prosperity. 4. And overlaid all the seams with narrow stripes, to make them strong.

A DAY WITH THE DIVA N. 5. The quarter or heel-stepping was now added. 6. And then the bottoms were filled in.

We reached the divan before the hour at which Aslan 7. The upper was now laid over this.

Pacha gave audience; therefore the kaoush who had 8. And, lastly, the sole was stuck on.

been sent by the pacha to conduct us to his presence The shoe was now finished, and, in almost as little intimated that we were to precede him to the aparttime as it has taken us to write, the raw material ment of the chehir ensin, or superintendent. There transformed into the article of wearing apparel. We never saw or heard of anything like it. The explana- Aslan Pacha sat, begirt with the robes of office. tion, however, is very simple: there is no sewing or

Khosh buldouk!' (Well found!) said my friend stitching needed. The tools employed resemble book and conductor Sarim Bey. binders' tools more than those of the shoemaker. • Bouroum' (You are welcome), answered the pacha. Such is the adhesive nature of the substance, that We were beckoned to a seat; we obeyed forth with. whenever two surfaces are brought together, they Tchibouks were presented, and for a while the party unite as firmly as if they had never been separated. smoked on with proper Moslem apathy and silence. The only thing requisite after this is to give them

• Min hahi ?' (How are you getting on ?) asked Sarim a coat of varnish, and that is effected in a manner

at length of the pacha. equally curious and expeditious. A platform is brought by the lifting machine up to the railway which inter

Aslan slowly removed his lemon-coloured mouthsects the floor, and on this platform are stụck some piece. “Giadilla, Effendim' (Effendim, I am sick). 300 pair of the shoes, by means of spikes passing The tchibouk was resumed. into the lasts. The whole thing is now rolled into the . Min Al’lâh !' (Heaven forbid), returned Sarim. varnishing apartment, where each shoe is coated with • Ol hai!' (It is true), was the pacha’s rejoinder. a particular kind of resinous varnish ; and then it is Again there was nothing but tchibouk-puffing and thrust into an oven, where it remains until its exterior

silence. is thoroughly dried. To give an illustration of the magical celerity with

“What business have you on hand ?' asked Sarim, which those India-rubber shoes are produced, we may

after a long pause. state that the sheets are cut up one day, the shoes are

‘Boslı !' (Nothing), was the reply of the pacha, withmade the next, and these are packed ready for the out foregoing his amber mouth-piece for a moment. market on the next again. The North British Rubber Na tu ni' (There it is), said the cadi. (The cadi is Company turn out regularly in this manner about an inferior judge, to whom the pacha surrenders the 4000 pair every day.

business of the court in his absence.) My lord is the The consumption of this article is now very great. master, and I am his slave. Have we not the rogue In England, Ireland, Scotland, and the continent, that imitated the bokshaliks ?'* particularly in Germany, the demand is growing with unheard-of rapidity; and the reason, we think, is Mashallah! what is the profit of such a cause except

*Benezer, you are an ass!' was the flattering reply. obvious. The thing is at once a necessary and a luxury. A lady may wear her goloshes on a wet the labour? I question whether the Greek dog does day, at an evening-party, or a concert, without con- not carry all his piasters on his back. Our exchequer sidering them vulgar and common because the dairy- is low, and we have need of such as can pay their man's daughter over the way goes about the cow-shed, avaniast with a full purse. Once more I tell you, and marches across the yard with a pair of precisely | Benezer, that you are an ass, and the son of an ass!' the same things protecting her feet. There is no

“There is, I hear, a wealthy pacha coming here to mistake as to their beneficial qualities. But, of course, demand the help of the favourite of the paulishalı —even there is a time for everything. It will not do to wear India-rubber goloshes, or waterproof clothing of any description, constantly under all circumstances. What Sultan Mahmoud the Powerful.

* A base coin, which was issued in a season of emergency by is good for keeping out wet, is also good for keeping + Fines.

yourself, my lord,' replied the obsequious cadi, without the presence of the Shadow of the Padishah! Let for a moment venturing to question the authenticity all who want justice now ask, and they shall have of that paternity which the pacha had just fastened on the gift!' him. 'I know not what his wants are, that he invokes As he finished the words, an elderly Turk detached the condescension of my lord. May it be blessed! himself from the crowd, and walking rapidly across But I am told that he is as rich as King Karoon,* and the hall, till he reached the open space in the centre, scatters about his piasters as though they were but he flung himself upon his knees and murmured: fig-dust.'

*Justice! justice! justice!' Chok chay' (That is much), replied Aslan. And The secretary spread the parchment upon his knee, you think he will leave money behind him?'

dipped the calam (pen) in the bottle at his girdle, and • My lord is wiser than a karabash! His penetra- thus held himself in readiness to obey any commands tion reaches to the centre of all things, and nothing is of the Mirror of Justice who was seated in the divan hidden from his eye!' was the answer. It is even above him. as he has spoken!'

• Who calls for justice? Speak!-we listen!' said 'Pek ahi' (It is well), returned the pacha. “Few are the pacha. the piasters that of late have found their way into the "May the life of my lord be like his power, withtreasury. Inshal'lâh! (I trust in God) it is as you out end, and his shadow never be less !' cried the say, Benezer. The respect for justice must be on the applicant. "The fame of my lord has reached even to decline, or we should not be in receipt of such meagre the portals of El Masr,* and the light of his penetrapresents. A boksha or an anali (a handkerchief or a tion discovers things hidden in the darkness of midhand-mirror), such are now thought fitting offerings to night. Therefore am I come, I, Suleiman, the essencethe representative of the Lord of the Three Seas ! merchant in the Divan Yuli (Divan Street) of the

But was it not yesterday that my lord received Tsharshi, to invoke the judgment of the Reflection two hundred piasters from - ?' interposed the of the Padishah upon that Ibn Sheitan,t Kafoor, the unfortunate cadi. He was instantly stopped.

black slave who keeps my counter in my absence.' ‘Benezer, you are a fool! Had you been wise, you Good; and you shall have what is right; for am I would long ere this have filled your pockets with jeb- not here even as in the stead of the padishah, the Sun karji (pocket-money), instead of keeping your purse of Justice and the Shadow of the Universe ?' said the empty, and being reckoned unfit to dip your spoon in pacha. the same tchorba (soup) as a mere khawaji in tlic Taibin! taibin !' (Excellent! excellent), said the Tsharshi. But why talk 1? I have said that you are satellites near; and a low murmur of approbation ran an ass, and I repeat it! It is time.

Gel' (Come), through the court. The pacha rose as by a great effort to his feet, My lord the pacha doubtless has heard the fame of being assisted so to do by two nefers,† who each put Suleiman, the maker of the imperial essences. I have a hand beneath his shoulders. Having gently lifted made the properties of scents my study, until I defy him to stand upon his feet, with as much care as all the competition of the Tsharshi ; and the science of though he had been a chandelier or a German doll, the Franks is but as an atom in the beams of my they placed one hand beneath his elbows, whilst with knowledge of all precious perfumes. A few weeks ago, the other they held up his robes. He leaned upon my lord's servant, after a hundred costly experiments, them, panting and tottering, as if crushed beneath invented a new essence, whose excellence exceeded the weight of the dignities he sustained, as is usual that of all other essences under heaven if put together. with all great persons on occasions of state in the east. A single breath of it, my lord, was like an entrance The 'favourite of the padishah' was followed by six into paradise ; and but to uncover the flacon of gilded soldiers of the guard with their officer; his selictar- ivory in which this surpassing concoction was conaga, or sword-bearer; his kahvedji-bashi, or chief of the tained, gave its possessor a joy as if he had converted coffee-makers; his odossi-bashi, or the keeper of his the whole race of infidels to the faith of the true seal and purse; his tchibouk-bashi, or holder and filler believers. It was born of the spirit of a rose; and of his tchibouk; two chokadars, or cloak-bearers; one he who smelt this wonderful compound could hardly kirkeji-bashi, or large mantle-bearer; his merakbah, regain his breatlı, so powerful was its sweetness. This or chief guard of his stables; and the tarafhani, or son of a burnt father, my lord, stole the box in which inspector; the chehir ensin, or superintendent; the the essence was contained from the drawer wherein djillat, or executioner; and various subordinate officers I had deposited it for safety, and took it to one of the closed up the rank.

cunning Franks, who, helped by Sheitan, found out Slowly and stately the nefers placed him to sit the nature of those perfumes of which it was comupon the yielding cushions of the divan at the upper pounded. And it was but yesterday that whilst thinkend of the Hall of Audience. The crowd of applicants, ing there was but one flask of it in the whole universe who stood with their hands meekly folded upon their -and that one the flacon, small as a pea, which I bosom, just within the doorway, spread the palms of possessel - I had a phial of it offered to me for inspectheir hands upwards, and prostrated themselves till tion by Namtem, the rival merchant on the opposite their forehead touched the earth. The officers who side. The villain is this Kafoor! My lord, he has kept guard over the door, pressed forth to make their plundered me of piasters sufficient to pave the way obeisance by kissing the hem of the pacha's robe; but from lience to the Kehaba I with gold; for this precious the pacha, with a condescension which brought out a perfume would have been welcome to every harem burst of applause, prevented them from doing so, and under the sun, and even to the houris in paradise !' offered them his hand. Each one took the proffered • Kafoor, stand forth!' pronounced the pacha in a and distinguished boon, stooped forward, and placed it voice of authority. An officer led the shrinking for a moment upon his head.

Numidian to the centre of the room, and there left Lah illah el il l'Allâh ! Muhammed il resoul him. The negro dashed himself to the earth, and Allâh! (There is no God but God; and Muhammed is clasping his hands, cried piteously for mercy. the prophet of God), cried Latija, the secretary of the "Give him the bastinado,' was the reply; and the court.

* Allâh shekier! (Praise be to God), all the shrieking slave was led to a distant part of the hall, earth is to come for justice to this its asylum in and there, in sight of the pacha, the preparations for

the punishment were made. The feet were bared, the * The Cresus of the east.

+ The nefers are supposed to be men of especial purity. As a sign of this, they wear women's hair upon their neck and around

+ Son of Satan. # The holy temple at Mecca.

* Mecca.

their shoulders.

ankles tied to a wooden rod; two men held the ends, the divan with a cause for which there was no grounds. one on each side. With the disengaged right hand, Hebrew, your case is dismissed.' each took a thong, and commenced alternately strik A burst of applause followed this last display of ing a blow. The screams of the black were terrible: wisdom by the Sun of Truth, amidst which the dishe rolled his eyes in agony, he pawed the floor, he comfited Jew found his way out of court as well as bit the ground. The infliction was continued with he could. out mercy, till the pacha was pleased to pronounce An officer now led one of those old women who the emphatic · Themum!' (enough). The sufferer.was travel with bouquets, charms, and essences for sale then released, and allowed to crawl home as he before the divan. The official bowed himself to the could.

earth. “Now, who else would have justice?' asked the What complaints have you, Saïder,' asked the secretary.

pacha, "against this woman? An aged Jew advanced to the middle of the hall, “None, my lord,' said she— none!' and throwing himself upon his knees, with one of the "My lord,' said the official, this is Zeinip Hanoum, lowliest salams of the east, began his complaint. who has been several times before you for her

'I come to the Glory of the Truth for help, and misdeeds.' shall I ask aid of the all-powerful pacha, who is as the Astafa Al’lâh !' (God be praised), cried the pacha, breath in the nostrils of his slave, in vain? My lord, 'I find all of you ready enough to talk of others' soon after the Baïram, I bargained with this filthy deeds, but, Mashal'lâh! there are few amongst you Greek, Angiolo'

dare speak of his own! What have you done, Zeinip?' * Angiolo, stand forth !' interrupted the pacha. It “Nought, Effendimon' (My master), replied she. was done, and the Israelite proceeded.'

Some daughter of a kamal has of late introduced 'I bargained with him, O Rose of Justice ! to let certain missives to the harem of Saraf Pacha.' him become the possessor of two bundles of my finest Did you do it?' bokshas* for'

'I? not I!’ responded Zeinip. Not that I have *Had you paid the duty on them ?' asked the not in my day done such works for the young sikdam pacha.

of the city. I have sold in the best harems toys “My lord's wisdom is wonderful!' cried the Jew. 'He whereon words of passion were inscribed in gold-dust thinks all things, and all secrets are plain in his sight, upon the leaves of roses. I have'like the heavens at noonday! Who can hide aught Mashal'lâh! she tells a tale to which it is a shame from the Favourite of the Padishah? By the bones of to listen!' said the pacha. “Do we not talk of woman? Abraham, my great ancestor, should I not be witless --and that is bosh' (nothing). as a dog, if I sought to do so, when my lord knows "So you all say,' pursued the imperturbable Zeinip. all things, and his servant is less than a slave in his 'Look you, my lord; Zeinip has not lived so long sight?'

but she knows how to discover a diamond from a The pacha solemnly nodded his head in a slight cinder, and false ire from real passion. See here, my approbation, as if the Jew were hardly worthy of his lord, I have all precious things in my basket. What august notice; and a fresh murmur of "Taibin ! shall I shew you, Effendimon? I have silk-shawls taibin !' ran through the apartment, to the great encircled with love-ballads from Hafiz; I have gums encouragement of Yousouff, the silver-bearded Jew. of Araby, and spices from the far lands beyond the

'I took them to the custom-house,' resumed he; sea; I have analis whose frames are traced with but Namik, to whom I always pay the tax, was gentle words; and I have calams whose language, if absent. I drew the attention of his secretary to the they be used discreetly, shall be softer than the breath two bundles of bokshas, and said that as I had an of the rose; I have bouquets to protect from the immediate purchaser for them, I would take them evil eye; I have charms and rings, and amulets and away, and return with the money at my leisure.' spells. I have one in particular that I will shew you,

You did sell them, then, before you paid the tax? Effendimon: it is in the form of a box, containing both Did I not understand you aright ?' asked the pacha. essences and philters, and at the bottom is a spell by

My lord, it is even as you say,' responded the Jew. which, if the box be left uncovered at the fountain for 'Latija,' said the pacha to the secretary, write one night at the decline of the moon, on the morrow that Yousouff

, the Jew, is to pay an avania of one one hundred piasters will be found at the bottom.' hundred piasters for defrauding the revenue, and that Inshal'lâh, your secret is well worth the learning, he is to forfeit his two bundles of bokshas also to the Zeinip,' said the pacha. state. Write also, that Angiolo, the Greek, is to pay • My secret I cannot give-the box I can,' returned his avania of fifty piasters for purchasing two bundles Zeinip, handing it up. of bokshas of Yousouff, the Jew, knowing the same 'Latija,' said the pacha, as he received the spell, to have cheated the revenue of the Sublime Empire. write: Saïder, the officer, is fined fifty piasters for Now, Hebrew, we listen!'

making a false charge against a good Moslem.' But the poor Jew now was speechless with vexation; This sentence being duly recorded, the Sun of Justice and the whole court, which a moment before exulted was prepared to lift up the light of his countenance in his applause of the pacha, now resounded with a upon some new suitor. One quickly came. A young titter of delight at his ill-luck.

woman, whose dress and manners evidently betokened Where did you sell them, infidel?' asked the that she belonged to the first rank of Osmanli society, pacha.

was led in by a superior officer from one of the • The bargain was made in the bazaar,' replied the private apartments beyond the hall. There she had unhappy Yousouff, wringing his hands as though he been staying till an opportunity for stating her cause were ruined for ever.

arrived, for she was of too high a class to mingle with ' Latija, continued the pacha to the secretary, the indiscriminate throng at the door. 'Yousouff, the Jew, is fined fifty piasters for selling Holy Prophet!' muttered the pacha to the cadi in bokshas within the city. Hebrew, your cause is an under-tone, but the young houri, after the old one, done?'

is like a sight of the seventh heaven! Has she come • It is done, my lord.'

to complain of her last purchase in the Tsharshi, or to Latija,' said the pacha, 'write: Yousouff, the Jew, ask for a fitting maintenance from her husband ? Bosh is to pay an avania of one hundred piasters for troubling der! (No matter.) Bak ahloum!' (We shall see.)

Again the pacha looked with furtive and covered * Silk handkerchiefs.

gaze upon the fair young creature before him. His

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face moved not a muscle, but yet, with Turk-like that he really could sit in the divan no longer. The secrecy, his eyes watched every motion of the picture. cadi therefore took his place. Slowly and solemnly as She was young, and very pretty, as the wives of those he had been led there, the nefers now supported Aslan Osmanlis, whose station gives them power to choose, from the Hall of Audience. We followed, perfectly usually are. Her large dark eyes flashed with that satisfied with our Day at the Divan. brilliance which so fascinates one in the Turkish female; although to any man whose sympathies are at all right, it is painful to know, that to produce THE HISTORY OF THE FOUR KINGS. this strange brightness, she uses artificial and per- Who is there of us that has been at school who nicious means—the poisonous essence of belladonna. remembers not that terrible question in geometrical The cheek was pale and pure, and though so jealously progression beginning with 'One Sessa, an Indian,' the hidden beneath the misty folds of her yashmak, you black gentleman who invented the game of chess, and could easily see the beauty of every feature, and even demanded of his prince in recompense one grain of the pink spot in the centre of each cheek. The long wheat for the first square in the board, two for the sleeves of her feridje (cloak) had fallen back, thus second, three for the third, and so on, up to the value revealing her arms, which were delicately moulded, and of more than the royal possessions? It is to this stainless as newly sculptured marble. A wreath of celebrated person, it seems, that we are also indirectly pearls and flower-sprays confined part of her hair indebted for the game of whist. In the chess of behind; but much of it had been suffered to break Hindostan, Chaturaj-the four rajahs or kings—the free, and the long dark curls falling around her shoul- ingenious Sir William Jones discovers the germ of ders, formed a picturesque contrast to the pale loveli- that which delighted the heart of Mrs Sarah Battle ness of her complexion. A pretty little foot, incased more than ten centuries afterwards. In what manner, in its embroidered slipper, just peeped out from under and at what precise time, coloured cards took the place the folds of her large flowing shalwar (pantaloon) of of carved figures, and the whist-table elbowed out the pale yellow and violet silk.

chess-board, is not known; but a pack of Hindostanee She was of the highest rank, as has been said; and cards in the possession of the Royal Asiatic Society, I noticed that she began her petition very differently and presented to Captain Cromline Smith in 1815 by from any who had preceded her. She pronounced a a high-caste Brahmin, were declared by the donor to dignified Salâm Aleikoum!'(Peace be with you) to the be actually one thousand years old! 'Nor,' quoth the pacha, and then commenced her recital-while she Brahmin, 'can any of us now play at them, for they held up the forefinger of her right hand in a gesture of are not like our modern cards at all. Neither, indeed, pretty command, and emphasising any sentence of do they bear any remarkable resemblance to our own, special import by slowly moving it.

the pack consisting of no less than eight suits of My lord the pacha,' began she, 'I claim the protec- divers colours, the kings being mounted upon eletion of your authority against my husband. I'- phants, and the viziers, or second honours, upon horses,

*Inshal’lâh,' interrupted the pacha, a woman has tigers, and bulls. Moreover, there are other marks no right to dispute the wishes of her husband, unless by which the respective value of the common cards it be a case of devanitij (idiocy) or of scaradam may be distinguished, which would puzzle our club (cruelty). He is her lord and master, and knows all quidnuncs not a little-such as "a pine-apple in a things; and she is as bosh, and less than bosh (nothing, shallow cup,' and a 'something like a parasol without and less than nothing), in his sight.'

a handle, and with two broken ribs sticking through "Wal’lâh! and a devani (an idiot) and a scaradi the top.' (cruel man), too, he must be, or he would not try to In the Chinese dictionary called Ching-toye-tung, it oppose his wife's wants when her cause is just, and she is asserted that dotted cards were invented in the has done nought to offend him. I had a slave, my reign of Seun-ho, A.D. 1120, and devised for the lord, named Zaida Hanoum. She was mine before I amusement of his numerous wives: there are thirty married my husband, and he has no right to her. He cards in each of these packs, three suits of nine cards began to look upon her with unblushing face and each, and three single cards superior to all the others. saucy eyes, and I chose it not. I sent her away to the The name of one of the suits is Kew-ko-wan—that is house of my friend, Selima Hanoum, but he found her to say, nine ten thousands of kwan, strings of beads, out, and brought her back!'

shells, or money; and the titles of the other two are •Why did you not shew him the bottom of your equally concise and sensible. These cards, however, slipper ?' asked the pacha, much moved at this have an advantage over those of Hindostan in being injustice to the young wife.

oblong instead of circular; both, however, are remarkI did, my lord,' replied the Hanoum; "and once I able for being emblematic in a very high degree ; was minded to apply it to his ears, but I refrained !' some of the Hindoo packs illustrating the ten avatars

"Guzel, guzel !' (Very good, very good), replied the or incarnations of the deity Vishnu; and the so-called pacha. The cause must indeed be serious when a paper-tickets' of the Chinese typifying the stars, the wife can be suffered to apply her slipper to the ears of human virtues, and, indeed, almost anything you her husband! By your patience, I know that you are please. in the right-for such can always keep their temper. Cards do not appear to have been known in Europe I will send a script to your husband,' pursued the until towards the end of the fourteenth century. 'In pacha, as he saw the Hanoum taking out a well-filled the year 1379, writes Carelluyzo, was brought into purse. No wife shall be unjustly troubled by her Viterbo the game at cards, which comes from the husband's fancies whilst the Favourite of the Padishah country of the Saracens, and is with them called sits in judgment here!'

naib;' whence afterwards, perhaps, Jackanapes, Jack The purse was handed to the secretary, who in turn of Cards. In 1393, this entry occurs in the accounts handed it to the pacha.

of the treasurer of Charles VI. of France: 'Given to •I know not what the costs are,' said the arch young Jacquemin Gringonneur, painter, for three packs of Hanoum; “but I require no deductions from my gift. cards, gilt and coloured and variously ornamented for If any remains, let it go to the secretary, or any one the amusement of the king, fifty-six sols of Paris.' else in court who may choose it!'

The clergy, it seems, took to their quiet rubber, or, The Hanoum made a dignified salam-the pacha as I am afraid it was, to that ungenteel game all-fours, graciously returned it—and then she passed out of very speedily after this, for they were forbidden thesc court. This case disposed of, the pacha declared that little amusements by the synod of Langres so early he was so much fatigued with the duties of his office, I as 1404.

Card-making grew to be a regular trade in Germany he had better set about it at once, 'for when I towlde fourteen years after this, where it, as well as card- hyr that you determinde to begyn your jorney prepainting, seems to have been for some time carried on sently after Whitsontyd, she grew yntoo a grete rage, exclusively by females; the wood engraving of cards, begynnynge with Gods words, that she wolde sett you however, did not begin until some time afterwards. by the feete, and send another in your place yf you The pips were then very prettily imagined, the suits dalyed with hyr thus, for she wolde not be thus dalyed consisting of hearts, bells, acorns, and leaves. The withall.' James I. likewise played a good deal, but place of her majesty the queen was filled by a knight so sleepily, that he required somebody to hold his or superior officer; and it is to Italy, and not to cards for him. Germany or France, that the glory of giving place aux About the year 1660, heraldic cards were first introdames at all must be conceded. There was also- duced into England, the king of clubs being repreimagine it, slade of Major A.!-no ace whatever. By sented by the arms of the pope; of spades, by those 1420, gambling by means of cards had got to such a of the king of France; of diamonds, by those of the pitch as to provoke St Bernardin to preach against it king of Spain; and of hearts, by those of the king of at Bologna; and so eloquently, as to cause his hearers England. In 1679, a pack was published containing to make a fire in the public place, and throw all the the history of all the popish plots, excellently engraved cards in their possession into it-a proceeding which on copper plates, with very large descriptions under must have been enthusiastically applauded by the each card. Aspersers of this pack,' it is added by their Messrs De la Rue of that period. We doubt whether ingenious advertiser—that is, those who don't buy Mr Spurgeon now-a-days would produce an equal them, we suppose—'plainly shew themselves to be effect in St James's Street.

popishly affected.' In the books of the worshipful guild of cobblers, at The French, from whom we derive our ordinary Bamberg, there is a bye-law of 1491, which imposes a suits of diamond, heart, spade, and club-carreau, fine of half a pound of bees-wax, for the company's caur, pique, and trèfle -- were continually changing holy candle to burn at the altar of their patron saint, their court-cards, and representing on them all sorts upon any brother who, being excited by bad luck, of historical characters. In the earlier periods, should go so far as to throw the cards out of window. their kings were Charlemagne, Cæsar, Alexander, The signs upon Italian cards, which seem to have been and David, or Solomon, Augustus, Clovis, and Conthe first imported into England, were cups, swords, stantine; about all of whom and their followers, Pere money, and clubs; but in the third year of Edward IV., Daniel has the inost ingenious information to offer. their further importation was forbidden, and the home- Troops, says he, however brave and numerous, trade of card-making protected. Cards were played require to have prudent and experienced generals. by that time, we learn, in all places of worship'in The trèfle, a clover plant which abounds in the this country, which, however, simply means in the meadows of France, denotes that a chief ought always houses of all worshipful people, such as lords, knights, to encamp his army in a place where he may obtain and justices of the peace.

forage for his cavalry; piques and carreaux signify Henry VII. was a card-player; and there are not a magazines of arms which ought ever to be well stored few entries in that beggarly monarch's privy.purse -the carreau being a sort of heavy arrow shot from account of his majesty's little losings : the sly old a cross-bow, and which was so called from its head fellow never

seems to have won anything. His being squared (carré); cæurs, hearts, signified courage daughter, Margaret, at the age of fourteen, was found of both commanders and soldiers ; and so on to any by James IV. of Scotland-the first time he ever saw amount. her-in the act of playing cards; and it was most Whist was a popular game in England long before probably écarté, for he seems to have at once proposed it became fashionable. In 1664, the second edition to her, and she to have accepted him. He was himself of The Compleat Gamester has this passage: 'Ruff, a great card-player, and had delivered over to him and honours (by some called slam), and whist are at Melrose, on Christmas-night 1496, 'thirty-five games so common in England, in all parts thereof, unicornis, eleven French crowns, a ducat, a ridare, that every child almost of eight years hath a comand a leu'-in all forty-two pounds, to spend at petent knowledge in that recreation; and therefore I cards.

am more unwilling to speak anything more of them There was a sum regularly allotted to the Princess, than this, that there may be a great deal of art used afterwards queen, Mary, as pocket-money for this in dealing and playing at these games, which differ

especial purpose; the sums given her at a time for very little one from the other.' Another name for immediate disbursement ranging from twenty to forty this ancient game of 'ruff and honours' was 'whisk shillings, but one entry being so disgracefully low (for and swabbers, from which title, without doubt, was a princess) as 'two and tuppence.' It is probable that derived whist, and not, as is popularly believed, from her indifferent luck at this amusement may have the Irish whisht, ' be quiet.' The game never seems to contributed to the burning of not a few poor Christians have been played upon principle much before 1737, in later years. Mr Barrington is of opinion that her about the time that the famous treatise by Edmund Spanish alliance made games at cards much more Hoyle, Gent., was published by Thomas Osborne at universal in this country; and certainly, Spaniards Gray's Inn : it was, however, long before this the pecuwere early votaries at the shrine of the Four Kings. liar recreation of the clergy and country gentlemen, Cards were especially forbidden to the troops on board who left ombre to the ladies, piquet to the bloods, of the Armada by the Duke of Medina ; but we do and all-fours, put, cribbage, and lanterloo to the lower not know what authority Mr Samuel Rogers had for orders. making the companions of Columbus

Since then, as we know, the history of the Four

Kings has never lacked students. It is probable Round at Primero sit, a whiskered band,

that during the last hundred years more money has So Fortune smiled, careless of sea or land.

been spent in the encounters of these paper monarchs Queen Elizabeth liked cards as well as her sister did, and their armies than in all the real campaigns which and, when she lost her royal money, seems gener- have been entered upon in the same period by fleshally to have lost her royal temper also. Instead of and-blood sovereigns; nor, indeed, in so loyal a cause, the white malice which Mary indulged in, however, has life itself been spared, as many duels sprung from Queen Bess did but blurt out a harmless oath or two. cards can testify. Moreover, not a few fanatic persons Sir Robert Carey tells his father Lord Blunsdon, who have absolutely died in harness with cards in their is procrastinating about his journey to Barwyke, that hands; such as the great Bath player Lookup, who

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