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well as a useful supplement to what we have written bath than delf, it must be prepared with a proper before.

coating on the inside before using. Stoneware is not Our system is based upon the idea of employing liable to this objection, not being porous; but it is only such apparatus as may be found in almost any very easy to prepare the foot-bath with a composition

made as follows: inhabited house, as being both the safest and most economical; and of giving such plain directions for

Take two parts-say ounces-of resin, one of yellow manipulation, as still further to remove the difficulties bees-wax, two of finely pulverised (washed) yellow which would deter the domestic practitioner from ochre; beat these together in a pipkin; let your bath applying to the art of silvering. We omit all scientific be quite dry, and give it several thin coats of the

mixture with a brush. This will render also common explanations here, and come at once to the practical crockery, and even wooden or tin vessels, as good for details.

the purpose as delf; but care must be taken to renew To prepare the silver bath, chloride of silver is the coating of tin vessels, if it should happen to be necessary. The best general direction for obtaining rubbed off. An ingenious person might make an this is to purchase the crystallised nitrate of silver, the excellent bath of sheet gutta-percha, but we have not price of which is now more moderate than formerly; tried it ourselves. Also our attention has lately been dissolve it in water, just sufficient, in a decanter, and

drawn to an array of earthenware vessels of the comthen fill up the decanter with strong salt and water. baths, if properly prepared with the above composition,

mon glazed sort, which would answer admirably as This will precipitate the chloride in a white sediment. As this ware is very cheap, we should be disposed Let it settle, and carefully pour off the water. The to recommend its use, so prepared, for all the purposes same result, so far, may be obtained a little cheaper, for which a bath is required on the large scale. It is by dissolving bits of old silver, or small silver coins, best to have plenty of room for the complete immersion in nitric acid, and precipitating the chloride from the of large objects. solution as above. For this purpose, the acid must not

A practical difficulty is, how to suspend the articles be chemically pure; and it is best to dilute it with in the liquid, when they are large; and we shall water-about i of water to 4 of acid—and put, say overcome it.

endeavour to describe a contrivance by which to one ounce of silver to four ounces of the diluted acid in

Supposing the bath established on a shelf or table. a large bottle or decanter ; and apply a little heat by Set up at each side of it an upright piece of board, placing it in a sauce-pan of hot water. As a certain secured to the table by an 'angle bit of wood or tin, effervescence takes place at times, it is well to have some inches higher than the bath itself. Each piece good room in the bottle, to prevent loss by overflowing. should have a hole, through which a strong iron or Avoid the fumes which arise from it, and let it stand brass wire may be passed, so as to overhang the bath. until all bubbling from the metal has ceased. If all pile, either by cords or as follows: take a common

From this wire, at one end, suspend the tube of the the silver is not dissolved, add more acid, and so on lamp chimney-glass, and tie strongly a bit of wet until it is so; then fill up with salt and water, to bladder on one end of it; tie to the other end, outside, obtain the chloride, which must be washed six or a strong slip of tin or zinc five or six inches long; eight times with fresh water. We think, on the whole, bend this so as to hook on to the wire, and allow the that the former of these methods—that with the pur- bladder-end to be immersed, some inches at least, chased nitrate—is, in general, preferable ; but, being in the liquid bath. The zinc of the pile itself should accustomed to it, we ourselves adopt the latter method. be suspended, of course, in this glass tube, and should An ounce of silver dissolved, we consider about nearly to the bottom of the tube, and to hook on also

consist of strips of sheet zinc, so long as to go down equivalent to one and a half ounce of bought nitrate; to the iron wire; or shorter bits may be hung from and the chloride from either will take twelve to a brass or copper wire, which should itself be twisted sixteen ounces of yellow prussiate of potash, and round the principal wire. It may be well to add, that about three or four common bottles of water. They the glass tube should be nearly filled with salt and should be put together as soon as possible, and boiled water. gently in a clean tin vessel, for about twenty minutes

It will be seen that the main wire is thus in conto half an hour. Extreme accuracy in these details is nection with the pile ; and that any object hung from not important. The object is to get potash enough to it into the liquid bath will be so as well. It is only dissolve the silver ; but no harm is done by having is to be plated; and for this its strength and position

necessary, then, to suspend by wires from it whatever more; and, when desired, an ounce of silver will make afford great facilities. It must be recollected that all a gallon of bath, as well as a smaller quantity. the wires to be used should be kept free from rust,

When the boiling is over, the liquid must be allowed which may easily be done by using a little sand or to settle in pigs or bottles, and the clear liquor poured emery paper. off for use. We recommend keeping it in bottles. The

It is important to understand the principle on which dregs must be put together, a little water added, the regulation of the electricity depends. allowed to settle again, and poured off; and a third upon the relations to each other of three different

The effect produced in a given time will depend washing of the dregs may be made in this way, to agencies: these are-the surface of zinc exposed in prevent loss of silver; and all articles should be the pile, the strength of the saline solution in the carefully washed before being returned to domestic tube, and the metallic strength of the bath.

By attending to one of these only, we can retain In a former article, we entered slightly upon the entire command over the whole process—that is, by important subject of the bath itself; we suggested a exposing more or less zinc in the tube, we can regulate common delf foot-bath, such as are found in most inch wide, we should say that a slip of four inches,

the electric current. Taking the slips of zinc at one houses; and since then, we have used one ourselves immersed in the tube, will suffice for a gallon of with great satisfaction. But we found that the liquid bath ; and so on in proportion either way. One tube penetrated the delf, the salt rising in crystals on the will do for several gallons, but it may be necessary outside ; so that, while we know nothing better as a to use several bits of zinc. The usual fault of

use.

beginners is, that they go too fast, using too much ware is of fine design and pattern, and it is a great electricity, when employing the simple pile. We pity to allow it to be lost. This may be a good place have found, on further trials, that on the principle we to observe that servants appear to be in the habit are now explaining, the current may be so weakened of grossly misusing plated ware. We have seen handthat the work may be left for many hours without some ware, which looked as if all the silver had been injury, with this as well as with Daniell's pile. Thus, rubbed off with sand or coal-ashes. Housekeepers we should expose, not four, but one inch of zinc per should remember that it is not enough that plategallon in such a case; and if, after leaving it all night, powders should not contain mercury; they should there was much deadness in the plating done, we also be carefully prepared in impalpable powdershould expose less another time; but we should not say, one part of tripoli to two of whiting-and very venture to leave it so long without first ascertaining, sparingly used. If plate is well washed with soap by practice, what four, five, or six hours would effect. and water, and wiped dry, a very little cleaning with It must not be forgotten that, when a stronger current leather and powder will suffice. It may also be useful is used, the objects should be taken out frequently, to observe that, in cases where a little copper appears and rubbed clean and bright. It is impossible to say on the angles of plated goods—and it may not be beforehand low often; but it may easily be known by possible to replate them—they may be used by touchobserving when the surface assumes the dead-white ing the coppery parts with a little of the mercurial or frosted look.

liquid described above. A word about metals and their preparation. We Such is the famous silver solution,' sold at about gave, formerly, a mode of making the acidulated mer two shillings the ounce bottle by vendors in London curial preparation. It may also be made by purchasing and Paris, at a profit of about 500 per cent., if not a little nitrate of mercury at the chemist's, and dis- more. Its effect is only for a day or two, but it can solving it in water, adding a few drops of nitric acid. be laid on again in a few minutes; and when 'made at When enough of acid is added, the liquid gives a home, costs almost nothing, and so may have its place bright silvery colour to any metal on which it is laid. as an economic agent. It is the result of our experience, that, while the substitutes, known under various names, may be

*IN REJEMBRANCE OF DOUGLAS JERROLD.' plated thinly without this preparation-and, of course, require renewal frequently-it would be impossible Ar the death of Mr Jerrold in June last, it was to lay on them a strong coat of silver without it. It understood that his surviving family were left in a is, therefore, in our opinion an invaluable substance condition far short of penury, but which yet scarcely in connection with our art, and its cost is quite reached that pitch of comfort in which the friends and inappreciable.

With this preparation, any one of the metals alluded admirers of the deceased were anxious to see them to may be plated to any thickness desired; but we placed. In these circumstances, Mr Charles Dickens still object strongly to the use of albata and all the came forward, and, with the assistance of a number of inferior sorts. Their points and edges will, sooner literary and other friends, gave a series of amateur or later, come through even the thick and expensive theatrical performances, readings, and lectures, as he coating given by the great houses, and then the delicately said, “in remembrance of Douglas Jerrold.' contrast of colour spoils the whole. By using the These were so heartily patronised by the public, that best nickel silver or argentine, the goods will wear before the end of August two thousand pounds had out evenly to the last; but for the benefit of those who been realised and expended in the purchase of a possess albata-a veritable lucus a non lucendo—and do not wish to sell it as old metal, and purchase the government annuity for Mrs Jerrold and her unbetter sorts for plating upon, we have recently expe- married daughter. rimented upon the subject of nickelisation, under the Taking this pleasant little affair in connection with impression that if a strong coating of nickel itself is the similar exertions made by Mr Thackeray and given in the first instance, it will, at small cost, add others not long since in behalf of the widow of Angus greatly to the durability of the plated goods after- B. Rench, we feel prompted to remark the increased wards. After various trials, we have succeeded in our power and influence of literary men in our day, and object: our difficulty was to obtain a good adhesion, the greatly improved mutual feeling now existing for the precipitation of nickel from a solution of one of its salts is easy enough. The salt employed is amongst them. Forty years ago, there was neither the 'ammoniacal sulphate of protoxide of nickel, this power for good, nor the inclination so to use it. dissolved in water, to which we add about a tenth of In an earlier age, the descendants eren of a Milton silver bath. In this way, and by not using too strong had to be sought for after a few years in the haunts of a current, we have obtained a good and adhesive humble life. Now, a Dickens or a Thackeray comes coating of the nickel. Its use, previously to plating, in like an angelic messenger, and with the loving must remove, so far, the objection to the yellower heart of one, to re-illume the desolated hearth of their metals. We use the above mercurial preparation less fortunate literary confrères. Nothing, we believe, even for brass and copper; not that it is necessary could be further from the hearts of these men than for adhesion, but we think that it preserves the purity of the bath, and prevents the metals being dissolved the desire to see their acts of this kind noted; but when first immersed. Of course, the nickelised goods it has appeared to us that the Jerrold Remembrance must be prepared in the same way before plating. in particular was too remarkable a feature of literary

We would remind our readers that vast quantities life in our day to be passed over in silence. We, after of handsome Sheffield ware are annually broken up for all, use not a word of mere praise; we desire to raise the sake of the metals it contains; the

copper surfaces

no roll of applause. being quite exposed, while the silver edges are still Dickens, that, in addition to all the results of his

We only congratulate Mr perfect. We have at present a really beautiful cruetstand in use, which we purchased some months ago, in well-earned literary fame, he can reckon on the power that state, for the price of the bottles, the seller throw- of effecting so much good to his fellow-creatures. ing in the frame as a bonus. It may have taken five or six shillings worth of silver to give it a very strong Printed and Published by, W. and R. CHAMBERS, 47 Pater. coating, as it is a large article; and, with fair usage,

noster Row, Londox, and 339 High Street, EDINBURGH.

sold by WILLIAM ROBERTSON, 23 Upper Sackville Street, Dublin, it will now last a very long time. Most of the Sheffield and all Booksellers.

Also

[graphic]

Science and Irts.

CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBER S.

No. 197.

SATURDAY, OCTOBER 10, 1857.

PRICE 11d.

than those which treat of the manners and customs of IN THE NORTH AMONG THE HERRINGS.

the inhabitants of the great deep. It was only the Toe herring-fishery of Scotland presents aspects so other day our savans decided the parr question, a picturesque and exciting, that from our own personal well-known branch of the great salmon controversy; observation and experience, we would cordially recom- and now we are in the very midst of speculation as to mend a view of its doings to the used-up: to any Sir the natural history and proper habitat of the principal Charles Coldstream, dying for a new 'sensation,' we member of the clupea family. Only a few years ago, would at once say: 'Go to Wick!' Although there we still believed in wonderful theories as to the sources are other large fishing-stations both in Scotland and whence we were supplied with this multitudinous fish. England, such as Dunbar and Yarmouth, Wick is the We took it for granted, that the herrings were natives true herring metropolis, the place where this capital of far-away seas, and generated amid the icebergs of fish with its belongings is the one staple article of com- Greenland ; and that, leaving their frozen home, in one merce, and where, during the season, a nightly fleet of gigantic shoal of hundreds of millions of fish, they about twelve hundred boats, upon which some ten turned their snouts to the south, and reaching Britain, thousand human beings are dependent, proceeds to sea delivered themselves up for the benevolent purpose of to engage in the lottery of herring-fishing. Both at feeding the people of these islands.

Even now, we Dunbar and Yarmouth, there are large fleets engaged know little more than this: although we suspect the in the fishery ; but these places having been caught herring to be a native of our own seas—that it comes in the network of our railways, the produce of their into shallow water at certain seasons to spawn; and, boats is rapidly whirled away, fresh from the bosom having fulfilled this great purpose of nature, that it of the deep, to the mighty metropolis. It is at Wick again retires to the nearest deep water. It is at this alone we can see the process of the cure in all its period we commence our onset; the 'full fish' being completeness; and here we find other sights and the most esteemed in the market; and here we must sounds of interest and excitement besides the herring notice the strange anomaly, that during the spawning drave and the death-cheep of the fish.

season we protect our salmon, and avoid all kinds On the sea-beaten cliffs that frame the coast, are of white fish, which is precisely the period we choose traces of mighty convulsions of nature, and striking for rushing upon the herrings, and destroying them geological phenomena stud the shore. Further north, in myriads. and easy of access from hence, there are the wonderful As an instance of the very limited knowledge we islands of Shetland, the primitive home of a primitive possess of the natural history of even our most people, a hundred and fifty miles from the mainland, favourite fishes, we may state that at the recent and nearly a thousand from London. And there, far meeting of the British Association, a member, who away in the living waters of the North Atlantic, are to read an interesting paper on the Sea-fisheries of be seen men who perform wondrous feats on the face Ireland,' introduced specimens of a substance which of the rocks—fowlers who peril their lives for the sake the Irish fishermen considered to be the spawn of of a few eggs or a handful of feathers. Let the blasé the turbot ; stating that wherever this substance was Sir Charles bowl over to Shetland, and view men hang- found, trawling was forbidden; the supposed spawn ing to the slippery and crumbling rocks by their toes being in reality a kind of sponge, with no other and fingers, the ravening waters surging hundreds relation to fish except as being indicative of beds of of feet below them, and the mighty eagle flapping mollusca, the abundance of which marks that fish is his wings round their head: and then let him say, if plentiful. It follows that the stoppage of the trawl he can, there is nothing in it.' Some gentlemen who on the grounds where this kind of squid is found, is possess yachts have the pluck to venture among the the result of sheer ignorance, and causes the loss in all icebergs of the high latitudes; and there are hundreds likelihood of great quantities of the best white fish. who annually 'do' the fiords of Norway, the isles We have called the herring-fishery a lottery, and it of Greece, the Mediterranean, and Mount Vesuvius ; will presently appear how it deserves this character. but there be few who know thoroughly our own land some years the take is very large, and at other times of the mountain and the flood, its scenery and employ- it does little more than pay expenses. The present ments; who have fished for piltachs in Shetland, or season has been considerably under the usual average fowled on lone St Kilda, ay, or seen Wick in the at all the stations in Scotland. This, coupled with herring-season.

the fact of many places being now barren of fish that Of the many chapters which compose the romance in former times yielded a good supply, has given rise of natural history, there are none more interesting to an opinion that we are killing our goose with the

golden eggs. The originator and principal advocate of rewarded with fish; but most of the others had taken up this view is Mr John Cleghorn, who, being resident in their stations, and their partially furled sails denoted the place where our greatest fishing is carried on, has that the great business of the night had commenced : in had the most ample opportunities for observation and these the men having crept under the sail, were already research. The points of Mr Cleghorn’s doctrine are the comfortably asleep, their boats drifting with the tide,

and their trains filling rapidly with the glittering following: 1. That the herring is a native of the waters treasures of the deep. Now it became our turn; and in which it is found, and never migrates. 2. That having selected a spot—a rather difficult task amid distinct races of it exist at different places. 3. That the crowd of boats—we commenced our labours. twenty-seven years ago, the extent of netting employed Away flew net after net, over the side, till a train in the capture of the fish was much less than what is was formed, like some great sea-serpent, floating in now used, while the quantity of fish caught was, gener- our wake-the corks and bladders dancing up and down ally speaking, much greater. 4. There were fishing- almost as far as the eye could reach; in fact, our train stations some years ago which are now exhausted; a there could not have been less than 1000 miles of

must have been fully a mile long-and on that night steady increase having taken place in their produce netting floating around us. Having hauled down our up to a certain point, then violent fluctuations, then sail, we waited patiently for some token of success; final extinction. 5. The races of herrings nearest our but wearied at last, after an interval of about four large cities have disappeared first; and in districts hours, we hauled our nets, and were rewarded with where the tides are rapid, as among islands, and in one solitary fish! Although much disheartened, we lochs where the fishing-grounds are circumscribed, the resolved to try again ; but before doing so, we pulled fishings are precarious and brief; while, on the other up and down among our neighbours, peering into hand, extensive sea-boards having slack tides, with fortunate. At

last we found some with fish in them;

their nets, to ascertain whether they had been more little accommodation for boats, are surer and of longer and again we threw out our marking-buoy-over went continuance as fishing-stations. 6. From these pre- the first sinker, and away flew the net, breadth after mises it follows that the extinction of districts, and breadth, till again our whole train was floating far the fluctuations in the fisheries generally, are attribut- upon the sea. Fortunate neighbours were by this able to overfishing. In 1818, with 2,000,000 square time hauling in and filling their boats with herrings. yards of netting, we caught 116,000 barrels; and this Hark! in the distance there is a mighty noise, as year in Wick, with nets to the amount of 22,000,000 if ten thousand thunder-showers were rattling down square yards, we have only some 82,000 barrels. Upon on the ocean; and see, the distant flashing of the the whole, Mr Cleghorn's statements deserve attention; waters—they are bright with light, and vivid with life and under present circumstances, the controversy may - for a 'spot' of the herring-shoal has risen to the be expected to go on with warmth. 'Herrings,' says surface, and the waves are flashing in their brilliant one of the belligerent journals, will very soon be as phosphorescence. A stone is thrown from a boat right rare a fish as the salmon, and found only on the tables into the centre of the fiery tumult, and in a moment of the wealthy.'

the spot has disappeared; the light has vanished, and The information which even our most intelligent the waters are again dark and still. It was a brief fishermen can impart as to the natural history of the but beautiful sight; an ample reward of itself for the fish is so scanty, as to be of no practical value. They night's labour. go out in their boats to catch them, not to observe Not one of us had spoken during this little scene, and note their habits. Of course, they have in but at last one of the Harris people, taking the general acquired a certain knowledge of the places pipe from his moutlı, exclaimed : Och, och, but she'll where their prey most do congregate; but even in get plenty of fish the next haul!' And he proved this respect, the falling in with the shoal is quite a to be a true prophet. At the next haul, we had great chance affair. The usual mode of determining the luck, and the fish came splashing over the side of the whereabouts of the fish is very primitive, consisting boat as thick as hailstones. It took us two good hours principally of observations as to where the gulls are to haul in the nets, and then we had time to look roosting. If these are found high on the rocks, round, and observe the operations of our neighbours. then the herrings are supposed to be out at sea; if

, The sea for miles around was one mart of industry; on the other hand, the birds are low down, or at the and as the early village cock in distant barn-yards water's edge, then the shoal is thought to be close was proclaiming the advent of morn, the fleet was on inshore. However, our business for the present is the move, and all making barbourwards. Some, high with the actual modus operandi, and a night or two out of the water, took the lead, and dashed gallantly at sea, and a long and interested gaze at the land home with great rapidity-empty. Others, deep sunk operations, have made us somewhat familiar with the in the sea, heavy laden with their miraculous draughts, subject.

crept slowly along, joyously dipping an occasional oar It was about half-past four when we left the har- to speed them on their way. Such were the results of bour of Wick, a little speck upon the waves, dancing the Lottery. The herrings, it would appear, do not along with 1100 other little specks, all on the same swim in an unbroken mass, but in tribes or nationserrand. When we got fairly out of the harbour, the or at least in regiments and divisions—and the luckless question was how to turn, to the east or the west; boat between any two of these aggregations, fishes after a consultation, we bore away to the right hand only the empty waters. One of our neighbours had -why I cannot tell-our brown sail well filled, and not even a single fish, whilst another, more fortunate, our boat in full career before the spanking breeze. was laden to the gunwale. About six o'clock, we Soon we passed the little harbour of Sarclet; and in made the harbour, and found hundreds of boats already about an hour and a half were off Lybster, streams berthed, and commencing operations for landing their of boats pouring like bees out of both of these places. freight. Tacking about, we made a run back to what we We are now at a point where the herring ceases to thought a suitable place; and as the sun in gilded be an object of natural history, and becomes an article majesty was retiring into the bosom of the waters, we of commerce; and we must, as we have said, resort of commenced preparations for the shooting of our nets. necessity to Wick, in order to see all the business operaA few cautious persons were still rowing anxiously tions of the fishery brought into a focus. Here, during about, not inclined to be at the trouble of shooting the heat of the season, that is, from the end of July to till they saw whether or not their neighbours were the first week in September, when the local fishermen

are assisted by hired hands, are congregated all who their homes. This occupation being of the nature have an interest in the fishing; and the coup d'æil is of piece-work, is very lucrative, and these nymphs of full of aniination. The herring fleet, when the weather the herring-trough, being able to realise considerable is favourable, begins to move out of harbour about sums of money, are among the gayest belles of the four o'clock, and, as it is some hours before the whole town; but when posted round the trough, dipping fleet are dispersed on the waters, before this is accom- their brawny arms deep among the scaly treasures, plished perhaps some are already returning laden with seizing each a fish, ripping it up, heaving it into a fish. And again, it sometimes happens, that as the basket, and throwing the viscera into a box, at the last boats are coming in, those who like to start early rate of thirty a minute, they form a group easier are pushing away for a new campaign. From six to imagine than describe. It is Saturday, and the o'clock A.M. till about three in the afternoon, the quays are thronged with carts, busy carrying away bustle is at the thickest; and strangers visiting the the nets to be spread out and dried on the neighhillside which overlooks the harbour, will see the sight bouring fields, and there they remain till Monday, in all its glory.

there being no fishing either on Saturday or Sunday Viewing the harbour and quays from this vantage- nights. During the season, the brae of Pulteneyground, which commands the greater portion of the town, which adjoins Wick, is crowded with specscene, the spectacle is striking, as all the hurry and tators looking down on the animated scene below, bustle incidental to the cure is here concentrated. and in the afternoon, watching the going out of the Scores of boats are already in, and the various crews feet to sea. have begun the process of carrying ashore the fish. The commerce in herring is different from most Men clad in picturesque oilskin leggings and original- other kinds of trading, inasmuch as the whole of the looking overcoats, and boots that might be coffins to goods are bought months before they are brought to ordinary humanity, are busy with great wooden spades market. In some of the German or Prussian ports, shovelling the herrings into the baskets, four of which there lives a merchant whose business consists in make a cran. These are rapidly carried-for every sending salted herrings into the far interior of the thing is done in a desperate hurry-by the gangs of continent, where they are luxuries which sometimes hired men to the gutting-places, which are of the dimen- only the rich are able to purchase: he knows the sions of an ordinary-sized room, but with low sides- markets which are open to him, and the number of and the glittering contents of the baskets poured in barrels he can readily dispose of. He is generally a like a torrent; then a person who is on the watch to person of some capital, and able to advance money keep an account of what is brought, rushes like a to the curers when required. He corresponds with madman to a barrel containing salt, and spreading them, and bargains for a certain number of barrels out the herrings with a spade, scatters large handfuls at a certain price; and it is these curers who come in over them. If the take has been large, this goes on between the merchant and the fisherman to deal for for hours ; the quay-roads then become ankle-deep in the green fish.' Then the fisherman, having made his brine, the men are dripping herring-water all the way bargain, which is generally so much per cran, and a from the boats to the troughs; and the atmosphere is bounty to each boat in addition, proceeds to suppleladen with the wersh perfume of the fresh fish. Upon the ment his regular crew, which may consist only of arrival of each boat, the same routine has to be gone himself and his two sons, by hiring two or three of through, till all the fish have been brought on shore. the sturdy men who annually visit Wick from the By this time, the operation of gutting and packing is islands for the purpose of assisting in the fishery. in full force, and constitutes a highly curious element These hired men' receive perhaps L.5 or L.6 for the in the picture.

season, besides lodging and food; and as to bounties For some time before, we had seen lounging about and prices, they vary considerably. Thus one of the the curing-yards, and wandering among the piles of local papers informs us, that the bounties paid last empty barrels, a rather incongruous but not uninter- year ranged from L.20 to L.30 and upwards, besides esting portion of the assemblage: groups of Highland perquisites. Those given for the present season's girls dressed in white short-gowns and black petticoats, fishing, we were told, varied from L.30 to L.50, in and with uncovered hair in smooth and glittering addition to 14s. and upwards, per cran. The combraids. They had a bright independent look, which plement of fish agreed to be delivered to the curer, was very piquant, and seemed to observe, with a sort provided they are caught, is 200 crans. All beyond of careless curiosity, the coarse labours of the men. That quantity is at the fisherman's disposal, and the But where are they now? A sound as if of the slap curer generally enters into a new contract for the of Harlequin's sword, and short-gowns, petticoats, surplus.' There is generally an influx of about five or and girls are suddenly transmogrified into veritable six thousand of the hardy islanders of Skye, or the witches, so withered and so wild in their attire,' Lewis, accompanied by numerous female relations, that we start almost in terror, wondering what part who find employment at the troughs. The bargains they are to play in the drama. We have not long with curers are made, perhaps, at the close of one to wait, however, for they are at once seized with the season for the next. The curer has to bring home tarentular phrensy of the men, and fling themselves the billet-wood, get it sawn up into staves-for headlong into their business. The operations performed which purpose there are several water and steam mills by them are indeed carried on with singular speed and at Wick--and then have it converted into barrels, dexterity. Yonder woman with the blood-bespattered of which many hundreds have to be kept in stock. visage, a very fiend incarnadined, guts a herring every Then he is obliged to have on hand a large stock of two seconds; and her neighbour at the barrel, when salt. A staff of coopers is also necessary to make up kept well supplied with fish, packs it in the regula- the barrels, and to head and hoop them when they are tion style in eleven minutes : that is, she rouses the filled with fish, and have the various parcels ready to fish in a large tub, takes them out in handfuls, and be examined and branded by the officer of the Board then arranges them in mathematical order in the of Fisheries; after which they are ready for shipment barrel, sprinkling a portion of salt on each layer. And to the various home and continental markets. so they proceed till the trough is at last emptied; and The scenes presented, even at our smaller fishingthen they forthwith resume their natural shape and stations in the herring-season, are well worth seeing; costume; and with their white short-gowns, black but to view the great picture in perfection, requires petticoats, and braided hair, and with the flush of a visit to Wick, or a tour of the Moray Firth, where exercise and triumph on their cheeks and in their there are also a great number of harbours for the eyes, turn their backs upon the scene and return to fisheries. Let tourists take our advice, and spend a

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