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agricultural teachers, farmers, land-stewards, &c., such The second class, who board and lodge at their instruction in the science and practice of agriculture own expense, are admitted on the payment of a as will qualify them for the proper discharge of their two-guinea entrance-fee, which is expended in the duties. The farm contains about 180 acres; and with purchase of agricultural books for the library. They a view of exemplifying the most approved systems of are required to perform their share in all the ordinary culture, various rotations of cropping are followed upon labour of the farm; to attend punctually with the separate divisions of it.' The system of house-feeding intern pupils all the lectures, and are amenable like cattle is pursued both summer and winter. "The the others to all the rules and regulations of the instiarrangements,' says the prospectus, 'for affording the tution. There is no time specified as the period of pupils as large an amount of information as possible training for this latter class of pupils. upon every branch of the business of farming, including The number of pupils receiving instruction in the dairy-husbandry, the fattening of cattle, the breeding Albert Institution in 1855 was ninety, all of whom and rearing of different kinds of live-stock, the various were supported by the state. To systematise the operations of field-culture, and the permanent improve- labour and the study, the entire number is formed ment of the soil, are such as to place within their reach into two divisions, A and B.
Their time is apporthe opportunity of becoming acquainted with the prac- tioned as follows, during the summer half-year: All tical details of every department of agriculture.' The the pupils rise at five o'clock; half an hour is training institution is situated on the farm, the build allowed them to dress and say prayers; and another ings comprising dormitories, lecture and school room half-hour is employed in feeding and cleaning the for seventy-five pupils, dining-hall, museum, library stock, and working in the yard and on the farm. They and laboratory, a comprehensive range of farm-offices, then wash, dress, and prepare for study, for which and suitable apartments for the various officials and another half-hour is allowed. An hour and a half servants. The chief supervision of the entire estab- is spent in the schoolroom, and another hour is spent lishment devolves upon the superintendent, Thomas in listening to the lecture. This brings the time down Kirkpatrick, M.D. ; and the practical working of to nine o'clock, which is the breakfast-hour. Half an the farm is carried out by the pupils, under the hour having sufficed for the morning meal, class A superintendence of an agriculturist, who resides on departs to make preparation for construing Milton, or the premises, assisted by a land-steward. A practical solving a problem of Euclid; while class B proceeds gardener instructs the pupils in horticulture; and to don its working-robes, and gather up its rakes, instruction in the usual branches of a good English hoes, mattocks, or spades. By ten o'clock, these education, together with land-surveying, levelling, and preparations are expected to be complete: A descends mapping, is imparted by two competent literary into the schoolroom, and B marches into the fields. teachers. Two sessional courses of lectures are de- For four hours, A handles the pencil and the pen, and livered annually on the following subjects: Animal evolves theories; while, for the same length of time, B physiology and pathology; botany and vegetable phy- manfully wields the various implements of husbandry, siology; chemistry and geology ; practical agriculture; and carries out these theories into practice. At two and horticulture. The pupils perform, under super- o'clock, both classes are considered fairly to have vision, the whole labours of the farm, such as drainage earned their dinner-the one by the efforts of its brain, operations, feeding and cleaning the horses, cattle, the other by the sweat of its brow. An hour is occupied sheep, pigs, &c.
at the dining-table—for slow eating is the wholesome To this excellent institution there are two classes of rule of Glasnevin, at the expiration of which, A accompupils admitted. One is maintained entirely at the panies B on to the farm, where both work together public expense, and consists of young men intending until six o'clock. At this hour, they return, and to become land-stewards or farmers; the other is com- prepare for study. Preparation is completed by halfposed of literary teachers qualifying themselves for the past six, when they enter the schoolroom and engage conduct of agricultural schools.
together in study until half-past eight. Supper is The prospective land-steward or farmer is admitted then served, and half an hour is consumed over it. on the condition that he has acquired at one of the Another half-hour is devoted to the feeding and cleanminor national agricultural, or one of the elementary ing of stock. At half-past nine, the pupils enter their national schools, such literary attainments as will dormitories. For devotional exercises and preparations enable him to read correctly any passage in the Fourth for bed, three-quarters of an hour are allowed, at the Book of Lessons; to write legibly, facilely, and correctly end of which time they are all snugly ensconced from dictation any passage selected from the Third in the blankets, and the lights are turned out. So end Book of Lessons; to recognise the parts of speech, and the duties of the day, which is a type of every day parse easy short sentences in grammar; to define during the summer half-year, the duties of class A of correctly geographical technical terms, and to know course alternating with the duties of B. In winter, the general outlines of the map of the world, and the the pupils rise at six o'clock, and work till dusk. boundaries, rivers, counties, and chief towns of Ireland. With regard to the literary instruction at the instiHe must also be able to repeat the arithmetical tables tution, it may be stated that the four hours from ten correctly, and to work with speed and accuracy the to two are devoted to the study of the usual branches elementary rules of arithmetic, and, besides, have a of an English education, and that the hours in the knowledge of fractions. Bookkeeping he must likewise morning and evening at which both sections attend understand, so far as to know the nature and use of in the schoolroom, are devoted to the reading of agria cash-account;' and in geometry he must have an cultural books, and in preparing notes on the lecture acquaintance at least with the first book of Euclid. subjects. Drawing and singing are taught for an hour If he is able to do all this, and can produce satis- on four evenings in the week, and surveying is taught factory certificates as to his moral character, and can to the advanced pupils three evenings in the week, and prove by the testimony of a doctor that he is free from also from half-past three to half-past five o'clock every disease, he is admitted, and boarded and lodged for two Friday afternoon. years, to all the privileges of the institution, provided The food is plain, wholesome, and notwithstanding he has attained the age of seventeen. The literary the elasticity of young farmers' stomachs, ample. teachers are admitted on the condition that they have General rules and regulations are laid down for the been previously trained in the literary department of observance of the pupils, in which punctuality and the national schools, and are able to produce satisfac- prompt obedience to the orders of the officers are tory testimonials of character. Their period of training strictly insisted upon. They are required to cultivate extends only to one year.
habits of cleanliness and neatness ; to wear slippers
within doors, and school-coats at study, but to the writers may be somewhat prejudiced in favour divest themselves of both before they go outside. No of the schools, there is, after every deduction on unnecessary noise is permitted inside the building, that account, ample evidence of their beneficial charand smoking and the use of spirituous liquors are acter. An outcry has recently been raised against the strictly prohibited. The principle of meum and tuum schools on account of their expense. Their total cost is rigorously adhered to, no pupil being permitted to per annum is, according to Dr Kirkpatrick, the agriwear or injure any article the property of another;' cultural inspector, L.7000, a sum comparatively trifling and any pupil who carelessly injures or mislays any considering the advantages accruing from them. It is article belonging to the institution, is required to bear to be hoped that the commissioners will not listen to the expense of repairing or replacing it. Regard- the cry for their abolition, but that they will rather ing religious instruction as of the greatest value, make greater exertions to establish others. the neglect of attendance on Sunday worship, and of other religious duties, is regarded as a serious offence. Intimacy with the servants in the institution
A FEW WORDS ABOUT EELS. is prohibited, as is also undue intercourse with per- No inhabitant of the deep has attracted more notice, sons living in the immediate vicinity of the farm; from its natural character and habits, than the eel. It and also, unfortunately for those who have tastes and is associated in our minds with our earliest attempts ambitions in common with M. Soyer, admission into to gain a knowledge of the gentle art;' and there are the culinary department cannot be obtained without few persons who have not some lively recollections of the authority of the officers. There is also a strict their fishing exploits in securing this slippery and rule with regard to books and newspapers. 'It is not permitted to become a member of any political society, troublesome customer. It is not at all improbable nor to take part at any meeting of a sectarian charac- that the serpentine form of the eel may have added ter. Newspapers, books, and periodicals of a political to the singular interest which has attached to it, or polemical character, are prohibited; also discussions particularly since the commencement of the Christian on these subjects.' Yard-officers are, in their turn, era. Its resemblance to the serpent tribe has, no appointed to attend to the stock, and keep the farm- doubt, tended to deepen the dramatic power and yard and offices clean ; and in this, as we have seen, interest of many legends about this fish, which are they are assisted by the entire class, morning and current both on the continent and in this country. night, Sundays and holidays excepted. Each pupil is Respecting the generation of the eel, there have called upon in turn to take charge of a horse, which been the wildest and most ridiculous notions. One he cleans and litters under the direction of an ex- ancient author supposed that eels were born of the perienced ploughman. Such is the process by which mud ; another, that they were produced from par. young peasants are transformed into intelligent farmers ticles scraped from the bodies of large eels when at the Albert Institution, Glasnevin.
they rubbed themselves against stones—that they The total expenditure of the Institution in 1855 was grew out of the putrid flesh of dead animals thrown L.4568, allocated as follows: General farm-expenses, into the water-from the dews which cover the earth L.173 ; seeds, implements, live-stock, &c., not included in spring and summer-from water, and so forth. in general farm-expenses, L.809 ; rent and taxes, Among modern writers, we have the same confusion of L.788; maintenance of agricultural teachers, pupils, theories. There is a popular notion in many districts and servants, L.1943; and salaries of lecturers, teachers, of the north of England, that eels are generated from and servants, L.854. The total receipts for the sale horsehairs deposited in springs and rivulets. A recent of farm-produce amounted to L.1497, and the live and German author mentions that they owe their origin dead stock was valued at L.3151. The live-stock to electrical phenomena; but he is sadly at a loss consisted of 7 draught animals, 65_cattle, 90 sheep, about substantiating his theory by facts. The great 54 pigs, and 90 poultry. Between January 1847 and naturalist, Buffon, is said to have remarked, in the December 1855, no less than 270 young men were latter part of the last century, at a meeting of French educated in the Albert Training Institution, and left savans, that he considered the question as to the it to carry out the instruction there received on farms generation of eels to be one of the most puzzling in of their own, or on the lands of others committed to natural history. The late Bishop of Norwich, Dr Kay, their charge; many of them as teachers, who would read a paper to the Royal Society on this subject. impart that instruction to hundreds.
He noticed some small eels in the thatch of a cottage; There cannot be a doubt that the teaching and and he endeavoured to establish the proposition that example of these model national agricultural schools, the spawn of the fish had been deposited on the reeds is greatly conducive to the material prosperity which before they were cut, and had been subsequently Ireland is now beginning to enjoy, and, therefore, to vivified by the sun's rays. her freedom from those foul outrages which made The gastronomical qualities of the eel have been humanity shudder. They are much praised in the extolled from the earliest times. It was prohibited, localities where they have been established. The however, as an article of food among the Jews; and rector of Farrahy, after quoting the testimony of men the ancient Egyptians, while rejecting it as such, gave who have greatly profited by following the example it a place among their deities. The Greeks were of model-schools in their district in their system of passionately fond of the fish, and cooked it in every farming, says: 'I can only add that this district has possible fashion, as we find recorded in Athenæus and become more orderly and quiet. I see fewer drunken other classical writers. Archestratus, in his work on people on the roads than when I first resided here- gastronomy, says of the eel : agrarian disturbances are unknown, rents are not in
I praise all kinds of eels; but for the best arrear; there are no religious animosities, to the best
Is that which fishermen do take in the sea of my belief. Mr Bernard writes regarding the in
Opposite the Strait of Rhegium, fluence of Sallybank Model School, county Clare:
Where you, Messenius, who daily put Such have been the effects of the small model-farm,
This food within your mouth, surpass all mortals by rotation of crops, &c., no farmer in the locality In real pleasure. Though none can deny is now without his plot of turnips, clover, ryegrass, That great the virtue and the glory is &c. There is also more attention paid to winter Of the Strymonian and Copaic eels, feeding of stock, and the cultivation and preserva For they are large and wonderfully fat; tion of manure, than formerly.' Similar accounts are And I do think, in short, that of all fish given from many quarters, and although some of The best in flavour is the noble eel.
The conger-eel was offered to Neptune and his mollifying unguent to soothe the nerves when suffering divine colleagues, as being capable of imparting im- under "hot rheumatism.' The gall of the fish he mortality to those who partook of it; and Macrobius employed as a liniment for sore eyes; and the bones informs us that it was a common saying among the of the head were ground to powder, and found efficaGrecians that the dead would return to life if it were cious in bleedings at the nose. It is a common practice possible for them to taste a morsel of this delicious in the north of England at this hour for young lads fish. Another writer tells us that near Sicyon, a city to tie a piece of eel-skin round their ankles, to keep of the Peloponnesus, there were conger-eels caught of away cramps and pains. There is an old ditty, in this such dimensions as to require a wagon drawn by oxen part of the country, which reads thus : to carry one of them. Even the head and intestines
Around the shin were eaten, and esteemed delicacies.
Tie the skin The ancient Anglo-Saxon tribes were passionately
Of full-grown river-eel; fond of eels. Grants and charters were often regulated
And every sprain, by payments made in eels. Four thousand of them were a yearly present from the monks of Ramsay
And cramp and pain,
Will fly unto the deil. to those of Peterborough. In one charter, twenty fishermen are stated to have furnished sixty thousand The eel has been a subject of augury in dreams. eels to the monastery. Eel-dikes are often mentioned If a young woman dreams of eels, she may expect to in the boundaries of lands belonging to religious estab-have slippery lovers. To dream of fish generally, is lishments. The Gauls were great consumers of eels; a sign of sorrow; but if you catch eels, and can retain and among their descendants there are many tenures them, it is a sign of your possessing a kind and fast of land in France stipulating for the payment of friend. A writer on dreams, in the middle ages, rent, and the discharge of stipulated public taxes in affirms that to dream of eels, portends a large family eels. In one of the capitularies of Charlemagne we of children ; and if you dream of cooking them, your find allasions made to the same subject.
children will give you a great deal of trouble. The There are several places in England which derive following is stated in a work called the True Interpretheir names from the quantity of eels they formerly tation of Dreams (Bologna, 1614): One of the kings produced. Elmore, on the river Severn, and Ellesmere, of Spain dreamed three successive nights that an eel on the Mersey, were once famous for the production of came out of his mouth, and made a desperate struggle this fish. The town of Ely, too, is singularised in this to regain a small river which flowed hard by. The way. Fuller, in his Worthies of Cambridgeshire, has king took his sword and endeavoured to prevent it the following remark: “When the priests of this part entering the water : but it escaped, got into the water, of the country would still retain their wives in spite and mounted up on the opposite bank. It then went of whatever the pope and the monks could do to the into a cliff in a rock. This was in a locality which the contrary, their wives and children were miraculously monarch knew very well. He called together some of turned into eels; whence it had the name of Ely. I his domestics, told them the dreams he had had; and consider this a lie.'
they all went to visit the chink in the rock, where Eude, the celebrated cook to Louis XVI., was known they discovered a very valuable treasure of gold and all over Europe for his mode of serving up this fish. precious stones. He says in his book On Cookery: "Take one or two The voracity of the eel has been a fertile topic of live eels, throw them into the fire; as they are twisting discussion and romance among naturalists and anglers. about on all sides, lay hold of them with a towel in It is doubtless great. We have ourselves witnessed your hand, and skin them from head to tail. This this fish devouring each other greedily. There is method is decidedly the best, as it is the means of scarcely anything too delicate, and few things too drawing out all the oil, which is unpalatable. Note.- nasty, for his ravenous appetite. He has often been Several gentlemen have accused me of cruelty (astonish- found with a half-decayed water-rat in his mouth; ing!) for recommending in my work that eels should and it has been recently stated in the newspapers, that be burned alive. As my knowledge in cookery is at Wimpson, in Hampshire, the ducks on the farm entirely devoted to the gratification of their taste, and were denuded of their feet by some large eels that the preservation of their health, I consider it my duty were found in a pond which this species of poultry to attend to what is essential to both. The blue skin were in the habit of frequenting. But we find the and the oil which remain when they are skinned, are most remarkable statements about the voracity of the highly indigestible. If any lady or gentleman should creature in a work called The Wonders of Nature and make the trial of both, they will find that the burnt Art, published at Berwick-upon-Tweed in 1780. About eels are much healthier ; but it is after all left to their the middle of last century, the farmers near Yeovil choice whether to burn or skin. The consumption suffered greatly by losing vast quantities of bay. This of eels, as articles of food, throughout Europe, is could not be accounted for. A reward was offered for prodigious. In London, the number imported, chiefly the supposed culprits; upon which several soldiers, from Holland, amounts to about ten millions annually; then quartered at Yeovil, kept watch, and to their and the fish is met with on the most sumptuous as great surprise found, in the dead of the night, a well as on the most frugal tables—food alike for the monstrous eel making its way out of the river, and London alderman and the gamin in the streets. setting itself to feed greedily on the hay! It was
The ancient and modern physicians have dabbled destroyed, and roasted ; and the fat that came out of with the eel, as with most other fish, to a great extent. its body filled several casks and tubs! This work was Hippocrates denounces him to all his patients, and expressly designed by the writer as a 'useful and particularly to those afflicted with pulmonary con- valuable production for young people.' sumption. Galen says he is indigestible to weakly The eel has been a fruitful topic for legendary lore people. Rhases and Magninus maintain that his food in most European countries. The subject, however, is is deleterious to persons recovering from fever; and so voluminous, that we can do little more than merely Franciscus Bonsuetus, when speaking of rheumatic dip into it. The legend of the ‘Lambton Eel' is well ailments, forbids the eel, for the general reason : known, and fully recorded in the various histories of All fish that standing pools and lakes frequent,
the county of Durham. The substance of the story is Do ever yield bad juice and nourishment.
as follows: The heir of the Lambtons, in the early
part of the middle ages, fell into a profane habit of Another of the olden medical writers says that he angling on a Sunday. On one of these hallowed days, found the oil of the eel highly useful when used as a he caught in the river Wear a small eel, little thicker
than a common thread, which he threw into a well. who assert that not one in a hundred patents is worth to In process of time, this young heir of the Lambton the inventor the fees paid in obtaining it, ‘for here is proof family was called to the wars against the Moslems in that nearly one-third, after a three years' trial, have stood the First Crusade, organised by Peter the Hermit, the test.' In 1856 the receipts from the progressive stampwhere the ambitious young soldier distinguished him- duty of L.50 nearly doubled those of 1855, which were self by many feats of daring and valour. On returning L.15,950. A great part of the fund produced by patents to his own country, he learned with great surprise that is expended in printing and publishing the specifications; the small eel he had thrown carelessly into the well but the public do not seem to patronise the work, or else had grown to a fearful magnitude, and manifested the cost at which it is carried on is too heavy, for a loss of the most cruel and ravenous propensities. He was L.116,000.-—the difference between the cost of production solicited to rid the vicinity of the monster. It fre- and the sale—has taken place in four and a half years. quently coiled itself nine times round a large tower; daily levied a contribution of nine cows' inilk on the
THE STAR IN THE EAST. inhabitants; and when this was not immediately granted, it devoured both man and beast. Before, A LURID star is burning in the easthowever, the valiant knight undertook a personal Not o'er a cradle, but a sepulchre : conflict with this enormous eel, he consulted a noted It cleaves the heavens like that fiery sign witch in the neighbourhood. She advised him to Which set of yore our Highland hills a-flame put on a coat-of-mail, furnished on the outside with When blood was i' the wind. Plague-spotted land, numerous razor-blades. Thus equipped, he sallied The leprosies of old were white to thine ! out and encountered the huge fish near a high rock
In this new slaughter of the innocents on the banks of the Wear. It immediately coiled
The Prince of Peace is crucified again. itself round him. His coat of razor-blades, however,
O women-martyred sisters ! we could weep
But for the hot shame which burns up our tears. proved more than a match for the gigantic eel, which
Our quivering lips are prayerless o'er your dust: was soon cut in pieces by the sheer exercise of its own strength. There is a sequel to the legend:
We may not strew the desecrated sod
Where fiends have trampled, with the flowers of heaven; the witch promised the Count of Lambton her aid
But, fierce in the strong passion of the weak, only upon one condition, that he should slay the first
Yet helpless as the babes upon your breasts, living thing he met after the conquest. To avoid
We fold our white robes round us with a vow the possibility of human slaughter, he directed his
Unto the God of battles !-Lisping babes! father that as soon as he heard three blasts from his
O world, () world! could not those mother-hands bugle in token of victory, he should release his
Pluck down the wrathful heavens on such deeds? favourite greyhound, which he would immediately The innocent lotus on the unstirred waves, sacrifice. When the bugle was heard, the old father
The pale, pure crescent in the warless heavens, was so overcome with joy that he entirely forgot Smile in each other's faces : what is man the injunction his son had put upon him, and ran That he should warp the beautiful to wrong, out himself and threw himself in the victor's arms. Turning God's gifts unto ignoble use ? Instead of committing parricide, the heir repaired Were these the fitting symbols for a curseagain to the old sorceress, who evinced considerable The direst-most profound--the curse of war? wrath at the neglect of her commands. By way of There was a time--methinks 'tis but a talepunishment, she foretold that no heir of the Lambton When bread and salt, partaken brotherly, family should die in his bed for seven-some accounts
Did sign 'twixt fellest foes a bond and pledgesay nine-generations; a prediction which some local The freedom of the city of the heart ! historians affirm came literally to pass.
Yet these were of our house, our home, our hearth, There was a very ancient custom among the clergy
Embosomed in our trust; before whose eyes of Notre Dame, in Paris, called the Rogations, which Our weakness was paraded and unmasked. consisted of carrying a figure resembling an eel through
O Pariah of nations, hide thy head ! a certain locality on the river Seine, and throwing
Alien thou art, and alien shalt thou be, fruits and cakes into its mouth. It was made of
Thou and thy races, from all men whose pulse
Beats to the music of a noble nature ! wicker-work, and was considered a representative of a great eel which emerged out of this river, and
Say, had ye wrongs 2-Ye have undone your cause. threatened destruction to the entire city. It was
By your own crimes self-branded, do ye fall;
While we stand righted in your depths of shame. vanquished by some valiant sons of the church. This
The seed accursed brings forth a millionfold: procession was observed till the year 1730; after Behold the fruit! Why we, even we, who once which the chief personage in the procession contented Would snatch the snared bird from the fowler's clutch, himself with merely pronouncing a benediction on the
Now point to yon red star, and cry-Go forth!' river.
White-headed fathers, stint not your gray hairs !
With too deep blushing over woman-wrongs;
Our sickening eyes shall track it, till that day
When ye shall stand amidst the ransomed souls is an article on the Fourth Report of the Commissioners
Who cry to ye for succour; till again of Patents. Invention, it would appear, goes briskly on;
The sword shall know its place in the scorned sheath; applications for patents amounting in 1856 to 3106, being
Till horror's shriek is silenced, and once more 148 more than the previous year. The applications
The fiery symbol shall be blotted out, produced in 1856, 2048 completed and specified patents,
And the red star stand white before its God! being 59 more than in 1855. About one-third of the
E. L. H. completed patents stand the test of trial; the rest being suffered to lapse by the non-payment of the additional Printed and Published by, W. and R. CHAMBERS, 47 Paterstamp-duty of L.50. This was the fate of the patents
noster Row, London, and 339 High Street, EDINBURGH. dated in 1853-4; and it is a triumphant answer to those
sold by WILLIAM ROBERTSON, 23 Upper Sackville Street, DUELIS, and all Booksellers.
PATENTS FOR INVENTIONS.
Science and rt s.
CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS.
SATURDAY, OCTOBER 24, 1857.
more precious than gold. He expatiated on the national BÖTTGER, THE INVENTOR OF DRESDEN importance which they liad given to this manufacture, CHINA.
and on the imperial patronage by which it had been
encouraged in the remotest times. Since the Tatar We were walking, a friend and myself, one day last invasion, the yellow-dragon china has been reserved April, in the bright little garden of the Japanese for the sovereign's exclusive use; but formerly, one Palace at Dresden. It was one of those first days of of the first acts of a new emperor on his accession spring, when the cold of winter is but half vanquished, was to determine the particular kind of earthenware and when one chooses sheltered shadeless paths such on which he would be pleased to dine. Barbarians as this garden offers. The discourse fell upon the though they be, the Chinese had preceded us considerdoings in China, and we reasoned much of the three ably in the formation of museums, as well as in the hundred millions of enigmatical barbarians who people invention of some other trifles—such as gunpowder, it. Of course we agreed in regarding them as 'very printing, and the compass. One of their museums is shallow monsters,' cunning in the drying of tea-leaves, devoted to a collection of vases in bronze and porcelain, and gluttons in the absorption of silver dollars ; but of which the catalogue, illustrated with engravings, we could recognise in them no quality which should and published about a hundred years ago, by command exempt them from the common lot of humanity in the of the emperor, is contained in twenty-four folio nineteenth century--submission to foreign dictation. volumes. It is well that we should be informed of its It seems only natural that we Englishmen should wish existence ; for the acquisition of this little collection to make them taste the civilising sweets of the law of of crockery might be added to Lord Elgin's or the interference by which international relations are now commander-in-chief's instructions for their projected governed, working, as we all know, as harmoniously as visit to Peking. the similar provision does on the heavenly bodies. Why Having talked ourselves up to paying pitch, we now should they be exempted from a condition to which, entered the palace, disbursed the two dollars at which islanders though we be, we are ourselves subjected ? his majesty the king of Saxony values a sight of his We have learned, or are learning, that we must some-china-ware, and descended into the cold vaults in times acquiesce in the dictates of public, or rather which it is deposited. There we saw the eighteen kingly, opinion in foreign countries, and, like all new blue and white jar3 which Augustus the Strong converts, we are of course eager to thrust a participa- received in exchange for a regiment of dragoons; other tion of our pleasant experiences upon others.
vases of the same material, worth, or which at least The Chinese ought to be gratified, vain as they are, cost L.2000 apiece, cups, saucers, teapots, bowls, and at the earnestness of our efforts for their good, and chargers—in short, an immense collection of several their distance from our habitat only renders more descriptions of Chinese and Japanese porcelain. If meritorious the trouble we are taking to teach them this had been all which the vaults contained, we should the principles of sound political economy. 'It is not have thought our money very badly spent, for the good for man to be alone;' and as John Chinaman collection is very far from complete. But it is not persists in shutting his eyes to this truth, it is mere our object now to speak of the productions of the humanity in us to open them for him. We are doing ovens of Ki-en or Ki-un. We have not to describe so by a process of couching which, ingenious as he is the invaluable "blue seen through the opening of in the manufacture of fireworks, he must as certainly storm-clouds,' nor the equally costly and still rarer admire now as he will bless it in some contingent congealed fat;' we leave these and such-like curious future.
particulars for more learned pens. Thus we ran on in self-satisfied praise of the national What struck us most in the Japanese palace were high deeds, which we are each so ready to take indi- the contents of four of the vaults, in which are previdual credit for. At a turn in the walk, my friend served specimens of the Dresden china which our remarked that, unendowed as I might think them with grandmothers loved so dearly, and our lady-friends philosophical souls, the Chinese have most dexterous now adore so extravagantly. We plead guilty to fingers; and in proof of this, cited the marvellous sharing in their taste, and we are not ashamed of the collection of their handiwork in porcelain existing in preference we give to the old Dresden china over that the Japanese palace which we were sauntering round. of Sèvres. The very bizarrerie of its contorted forms He told me how, about two thousand years ago, when seems more adapted to its object, mere ornament, than aluminum was undreamed of, the Chinese had dis- the stiffer purity of the French porcelain. covered this way of turning their clay into something It was more than sixteen centuries after its first