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from the tides which had long rolled over the sands are well worth consideration by those numerous healthof the dangerous estuary. The mouths of the two seekers who rush to the sea-side, fix themselves there small streams, Kent and Leven, are crossed by bridges for weeks, and return home feeling more languid and erected on hollow iron piles, the bases of which are out of sorts than when they went. broad disks, sunk deep in the sand.-The locomotive The statistics issued from the Mining Record Office constructed for the special use of the emperor our ally have now assumed a very important character. With is made to do what many English locomotives should each year,' as Mr Robert Hunt says, 'attempts have do-burn its own smoke. The coal is laid on an been made to enlarge the circle of inquiry ;' and the ascending slope of bars, and so perfect is the combus- result is, that the Mineral Statistics for 1856, just tion of the gases, that the solid portion is at once published by Messrs Longman, embrace every importconverted into coke; the process, in fact, is one by ant branch of our mineral industries.' The volume is which coke is made as fast as needed.
prefaced by a laudatory notice from Sir Roderick I. A valuable paper by Dr Lombard on Mountain Murchison, as director of the Museum of Practical Climates considered in a Medical Point of View, has lately Geology, mentioning the very interesting circumappeared in a periodical published at Geneva, and stance it discloses, that the produce of coal in the translated in an English journal. The author takes United Kingdom has now reached the enormous annual up the whole question of mountain climates; shews in amount of 664 millions of tons ! We may mention, what instances they are hurtful, and in what bene- | likewise, as a proof of the enlargement of our iron ficial; and that much depends on a difference of trade, that the quantity of pig-iron manufactured in a thousand feet. Indeed, it would appear that the the year was upwards of 3 million tons, from 622 weakly and the diseased require to be as carefully blast-furnaces. Such returns, it may be interesting to advised as to the choice of a mountain residence, as to know, are obtained upon application, without any that of a mineral bath or spring. The prior of the hesitation on the part of those engaged in our great Hospice of St Bernard, the highest permanently inha- mineral industries. bited point in Europe—8129 feet-replies to questions concerning the effects of the elevated climate: “The diseases to which the monks are liable are inflam
ARISE YE, AND DEPART. mations of the chest. The greater number of them
Arise ye, and depart; for this is not your rest. - Micah, ii, 10. become asthmatic after a certain number of years, and are obliged to go down again to the plain. Those
ARISE ye, and depart; for never more who have been born among the mountains can reside
Can shine the sun upon the darkened cloud.
Can Life her Ishmael, lost Hope, restore for a long time with impunity at the convent.'
Unto the soul? That soul like Hagar bowed It is curious and instructive to notice that certain
And gazing o'er the waste; weaving her shroud diseases appear natural to certain heights-asthma,
From out the sorrow hived within her breast: for example, to the highest. On the other hand,
She lists to murmurs, uttered not aloud, if the low valleys or medium regions of our Alps
To the wing-music of an angel guestpresent a great number of phthisical cases, this
• Arise ye, and depart; for this is not your rest.' disease becomes rarer and rarer as we ascend, insomuch that, at a height above 3280 feet, we meet
Arise ye, and depart; yon setting sun only with a few isolated cases, and at 4920 feet, pul
Casts lengthened shadows down the stony way; monary phthisis entirely disappears. This phthisical The shattered sunbeams, angels one by one zone, above and below which this disorder disappears,
Are stealing ; leaves are blushing o'er decay ; may be approximately fixed at between 1640 and 3280
And Ocean moans his broken-hearted lay feet.' The doctor classifies the climates under three In Nature's ear; and Nature worn, opprest, heads : 1. Climates at once tonic and soothing (below With hearing all her wayward children pray 3280),' as at Mornex, St Gervais, and places overlook To her, but syllables that high behest, ing the lakes of Thun, Brienz, and Lucerne. 2. Tonic * Arise ye, and depart; for this is not your rest.' and invigorating climates (about 3280 feet),' as Monnetier, Treize Arbres on the Salève, Voirons, Lalliaz, Arise ye, and depart; all steeped in light, and others. 3. .Climates essentially tonic and exciting That heaven-promised land lies far before; (above 3280 feet),' a8 Comballaz, Grion, Gurnigel, The cloud by day, the pillared fire by night, Rosenlaüi, the Righi, and others. According to the Shall beacon onward to that distant shore: disease, such should be the remedial climate. 'If,' There every hope lost from the earthly store, pursues the doctor, in a passage which we think it And wildly mourned, is garnered to the breast, desirable to reproduce here—if the respiration be
And from the Tree of Life can fall no more freer, the circulation more regular, and the digestion
A withered leaf. Wayworn and care-opprest, more active, it is evident that it is by modifying the
* Arise ye, and depart; for this is not your rest.' functions of assimilation and sanguinification (hematosis), that the air of heights gives a new life to debili. tated constitutions; and, on the other hand, that if
Published on Saturday, 7th November, the muscular vigour be increased, the sleep more
No. I., Price 1}d., of a New and Improved Edition of tranquil, and the intellectual functions calmer, it is
CHAMBERS'S because the air of mountains exercises a twofold action CYCLOPÆDIA OF ENGLISH LITERATURE, on the nervous system-sedative as regards the brain,
and Vol. I., Price 8s., of an Improved Edition of and stimulating in respect to the functions depending
CHAMBERS'S on the nervous centres, the spinal marrow, and the ganglions. It thus definitely appears that, when we
INFORMATION FOR THE PEOPLE. wish to render nutrition more complete, and re-estab
Also will be Published, on the 1st December, lish the equilibrium, between the animal and mental
Part I., Price 1s., of a New Work, functions, we should recommend a sojourn in some elevated locality; while we should carefully avoid the
CHRONICLE OF THE INDIAN REVOLT, use of exciting therapeutic agents whenever we have Illustrated with Maps, Plans, and Miscellaneous Illustrations. to do with plethoric persons disposed to inflammations or hemorrhages, and who are excessively nervous, or Printed and Published by W. and R. CHAMBERS, 47 Paterlabouring under some organic disease accompanied with
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sold by WILLIAM ROBERTSON, 23 Upper Sackville Street, DOBLIN, fever or great vascular irritability. These conclusions and all Booksellers.
Science and rt s.
SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 7, 1857.
for better accommodation ; but it was found extremely THE HIGHLAND SEASON.
difficult to convince native innkeepers of the necesTo no small portion of the fashionable world of sity for amendment in that respect. Innovation London, and to that extensive class throughout the of any kind is irksome to Highlanders, and in country at large whose movements are regulated that now suggested there was an implied censure of by the capital, there are few routes more attrac- national habits highly disagreeable to a sensitive tive than those that lead towards the north of people. Nor was their estimate of the character of Scotland. Autumnal tourists have ceased to travel the friendly invaders calculated to impress them with for the sake of recording their impressions of scenery, satisfactory reasons for gratifying what they looked or with a hope of encountering romantic incidents upon as prejudices, for it must be owned that Celtic by the road. There are, indeed, no places worth | innkeepers, in common with Celts in general, regarded exploring within the compass of a short holiday, that tourists as harmless imbeciles, whose delusion was have not become almost unpleasantly familiar by to climb without purpose the steepest mountains, to repeated description. A salutary impression, moreover, dredge patiently for useless sea-weed and shells, and has of late been made upon the public mind, that the to get drenched in infatuated admiration of a water-fall. main object of travel is not so much sight-seeing as They could not comprehend how such indifference to to obtain purer air, relaxation from business, and the out-of-door comfort as these pursuits implied, was cheerfulness of spirit that variety and exercise almost compatible with luxurious habits at home; but John invariably confer. So, leaving German spas and Bull, with characteristic obstinacy, preferred his own German doctors to stately dowagers and pompous tastes, and determined to gratify them. It was vain invalids in general, and the tame shores of Brighton attempting to persuade him that raw whisky was a and Scarborough to such as prefer ease to exercise, superior tonic to stout, that Athol-brose formed the a yearly increasing number of travellers make for most epicurean of dishes, or that a daily newspaper the Highlands, anticipating, we may suppose, greater was a superfluous luxury. He insisted on cooking as enjoyment in scrambling upon ponies over wild at home, demanded carriage-roads instead of bridlemountains, far beyond cities and railways, or strolling tracks, got steamers placed on the most inaccessible by the heathery braes of some romantic valley. Thou- lakes, and had a medical practitioner introduced into sands of such visitors every autumn invade the north, every parish : and, further to assist this assimilation and may be encountered during August and September of manners, he carried some of his own innkeepers in the most remote corners—perhaps sketching the into the country. This practice is still maintained, and famous cave of Strathaird, fishing on Loch Maree, or threatens in a few years to make a specimen of the climbing Ben Cruachan.
native race of innkeepers as rare as a capercailzie. The indifferent accommodation provided in former Even at present, in those instances where the landlord's times for travellers, gave an additional zest to the country displays itself in an unmistakable Ross-shire natural inconveniences of the route. The earlier or Perthshire accent, the landlady or head-waiter is race of tourists could astonish friendly listeners at pretty sure to have come across the Border. home with a recital of dangers not altogether ima All Highland innkeepers, native or imported, have ginary. It was not unusual to hear of a party, too one general failing — they are notorious grumblers. confident of their walking-power, and unaware of the This unamiable trait is probably due to the rareness of consumptive effects of mountain air upon the fullest their experience of that medium of fortune proverbially wallet, getting benighted or overtaken by mist, and declared favourable to mental equanimity. For nine owing their relief to an accidental meeting with a months of the year they vegetate in hotels as capacious belated shepherd or a suspicious gamekeeper; or it and gloomy as old castles, indulging in no livelier has sometimes happened that an adventurous band, meditations than heavy rents and expensive estabincluding several ladies, liave pushed forward, hungry lishments suggest, whereas, during the autumnal and exhausted, to a bothie, dignified by the partial quarter, money pours so profusely into their pockets, guide-books into an inn, and found the 'good refresh- that visions of sudden fortune come upon them as ment' resolve itself into whisky, smoked cakes, and vividly as second-sight. salted herrings, while the comfortable beds' were as The contrast between these unequal divisions of the unacquainted with sheets as the fireplaces with grates. year is indeed grievous. Slowly and drearily revolve
As a growing appreciation of the great natural the unprofitable winter, spring, and summer. For beauty of Highland scenery led every season to an many months there appears no visitor more lucrative increase of visitors, there naturally arose a demand | than an exciseman or a stray commercial traveller ;
no grander equipage than a farmer's gig. The great garret. Amid all this excitement, the happy landlord subject of speculation to the Highland innkeeper stands unmoved, and the impersonation of orderduring this tedious interval is the probable character superintends with unwearied civility and good-humour of next season. With intense anxiety does he watch each arrival and departure. for any indications that public events, as the state of Emergencies occasionally arise that demand the trade and political relations, supply. Objects of general exercise of his utmost tact. Such may be the case on, curiosity, or seasons of national alarm, such as the for example, the arrival of what Mr Boswell would call different exhibitions of London, Dublin, and Paris, an - an Illustrious Party. Late in the evening, when the election, or a war, very gravely affect him, since they hotel is crowded, an imposing equipage-perhaps that tend to diminish the number of travellers.
of a foreign prince-drives up to the door. The host But the dullest winter and coldest spring must is puzzled—even the fertile genius of the head-waiter terminate, and with the genial summer mine host gets is unable to suggest any satisfactory expedient. The more lively. His cellars are examined ; his stud ascer- crisis is very grave; for should the Illustrious Party tained to be fresh; his carriages are repainted; and his suspect the state of matters, they will order fresh advertisements are issued. Alas! tourists will no more horses, and proceed another stage. Our host cannot travel before the prorogation than if prohibited by act for a moment entertain this alternative. An idea of parliament. It is surely not without reason that strikes him. Whispering some words to his anxious the ready landlord denounces the fashionable tyranny wife, he knocks at the door of one of the general that deprives visitors of seeing a Highland summer in visitors, and, upon admission, proceeds to narrate the its prime. Occasionally, the long days of June are peculiar circumstances of the case. Artfully dwelling enlivened by the arrival of a newly married pair, or a upon the exalted rank of the arrival, he endeavours noisy party of botanical students. Not unfrequently to excite his listener's sympathy, and concludes with an Oxford or Cambridge tutor, about to spend the long insinuating, as gently as possible, a modest wish vacation in Scotland with a party of pupils, applies for that the gentleman would give up his bedroom for a rooms. Such an offer is not accepted without hesi- single night. The gentleman, however, is marvellously tation, since the requisite accommodation involves a indifferent to the claims of the great party, but at considerable portion of the hotel. Nevertheless, the last through continued solicitation, expresses a surly season may be bad, 80—not without a vivid antici. willingness to abandon his apartment if another can be pation of the indignant air with which a traveller, procured for him. Most politely is he thanked by the arriving when the house is full, points to the 'ample landlord, who retires to repeat the same process with accommodation' advertised in Bradshaw—the landlord as many guests as he needs first-rate apartments, errs on the prudent side. The arrival of the under and thereafter awaits the return of his wife. The graduates communicates some bustle to the quiet inn, lady's part of the negotiation in like manner required which gradually extends throughout the parish. So considerable tact: she had been despatched to the profitably do these young gentlemen employ their clergyman's and to the doctor's, with a view of coaxing leisure, that in a few days there is not a rare fern, an their respective wives to accommodate the ousted antique bridge, or a romantic water-fall, but is as guests. Yet, after giving all this trouble, it is far from familiar to them as the capacity of the swiftest pony improbable that the Illustrious Party may look rather in the inn stables, or the troutfulness of the best pool indignantly at the bill next morning. on the river.
There are few visitors more welcome at a Highland As the season proper draws nearer, the innkeeper's inn than a party leisurely posting in one of those luge anxiety grows more intense, and induces him to hold family-coaches with which Englishmen first invaded long consultations with his better-half in the back the continent. The landlord, finding its occupants not parlour. We shall suppose, however, that parliament pressed for time, very naturally employs every artifice is quietly prorogued without the occurrence of any to promote their stay. If Paterfamilias is neither untoward crisis to affect the travelling tendencies of sportsman nor angler, he is perhaps something of an the thousands that hurry to railway stations. Among antiquary. In such a case, there are several mystethe earliest symptoms of the coming season is the rious mounds and circles in the neighbourhood, the passage of sportsmen to the moors.* These, having archæology of which is still obscure. Then for the their lodges furnished with every necessary, are of little sketch-books of the younger members of the party advantage to the innkeeper. Fortunately for him, they there are many charming spots that will richly repay form but an insignificant portion of English visitors. a visit. It must not be supposed that unpretending It is for tourists proper, the class that have no home travellers are neglected: Piscator is out all day, never but an hotel, that our host opens his doors. Presently grumbles at bed or table, and pays—like a lord. troops of these, striking off from Perth, Inverness, The famous reserve of English character powhere Oban, or Aberdeen, appear in the most remote dis- more powerfully exhibits itself than in the Highlands. tricts. The innkeeper is now busy and cheerful. The same parties may meet for several days at the Almost every hour, polite parties in carriages, and same inns, travel by the same conveyances, and visit more clamorous sets in those curious walking costumes the same curiosities without advancing towards any with which English fancy loves to vary the tartan, intimacy. There is one occasion, however, during the find their way to the inn; while, if situated upon any Highland Season, upon which all classes of travellers of the main lines of travel, morning and evening associate on somewhat familiar terms: this is at the coaches deposit their tired occupants at its doors. Northern Meeting-an annual festival of considerable Within, waiters and chambermaids bustle about, bella antiquity, held at Inverness about the middle of are constantly ringing, and every corner is alive, from September, where national amusements may be witthe sacred recesses of the back-parlour, where the nessed to great advantage. So far as popularity is hostess scores bills over the closed piano, to the topmost concerned, the Northern Meeting forms the Derby of
the Highlands. There is always a great concourse of * It is not unamusing to notice the general connection in the spectators. Travellers from inns, sportsmen from shootpublic mind between grouse-shooting and legislation. senators are popularly represented at the close of each parlia Caledonian Canal, or Moray Firth, country gentlemen,
Tired ing-boxes, and yachtsmen from the Western Islands, mentary session as longing to recruit their energies on the Scottish moors. Now, the fact is, that the number of M.P.'s farmers, and a vast body of the neighbouring rural renting moors is extremely small, and of that number it is no population, hasten to Inverness. Who can describe offence to observe their celebrity is greater as sportsmen than as the anxiety of the fair inhabitants of that picturesque the moneyed middle class, such as bankers, brewers, officers, town on this occasion, not so much from a patriotic country gentlemen, and the like.
desire that reels may be danced and pibrochs played to
the admiration of English visitors, or from an appre- the century is intimately connected with the science of liension that the champion of the stone may not be a geography, of which we would say a few words, taking native, as on account of the balls that accompany the the Address at the Anniversary Meeting of the festival? That such anxiety is neither unnatural nor Geographical Society'* as our text. misplaced, is easily understood from the number of The two awards of gold medals are significant of the Englishmen that rumour declares to be yearly en direction and progress of this important study. The chanted by the fair sirens of the Ness. Some amusing first recipient for this year is Mr A..C. Gregory, for stories are told of the difficulty experienced on such explorations in North Australia—a division of the interesting occasions in convincing a matter-of-fact world so important as one of the great colonies of the paternal guardian from Birmingham or Leeds of the Anglo-Saxon race, and the centre, probably, of future honour conferred upon his family by Miss Macphilabeg's civilisation when we shall have shared the fate of acceptance of his son's hand and fortune. The public Assyria, Greece, Rome, Carthage.' Mr Gregory's interest centres of course upon the more legitimate explorations, however, have decided one rather uncomobjects of the Meeting. The games, indeed, possess fortable fact that the central portion of this continent, something of an Olympic character. No feeble arm together with the southern coast-line, are composed can make the caber-a huge fir--describe a circle in of an uninhabitable desert, which, geologists suggest, the air ; nor is it an ordinary achievement to pitch a may probably be the dried-up bottom of a sea, and hammer, weighing sixteen pounds, a distance of one that there can be no intercommunication over these hundred feet. The national music is grateful even to sterile tracts. English ears—a result probably due as much to being We find, according to the same authority, that heard in open air, as to the acknowledged merit of the squatters have extended their dwellings to 's. lat. performers.
23' 41' and E. long. 147° 50', or about 500 miles from The duration of the Highland Season, after the close the head of the Gulf of Carpentaria. And then comes of the Northern Meeting, depends upon the weather, the important news, that a vast district from the which may remain favourable for three or four weeks, eastern side of the gulf to the northernmost station or not for as many days. Often in the driest autumn of our settlers, is more or less fertile;' and according a chilly night towards the end of October is succeeded to the colonial secretary, some of us may live to hear by an unusually bright morning. Astonished tourists of that hitherto unknown region becoming the home awaken to find the hills covered with snow. The land of a prosperous English settlement.' lord tries to palliate the fault, but in vain. Nervous Associated with Mr Gregory's expedition were Dr ladies recall disagreeable reminiscences of interrupted Mueller the botanist, and Mr Wilson the geologist, who communication, and hurry homewards their travelling have given the world the result of their researches. companions. So bills are settled, kilts laid aside, It is highly satisfactory to know that the party did fishing-rods unjointed, and in a very few days the inn not suffer from loss of health, and that, during some is deserted. The doleful landlord, as he sees his latest portion of the journeyings on the banks of the guest depart, locks his cellars, houses his carriages, Victoria River, their horses fattened, which facts argue and suspends his newspapers. The dull winter will be favourable conditions for British garrisons and colonon presently; and as he surveys misty hills, empty ists. The following remark, with which Sir Roderick roads, and leafless trees, he would fain slumber till Murchison closes this portion of his address, is just autumn reappears, till once again impatient bells, now pregnant with interest. He says: “Ought we to smoking horses, and crowding travellers proclaim the close our eyes to the vast importance, not only of return of the Highland Season.
securing good harbours of refuge in Northern Australia, but also of there establishing naval stations,
which would prove invaluable for steam-navigation, GEOGRAPHY OF THE NINETEENTH and where, in the event of war, our fleets may
rendezvous, and thence move directly upon the flank CENTURY.
of any enemy who might be operating against our What would old Strabo think if he could return from eastern trade and possessions ?' the shades and spend a few days with us? The old The Geographical Society's second medallist for traveller, we presume, would be an honoured guest at 1857 is Colonel Waugh, for his extension of the the meetings of the Geographical Society; and kindly trigonometrical survey of India-completing, in fact, greetings would doubtless be exchanged between him the triangulation of a vast tract, comprising 223,000 and Livingstone. How the gallant Raleigh and the square miles.' This work has occupied fifty-four learned Hakluyt would rejoice over the explorations years. In considering these details, let those amongst of our later times! The former might remind us us, who live at home at ease,' think of the perseof his prophecies, now fulfilled in the discoveries of the verance, privation, and hardships by which all such auriferous regions of California and Australia. "That scientific improvements have been effected. Those gold and silver in large quantities,' says Raleigh's 'young hearts, hot and restless,' who are fired by desire biographer, were to be come at in parts of America and ambition for adventure and distinction, need not not possessed by the Spaniards was a persuasion that fear, like Alexander, that there will be nothing left fire could not burn out of Raleigh ;' and he himself for them to conquer; the mere investigation of what says: “There are many places of the world, especially has been done, will prove to us how much there Ainerica, many high and impassable mountains, which are remains to be done. The world is not used up, even in very rich and full of gold;' and, relating the fable of geography-books, and progress itself opens new fields the golden fleece, he observes : 'Not far from Caucasus of observation, and brings us cognizant with corthere are steep falling torrents, which wash down relative laws, which it may yet take generations to many grains of gold, as in many other parts of the world, work out. and the people there inhabiting use to set many fleeces Amongst the most important labours of geography of wool in those descents of water, in which grains of are the maritime surveys. We find that there are gold remain, and the water passeth through.'
at present under government orders twenty surveying It is truly said that the superstition of one age parties in active service. They are equally divided becomes the philosophy of the next.' The vague among our own coasts and the colonies—the Medi. belief of a Raleigh, and the scientific deductions of a terranean, the river Plate, the South-western Pacific, Murchison, may both precede the actual discovery of and the coast of China. The immense importance of gold, but the fact at length comes to light, and then we marvel at our want of faith. This great event of * By Sir Roderick I. Murchison, the president.
these operations may not, perhaps, at once strike some where it seemeth best to their world-wide experiof us, who are landsmen, but they that go down to The sort of assistance which the Geograthe sea in ships and occupy their business in great phical Society Affords in our communications with waters,' know full well the value of charts, which our distant settlements, may be gathered from the mark out with precision and accuracy
following: 'In the last anniversary (1856) address,
a hope was expressed that Captain Bate, the surveyor The edges
of the island of Palàwan, might be more usefully Of sunken ledges,
employed in China than in merely commanding a and
cruising ship. It is gratifying to be able to state that The shifting currents of the restless main. a thoroughly equipped surveying vessel, the Acton,
accompanied by a small steam-tender, the Dove, under But to return to the plain prose of statistical facts. command of Lieutenant Bulloch, has sailed for those We learn that 1000 herring-boats annually fish out of seas, and as soon as the present unfortunate differences Wick on the Caithness coasts, and that they have no with China are settled, Captain Bate will resume his shelter to run for. The geographers, in a spirit of survey on such parts of the coast as most require it. philanthropy, common to science, set about discussing In the meantime, Messrs Richards and Inskip, in the the alleviation of this evil, suggesting the erection of a Saracen, will proceed forth with to make a detailed suitable harbour. The geologist, too, comes in with survey of the dangerous shoal As Pratas-lying only some interesting theory (not yet quite made out) sixty leagues to the east-south-east of our own colony relative to the changes which take place on this coast. at Hong Kong-with a view to the construction of a Mr Keith Johnston and Mr John Cleghorn, who have light-house upon that extensive coral-reef which has devoted much time, says our text-book, 'to the obser- caused the wreck of so many vessels.? vation of these phenomena, agree that the prevalent But to revert to details of actual work done-for wave-producing wind wears the headlands into preci- instance, in the Sea of Azov, which is proved to be pices, which sends back the debris by a counter or in no part deeper than forty feet,' if the present reflux current which necessarily tends to shoal up the system of discharging ballast, which forms nuclei for opposite side of the bay. This law is so simple that alluvial deposits, be not discontinued, 'the sea before it would be very pleasant to have it satisfactorily long will be hardly navigable in some places.' proved, and, observes Sir Roderick, 'we may extend In regard to South Africa, the government is the reasoning to those periods of change in the surface reminded of what it is not doing, and of the necessity of the globe, when, after the former sea-bottoms were for instituting both land and coast surveys, which raised up to constitute the mass of the present con. shall enable the Cape settlers to develop the resources stituents, great lines of cliff were formed in given of the district, and so benefit the colonial exchequer. directions, facing, as it were, low tracts covered by In the Pacific Ocean, Captain Denham has found that marine drift.' Adopting this law, we might pronounce certain supposed rocks, the Underwood and Rosaretta upon the prevalent winds of the pre-Adamite time.' reefs, have no actual existence-a useful discovery;
As we follow the details of the Admiralty survey for ships, in avoiding the imaginary Scylla, may have from place to place, we cannot but congratulate been drawn into Charybdis. the age upon the wonderful accuracy, patience, and Amongst the useful inventions and improvements scientific knowledge which are now brought to bear which are chronicled as the latest additions to geoupon investigations so important to our navy, our graphical science, we find that during the last year the commercial shipping, and to the life and property of ordnance surveys have got 1,394,409 acres mapped, the community at large. In geographical science, the ready for publication. The geological survey of the cui bono party bave at least no cause to complain British Isles continues its work, having completed of physical philosophy. The common-sense school and published one-inch scale, with six-inch horizontal may also do homage even to so-called theorists, who sections, maps which relate to the whole of Wales, all can teach their mariners, their civil engineers, their the south-western districts, and a great part of the miners, and their manufacturers something more than central counties of England.' That the public are the old routine of practice has effected. In almost appreciating these valuable repositories of information every region of importance, the maritime surveys is evident, for the sale this year, if it continues, will are being prosecuted, not only in our own channels, exceed 5000 sheets. It is at this point of popular but in remote seas and distant rivers. We have success that the importance of an undertaking comes valuable information from the soundings of the delta to be generally felt, and to bear the fruit of of the Danube, the Sea of Azov, the Mediterranean, educational usefulness—in other words, the young and Archipelago; all this, be it observed, is the current engineer, the agriculturist, the miner, the settler in work of the year. Some of these surveys have ori- the back woods, finds that he must know something of gipated in that period, and all have been progressing physical geography and geology, if he would improve with vigour and success.
his own position, by developing the resources of the In this and similar work, not only are accurate country or neighbourhood where his lot is cast. We do delineations made for the use of the geographer, but not now measure the capabilities of things, animate the geologist is assisted very frequently in his investi- or inanimate, by what has been done. Practical knowgations, and the political economist and merchant are ledge is like a mere tool, if there is not an intelligent guided to fresh fields of labour and profit. Physical head to guide its utility. We don't put the wheel in science is the true missionary of civilisation. How the rut 'to drag its weary length along;' but we make admirably do the rays of philosophy converge into new roads, for the steam-slave to work our will with one focus of utility! The astronomer at his telescope lightning speed. The Romans knew the way to remove numbers the stars in their orbits, and by his teachings lead from its ores, but they did not know the best way; the sailor uses them for beacon-lights on the pathless for a company on the Mendip Hills, in Somersetshire,
are at this moment working their refuse slag, and find it The Scandinavians and their Sea-kings may have more profitable than new mines. A coin of Antoninus infused into the Anglo-Saxon race something of their Pius was found beneath the mass of scoriæ, a curious own spirit of daring and adventure. We are not, it is enough link between the labour of the second and the true, ferocious predatory pirates like the old Danes of nineteenth centuries. What happened to the Romans Alfred's time; but certain it is, that wherever ships in their ignorance of metallurgy is now happening to can go, there English people are to be found, helping us : the refuse of the copper-mines and smeltingthe natives by conquering them, and colonising places, comprising thousands of tons, is known to