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et thoro, or if the unfaithfulness was coupled with oppressed, and punishing the guilty. We will, however, desertion without reasonable excuse for two years or make no further remarks upon it, but allow the reader upwards; and the petition must state as distinctly as to form his or her own opinion, and leave it to time possible the facts on which the claim to have the to shew its good or bad effects. marriage dissolved is founded. The alleged offender is to be made a correspondent- that is, made to answer the petition along with the husband or wife
THE REAPING-MACHINE VERSUS THE unless excused by the court. Upon every petition for
SICKLE. dissolution of marriage, the court is to be satisfied that The Scottish farmers, as a class, have suffered severely there is no collusion between the parties, and if the during the past season from a want of harvest-labour. fact is not fully proved, the petition is to be dismissed. The demands of the travelling shearers and mowers If, on the other hand, the court finds that the case were for the most part so exorbitant, that the farmer, of the petitioner is fully proved, a decree is to be rather than submit to them, preferred contenting pronounced dissolving the marriage; but if the court himself with such assistance as he could command at finds that the petitioner has, during the marriage, his own door, although, by doing so, he should leave been guilty of unfaithfulness, or of unreasonable delay no small portion of his crop at the mercy of the in presenting the petition, or of cruelty towards the weather. The weather tlıroughout September proved other party to the marriage, or of having deserted, extremely checkered, and considerable loss undoubtor wilfully separated himself or herself from the edly ensued, although the drying winds which other before the infidelity complained of, and with followed the frequent and heavy rains enabled the out reasonable excuse, the court is not bound to farm employés, during the intervals, to carry on their pronounce a decree for dissolution of the marriage. harvesting operations. Under such circumstances, On making a decree dissolving the marriage, the the insensibility of the Scottish agriculturists to the court has power to order that the husband shall advantages of the reaping-machine assumes quite a secure to the wife a gross sum of money, or an suicidal aspect. It is now exactly thirty years since annual sum of money, for any term not exceeding her the Rev. Patrick Bell, the son of a tenant-farmer own life, proportioned to her fortune (if any), to the on the Panmure estates, invented the reaper which ability of the husband, and the conduct of the parties. bears his name. He had, it seems, been shewn, when And the court has power to direct to whom this a boy, a drawing of a machine constructed by Smith sum shall be paid ; whether to the wife herself, or of Deanston, on a principle apparently somewhat to trustees on her behalf, and may impose other analogous to that which, according to a Roman writer, restrictions on it. Also, in any suit or other proceed was used by the ancient Gauis. Walking one evening ing for obtaining a judicial separation or a decree of in his father's garden—it is Mr Loudon who tells the nullity of marriage, and on any petition for dissolving story in his Encyclopædia of Agriculture-young Bell a marriage, the court may either by any interim observed sticking in the hedge a pair of gardener's orders, or by the final decree, make such provision as shears, which he took up, and began idly to prune may be deemed just and proper with respect to the some projecting twigs. With the idea of his projected custody, maintenance, and education of the children, reaper still working in his mind, the thought soon and may also give directions for placing them under flaslied upon him that the principle of the gardener's the protection of the Court of Chancery. And in shears was precisely that which ought to be employed any case in which the court pronounces a sentence in cutting corn. A model on this plan, therefore, was of divorce or judicial separation for unfaithfulness of soon constructed, and after a time, a machine of much the wife, and the wife is entitled to property either in larger dimensions. To give an idea of the labour possession or reversion, the court has power to order which the adjustment of the latter entailed on the such settlement as it thinks reasonable to be made of young inventor, it is only necessary to mention that, such property, or any part of it, for the benefit of the in order to preserve his secret, he thought it expedient husband or the children of the marriage.
to prepare with his own hands patterns in wood of all A power of appeal is given from the judge-ordinary: the pieces which required to be of metal, and send of the court to the full court, whose decision is final, them one by one to the blacksmith to be copied. unless the petition was presented for a dissolution of When returned, the iron fittings were carefully ground marriage, in which latter case, there is an appeal from or filed as the perfect adjustment of their various the decision of the full court to the House of Lords. parts required.
If no appeal is made from the decree dissolving the Mr Bell's first experiment with his new machine marriage, within three months from the date of the was made in one of his father's outhouses. Having decree, or if an appeal is made, and such appeal is covered the floor to the depth of six inches with a dismissed, the parties may then, and not before, marry layer of earth, which he afterwards carefully trod again, as if the prior marriage had been dissolved down, he planted in the mould a quantity of oaten by death. But no clergy man in holy orders of the stalks abstracted from a sheaf in the barn-yard. He united church of England and Ireland can be compelled then fastened the door of the outhouse, and placing to solemnise the marriage of any person whose former bimself in the shafts of the machine, began slowly to marriage may have been dissolved on the ground of push it through the crop he had so ingeniously improhis or her culpability, or is liable to any suit, penalty, vised. So far as the mere reaping was concerned, his or censure for solemnising, or refusing to solemnise, machine succeeded to his satisfaction ; but in order the marriage of such person. But if the minister to deliver the corn in regular swathes, he discovered refuses to perform the marriage-service, he is to that an apparatus was wanted to act as a distributer. permit any other minister in boly orders of the united A sheet stretched on rollers was found, after many church, entitled to officiate within the diocese in which trials, to answer this purpose; and, before the autumn the church or chapel is situated, to perform there the of 1838, he had further improved his invention by marriage-service.
adding to it a reel, for the purpose of collecting the The reader has now a general view of the new law corn against the cutter. of divorce: there are, however, many other provisions One night before the crops that year were thoroughly in the act, but as they relate merely to the mode of ripe, and when all was quiet on and around the farm, procedure and the practice of the court, they have Mr Bell, accompanied by his brother, proceeded in been omitted. It is hoped and believed that the deep silence with his machine, harnessed this time law, as amended, will have a very beneficial effect, as to a favourite "pony, to a field of wheat. To the ample provision is made for relieving and aiding the great joy of the adventurers, the experiment proved
successful, and when it got wind, which it soon did, was Boileau wrote a poem on his reading-desk; Tasso, on a repeated, not only at Inchmichael, but also at Pourie, bucket; and Antonius Majoragius, on clay; while Janus near Dundee, in presence of a party of Forfarshire Dousa the younger delivered himself of a panegyric on farmers; but although a copy of the invention, manu a shadow. Favorinus wrote on a quartan ague, and factured at Dundee, received the same year the Synesius on baldness; on which polished subject, moreHighland Society's premium, neither it, nor several over, one Waldus, a Benedictine, in the reign of Charles others constructed on its model, could be made to the Bald, produced a long Latin poem, every word of work; most probably, as the inventor supposed, from which commences with the letter c. Even he, however, a want of care in fitting the mechanical details.
was outdone by Christian Pierius, the author of a poem An offer by the late Lord Panmure to provide the consisting of 1200 lines on our Saviour in the same tautonecessary funds for patenting the invention was grammatic style. In the middle of the sixteenth century declined by Mr Bell, on the ground that he was appeared that 'famous dish of P's,' as a facetious writer unwilling to retain any exclusive right over, or to Poetam, which is in Latin, and every word beginning
calls it, the Pugna Porcorum, per Petrum Porcium reap any pecuniary advantage from, an agricultural with p. Pope exerted all his powers of mind and body to improvement. The invention, therefore, went to sleep, and was pruned his pen to write upon a beard; and to break off,
praise a lock of hair; Prennius invoked his muse and forgotten by all but the family at Inchmichael, till for the catalogue has no end, Erasmus wrote a poem the year 1851 brought round the Exhibition at Hyde called Moria, in praise of folly, which, for the sake of Park. Two American reaping-machines-Hussey's and
a pun, and on the principle of the lucus a non lucendo M‘Cormick's—which were there exhibited, and which principle, he dedicated to Sir Thomas More. were said to have been in general use throughout the Union during more than fifteen years, fairly startled the British farmers. Mr Crosskill, the well-known
GONE. English agricultural machinist, now purchased from
And thou indeed art gone, I scarce dare speak Mr Bell of Inchmichael his brother's reaper, and, after
The thought aloud, it makes my heart so weak : substituting for the shears of the Bell invention the
I never knew what parting meant before ; tooth-edged knife employed by M'Cormick, carried off
Thou wert so much to me, friend, brother, more! with it, in August 1856, the highest premium given by the Royal Agricultural Society at their Essex meeting. Long years ago, when I was sore in need, Three acres of land in four hours was the rate at
In mercy sent, thou cam'st a friend indeed, which the competing machines-Bell's, M'Cormick's, To bid me shun the evil, choose the right, Burgess's, and Dray's Hussey-did their work; and
And turn my spirit-darkness into light. the performance of each machine was estimated to be equal to that of nearly thirty mowers, the labour Each day we spent together closer drew of nearly as many binders being necessary to keep Our souls, each hour brought pleasures pure and new; pace with them in action.
Whence, then, alas, the mandate that thy heart The experience of the English farmer has, since the Should be as one with mine-our lives apart? Essex meeting, fairly determined the great advantages which the reaping-machine has over the scythe and Full often when they thought I calmly slept, the sickle. The reaping-machine is not now liable to Unseen by all, so softly have I crept any serious derangement. It may be wrought by the Thy window near, that the same light on thee regular servants on the farm alone, and, with the Within that fell, without might shine on me! assistance of an extra horse or two, can make as long hours as may be needed. It requires neither meat nor Still, half unconsciously, I sit and strain wages like the mower or the reaper; and, above all,
My ear to catch thy footstep, but in vain ; it insures greater regularity in all the harvest opera
Then waking from my dream affrighted start, tions. Its first expense, no doubt, is considerable ;
To feel what once thou wast, and what thou art. but there is no reason why the itinerant principle might not as advantageously be applied to it as to
But fare thee well: I'll strive without a tear the thrashing-machine and its steam-engine, which are
To yield thee back—the loan I held so dear;
If God has bade thee cheer some other's way, now everywhere to be met with plying for hire in the agricultural districts of the south. The thing has
I cannot, will not, dare not wish thy stay.
Ruth Buck. been found to answer admirably there: why should not the Scottish farmer go and do likewise ?
DAMAGE CAUSED TO BOOKS OF PLATES BY THE
Having noticed many years since, and again lately, the called Adventures of a Poet in Search of a Subject, and injury caused to magnificent books of plates by the flimsy when I take the sage advice recorded on a great man's wire-marked tissue-paper used, I beg, through N. and Q., tomb—'circumspice'-I can well imagine that poets must
to make the same known. The books I remember to have be sometimes put to great straits. Homer must have seen injured are The Musée Napoléon, Egypt, and other been badly off when he did not consider it infra dig. to large works of the Empire; also, I think, some English discourse of the hostile encounters of frogs and mice; and books of the period ; for instance, the Stafford GalleryVirgil , likewise, who exerted his poetical powers on a gnat. from the silver-paper and slight damp, resembling iron
the plates becoming spotted from some chemical action The race of iosects has afforded patronage also to Lucian, mould. Such paper ought to be removed. The best who wrote on a fly; and to Daniel Heinsius, Burns, and which it is a sin to mention to ears polite-a louse. in the volume without falling into the back, rumpling, or Peter Pindar, who sang of an animal the very name of plate-paper to place between type and engravings ought
to be highly 'milled,' and not too thin; being able to stand Among beasts, that patient and ill-used animal, the ass, has exercised the pens of Apuleius, Agrippa, and Heinsius; protruding at the fore-edge. If tissue-paper be not of the and an ox and a dog were the respective themes of best quality, a volume is better without it, after the ink is Libanius and Sextus Empiricus; while Burns wrote upon
once dry.-Notes and Queries. twa dogs, a mouse, and a calf; Ovid tries his pen on a stork; Julius Scaliger, on a goose; Favorinus, on the Printed and Published by, W. and R. CHAMBERS, 47 Paterpraise of injustice. Polycrates wrote the commendation
noster Row, LonDON, and 339 High Street, EDINBURGH. Also
Bold by WILLIAM ROBERTSOR, 23 Upper Sackville Street, DUBLIX, of a tyrant, and Cardan praised the Emperor Nero. and all Booksellers.
Science and rts.
CONDUCTED BY WILLIAM AND ROBERT CHAMBERS.
SATURDAY, NOVEMBER 14, 1857.
ago--and here were they still taking part in the same THE MEETING AT BIRMINGHAM.
great movement for public good which they then If there are evils in our social state, it certainly is not supported. Another remarkable figure was that of for want of men with intelligence to perceive them, Robert Owen, who, at an equally remote period, was and benevolence to desire to see them remedied. For commencing some of the modern practices in education years past, the investigation of such evils has been a -originating for one thing the infant schools which conspicuous fact in our national life, to the obvious have since been so useful in our peculiarly employed abatement, as we think, of more purely political dis- community. cussions. At length, the tendency has worked itself The immediate business of the president was to read out in the formation of a society after the manner an address on the objects of the Association now about of the British Association for the Advancement of to be inaugurated. He commenced by distinguishing Science; like it, to hold a meeting once a year in some the objects of social science, and placing them under notable city—the special object being the discussion of their several heads of jurisprudence, the repression of matters affecting the wellbeing of society. The first crime, education, sanitary arrangements, and social meeting, as the newspapers have made generally economy. There must be benefits, he contended, from known, was commenced at Birmingham on the 12th bringing together those who chiefly devote themselves of October, under the presidency of Lord Brougham. to promote the inquiries and the measures connected
In the midst of that busy town rises a large Grecian with social improvement.' It would enable them to building entirely isolated, and containing little besides give mutual help in a common cause. “The increased one highly decorated hall designed for the public efficacy thus given to the efforts of each; the lights meetings of the citizens, of whom it is said upwards of struck out by full discussion with the valuable suggestwo thousand can sit within its walls. Here, on the tions thus produced, the experience, the reflections of evening of the above-mentioned day, a miscellaneous each being made, as it were, common to all; the assemblage was gathered together, filling every avail- security against error by timely examination of each able space excepting only an ascending platform at the plan before its author's prepossessions have become too upper end. By and by, a number of gentlemen, mostly deeply rooted, and before he has been committed to its of middle-aged appearance, began to enter by side- details; the authority given to proposals ultimately, doors and take seats on the platform, but still leaving and after mature deliberation persevered in, even if some of the front seats vacant. During a delay which not sanctioned by the assent of others; the influence took place, one might have heard individuals in the which may be acquired in various ways when that body of the hall pointing out to their friends persons sanction has been declared—these advantages attend of note upon the platform whom they recognised. At all such unions, and may be cited in favour of any length, a larger than usual group entered, including a combined operations, whatever be the nature of the gentleman of advanced age and slightly bent figure, subject.' Discussion, too, might remove grounds of who took the principal chair, while his companions dissent. “We have classical authority,' he went on to sat down on each side. The aforesaid individuals had say, 'for observing that, however unduly soever men of course no need to indicate to their friends that may differ in their reasonings upon human conduct, this central figure was the president of the newly it is singular how seldom they differ much in the born association, Lord Brougham. Entered upon his judgments which they form respecting it. We may eightieth winter, yet unbroken in physical force—as his go further, and affirm that there is less diversity of voice presently shewed-undecayed in intellect, and opinion than might be supposed, even upon general unflagging in the native energy towards useful objects, subjects, and that ignorance, or misinformation, or for which his whole life lias been remarkable, there he inattentive, and therefore inaccurate observation, or sat, while acclamation after acclamation acknowledged careless reflection, is the cause of most of those what men feel when they think of Henry Brougham. differences.' Near him were Lord John Russell, Lord Stanley, the As illustrations of the use of united action in accomHonourable Mr Cow per, Sir Jolin Pakington, Sir plishing desirable reforms, Lord Brougham referred to Fitzroy Kelly, Mr Monckton Milnes, Colonel Sykes, the history of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful and many other persons eminent in public life. It was Knowledge, which had had the effect of stimulating a interesting at such a moment to mark one veteran cheap and healthful literature, and that of the Society head, that of Professor Pillans of Edinburgh, and to for the Amendment of the Law, which for the last consider that Lord Brougham and he had been brother- twelve years has been prompting the legislature to contributors to the Edinburgh Review fully fifty years | many important measures.
He further referred to the
Reformatory Union which met last year at Bristol, and formerly take place, but in which of late years there to the Conference on Education which had been held had been a great tendency to interfere. Not that he this year under the presidency of the Prince Consort. was inclined to find fault with that interference, He conceived that the Association would serve to because he thought what had been done, had been done attract the attention of members of parliament to right; but it was a matter that deserved serious consubjects on which they ght otherwise remain ignor- sideration. There was no right more sacred than that ant. It would tend to inform all classes of the parents should have the care of their offspring in community on matters bearing greatly on their welfare. tender years. Of late years, however, it was argued His lordship concluded with an eloquent declamation by his noble friend, Lord Shaftesbury, that in certain on the benefits of knowledge.
kinds of manufacture they could not allow parents The company was afterwards addressed by Lord entirely to dispose of their children; that the work they John Russell and other gentlemen, regarding the endured was far too great; that it would destroy their objects of the Association. It was gratifying to witness strength and energy, and prevent them from receiving the cordiality with which Lord John was greeted, as if, any moral or religious education. It was argued step notwithstanding some recent instances of false position by step in the House of Commons, until it was said on the part of his lordship, there were a deep and that if they went further they would destroy oneabiding sense of his many merits and long-tried fidelity fourth of the manufacturing interests of the country as a public servant. It was even more gratifying to in textile fabrics ; that was to say, in cotton, wool, and observe the extremely favourable reception of Lord silk. That legislation took place, and the industry in Stanley. This young nobleman has in a manner broken textile manufactures had been increasing ever since. away from the trammels and temptations of his posi- He had frequently asked what were the bad effects of tion, to shun delights and live laborious days' for the the legislation, and found that it was bad in principle, benefit of his less fortunately situated fellow-creatures. but in practice it had been eminently successful. If, His father, three years ago, addressing the British then, it was good in practice, he thought there must Association at Liverpool, confessed he had been born be an error in the principle, and that it required modiin the pre-scientific era.' A prime-minister of Eng. fication. It had been said that “an Englishman's land acknowledging ignorance of those principles on house is his castle;" but Lord Shaftesbury argued, and which the happiness of a people chiefly depends! It he (Lord John Russell) thought truly, that he was must be felt as an improvement for a second genera- not to shoot poisoned arrows into the community from tion to devote itself to a knowledge of those very its battlements. Legislation also followed in this case, principles, so as to make legislative privilege a true not only with lodging-houses, but with regard to qualification. The company did not perhaps reflect on crowded dwellings in cities, and perhaps in London all this, but they knew that Lord Stanley took as much as in any other, there had been instances of trouble about things affecting the public welfare, and great crowding in small narrow compass, producing seemed to have a feeling of duty about them, and they injury to the health, morals, and religion of the comcheered him accordingly. On the whole, this first munity. Now, that was a subject in which it might evening passed off well, and appeared to leave a be considered how far legislation might interfere.' general conviction that the Association was likely Sir John Pakington followed with an exposition of to prove successful.
the posture of the education question, arguing that the A morning meeting took place in the same hall next difficulties in the way of a national system meeting day, in order to hear addresses from the presidents of the wants of the community ought to be grappled with, sections. Lord John, as chief of that of jurisprudence, and they would vanish. They had beside them, in made some good remarks on the province of legisla- the King Edward's School of Birmingham, a practical tion: ‘There was a time when personal freedom was solution of what was called the religious difficulty.* restrained by a number of petty rules and regulations; He admitted that, owing to the early removal of childthe operations of industry were controlled in the ren from school, comparatively little good was done same way. A very eminent manufacturer of France, by the present government grants, which parliament Colbert, thought he would promote his country's might by and by become, for that reason, indisposed wealth by regulating the manner in which silk should to continue. It was therefore necessary to devise be made-the length and breadth of the pieces—and means of keeping children longer at school : it might every workman who made them otherwise was put in be matter of experiment whether the giving of prizes, the pillory for the offence. At the same time, by way the certificate system, or the half-time system, were of encouraging the silk manufacture, he prevented calculated to be effective for this purpose. the competition of the Dutch in many articles. The The address of Lord Stanley was a masterly and consequence was, that the wines of France were no exhaustive statement of the sanitary question. Some longer sent to Holland, and the people of all the wine of the physical evils under which the community countries were almost reduced to ruin by these com- laboured could not be prevented. Some affecting mercial regulations, by which the wealth of France individuals, were only preventable at the will of indiwas to be augmented. It was at this time that an old viduals. A third and large class affected large classes merchant, wiser than Colbert, said: “Let them manu- of men, the cause lying in some known external facture as they please, and introduce goods when they noxious agency, whether connected with occupation or can.” The advice was set aside for a time, and he was locality, which was capable of being removed. What sorry to say, that in England, as in France, the opinion sanitarians concerned themselves with was the abateprevailed that they must make a country rich by legis- ment and removal of agencies thus pressing on the lation. It was not until late times that men in this public health. They held that the knowledge which country, and the minority in other parts of Europe, came to the conclusion that it was wise to allow every
* It was subsequently stated in a paper by the Rev. E. H. man to make himself rich in his own way. He recol- Gifford, head-master of this school, that it contained 465 pupils, of lected well when it was said, in answer to Mr Huskisson: nearly all the ordinary denominations, including upwards of 300 “You must not allow French gloves to come into of the established church. Yet no difficulty was felt. the country, because they are better and cheaper.” Jews were not expected to learn the New Testament; and the
instructed together in the Scriptures, with the exception that Huskisson persevered, however ; and the result was, Church Catechism was not enforced
when objection was made by not only that the consumer had better and cheaper the parents.'. Mr Gifford consequently believed that when the gloves, but that our manufacturers had flourished and preliminary difficulty of discussing and defining the rules for the increased more than they did at any other time. There a very small share of candour and common sense would suffice to
religious instruction of a school could be avoided or surmounted, was another operation in which legislation did not remove all difficulties in practice."
6 All were
could ward off preventable disease from the naturally peace, to extend commerce, to hold our own among healthy, ought to be a part of the education of every many rivals, alike by arts and arms-it concerns us, I person. “This knowledge ought to be diffused, because say, that strong hands shall be forthcoming to wield in matters which concerned the public in its collective either sword or spade—that vigorous constitutions be capacity, such as the cleansing of rivers, the drainage not wanting to endure the vicissitudes of climate, and of towns, the exclusion from populous districts of the labours of a settler in a new country. I believe noxious employments, and the like, those by whom that, whatever exceptions may be found in individual sanitary reforms were imperfectly appreciated would instances, when you come to deal with men in the
be found hostile to them on the ground of expense, and mass, physical and moral decay necessarily go togebecause a large proportion of those remedial sanitary ther; and it would be small satisfaction to know measures which it was in the power of society to that we had, through a series of ages, successfully apply to physical ills, were of such a nature that no resisted every external agency if we learned too late police regulation, no Board of Health, no legislative that that vigour and energy for which ours stands enactments, could successfully interfere to enforce confessedly pre-eminent among the races of the world, them without the co-operation of the parties con- were being undermined by a secret but irresistible cerned, such as the cleansing and ventilation of private agency, the offspring of our own neglect, against dwellings.' Inquiry fully brought out the proofs that which science and humanity had warned us in vain.' circumstances under human control greatly affected The sections set to work that afternoon in their
human life. For example, the mortality of our troops several rooms in the Queen's College, and renewed in barrack-life at home was as 17:8 (nearly 18) per their meetings during each of the two ensuing days. 1000 annually; in the Guards in London, no less than They were well attended, and it was gratifying to 20per 1000; while in general society, at the same observe the quality of the men present. We had not period of life, it was a little under 12 per 1000. previously any conception of there being so many men [Strange to say, the mortality of the inmates of our of rank, of professional eminence and intelligencejails is below that of the soldiery.] It was calculated magistrates, clergymen, engineers, architects, physicians, that in England and Wales there were 115,000 deaths teachers—having these benefits for their fellow-countryfrom preventable causes. [This infers a great loss of men at heart, and willing to take so much trouble with capital to the community, for every useful man in middle a view to their being realised. The difficulty was, not life represents a considerable sum of money-namely, to get able and useful papers to be read, but to get that which has been laid out in rearing and educating time in which to read them. There was something him.] It had been shewn how much evil the community novel and striking in seeing an ex-premier and an incurred through the widowhood and orphanage ex-chancellor at the head of a little preliminary parliaarising from premature deaths. In Manchester, in ment, as it might be called, shaping out work for the 1842, there were 27,000 cases of premature widow- actual legislature. It is admitted that in this departhood, and 100,000 orphans thrown upon the poor- ment practical progress was made in regard to one rates, creating a yearly loss of L.2,000,000, and branch of law, that relating to bankruptcy. There leading to a deterioration of the people, as the were also important matters under consideration in the destitute children grew up in unfavourable circum- section on criminal reformatories. Mr M. D. Hill, stances. Glancing at the visitation of cholera in 1854, the president, recorder of Birmingham, gave a most his lordship stated that in one district, where the popu- interesting account, from his own recent observation, lation was 915 to the square mile, the deaths averaged of the progress of a system in Ireland for turning 65 to each 10,000 persons living; while in another convicts to use in public works, while at the same district with 234 to the square mile, they averaged time giving them such motives to good conduct that only 7 to the 10,000; and in other districts of only 122 they do reform, and are either enabled to emigrate to the square mile, there were no deaths from this hopefully, or are taken into respectable employmentcause at all. His lordship adverted to noxious trades, the crucial test, as he well remarked, of such a scheme. close work-rooms, ill-ventilated houses, and deficient There was also a paper by the benevolent Miss sewerage or drainage as causes of disease and premature Carpenter on girls' reformatories, treating the whole death, and likewise to intemperate habits, which, there matter in a most cautious and discriminating manner, was reason to suppose, often arose from those very and shewing how much good might be done in this conditions. It became a most important question, how department by the females of the leisurely classes. far the state could interfere to protect and improve In the Sanitary Section, there was a great amount the public health ; important not merely for each of excellent observation brought forward, on the individual life, but for the general interest of the various subjects of improved dwellings for the workcommunity. 'Dry and unattractive,' said his lord- ing-classes, ventilation, increased space for population, ship, “as sanitary studies may appear, they belong to and drainage of towns. The Rev. C. Hartshorne gave the patriot no less than the philanthropist : they an interesting description of the houses lately built by touch very nearly the future prosperity and the the Duke of Bedford, Earl Spencer, and the Duke of national greatness England. Do not fancy that Northumberland, for the labourers on their estates, the mischief done by disease spreading through the exhibiting a large outlay, and perhaps too fine a style community is to be measured by the number of deaths of building, as we thought, so that the rents paid give which ensue. That is the least part of the result, as a return in no case reaching 3 per cent., yet pleasing in a battle, the killed bear but a small proportion to in the main, as shewing that these benevolent nobles the wounded. It is not merely by the crowded hospi- contemplated a better return in the health, contenttals, the frequent funerals, the destitution of families, ment, and moral improvement of their people. At or the increased pressure of public burdens, that you the same time, a gentleman explained that improved may test the sufferings of a nation over which sickness cottages might be built for L.70, with a third aparthas passed. The real and lasting injury lies in the dete- ment in the attic for L.5 additional. The views of the rioration of race, in the seeds of disease transmitted to section seemed greatly turned towards the erection of future generations, in the degeneracy and decay which groups of dwellings for the town-working populations, are never detected till the evil is irreparable, and of in rural situations, accessible at a cheap rate by railwhich, even then, the cause remains often undiscovered. ways. Here, however, the unfortunate fact presents It concerns us if the work of England be that of itself, that all new dwellings built for town-workers colonisation and dominion abroad - if wild hordes and become occupied solely by the superior individuals of savage races are to be brought by our agency under their class, leaving the old dwellings as densely peopled the influence of civilised man-if we are to maintain | as ever by a comparatively refuse population, and