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There was rather a sharp breeze sweeping along the for some means of whiling away the time; and his strand-road; and Mick, a martyr to his own discovery, attention being attracted by a basket of visiting-cards was fain to keep his hand on the top of the tumbler, lying on the table, he began to turn them over, withuntil the sensation of burning becoming intolerable, he out, however, deriving much amusement from the used to remove the aggrieved member for a moment, mere perusal of a set of well-known names. Raising and shake it well. We could hear him, at the same his eyes from this profitless employment, he happened time, mutter sotto voce : Bad luck to it!-'tis more to glance at the opposite wall, where the officers' greatthrouble than the lantern, afther all!'
coats were hanging in a row; and a bright idea struck At length we reached our friend's house in safety, him. We know, on good Dr Watts's authority, who guided, as her son remarked, 'by a Will-o'-the-Wisp, it is that "finds some mischief still for idle bands to if not by a Jack-o'-the-Lantern.'
do;' and assuredly the inspiration seemed not wanting Mrs Bennett returned with us that night, her home on the present occasion. Hastily selecting a number ward path lying in the same direction as ours. The of ladies' cards, appertaining to our single as well as wind liad gone down and the moon risen, and very our married notabilities, he stuffed them promiscuously calm and beautiful was the scene around. On one into the pockets of the greatcoats; and then, in a calm side were fields and groves stretching down to the and complacent frame of mind, accompanied his wife road; on the other, the gently plashing tide washed and sister into the reception-room. A pleasant, merry the low parapet-wall which bounded the footpath. party it was: the rooms certainly were scarcely large Not a human being did we see during our walk. enough for the amount of polking required to fit into Mick kept close behind us, ostensibly in dutiful them; and the consequent collisions, or collusions,' as attendance, but really because he was fully persuaded an old friend of mine always says, were neither few nor that the road was 'airy'-that is, haunted by ghosts; noiseless. and nothing, I suppose, would have induced him to *Young Waters trod on my toes,' said Mr Digby, travel it alone.
'but I paid him off in the next polka, for I gave him "What a lovely night, Mrs Bennett,' I said. “I am a blow of Georgiana Wilson, which sent him spinning sure, only for the sake of appearances, we do not want across the room.' The probably unpleasant effect rea servant, or any one else, to protect us.'
sulting to the young lady, of being thus made useful No, indeed. Angelina and I often walk here until in the novel character of an offensive weapon, never it is quite late, and we never met any one to speak to, seemed to trouble her chivalrous partner. except one night, when a poor, civil, drunken man *Ah!' observed one of the officers, a remarkably asked us to allow him to walk along with us, in order tall, stout, and awkward-looking son of Mars, as he to prevent the police from arresting him.'
endeavoured, with an assumption of languid grace, to And did you consent, Mrs Bennett ?' I asked, with walk through a quadrille with a smart, espiègle, brightsome curiosity; for although I knew her and her eyed little damsel-'Ah, they might as well ask a sister to be about the most good-natured women in man to waltz round a washing-basin, as to daunce in Ballygarriffe, I really scarcely thought their kindness such a room as this!' of heart would carry them that length.
Certainly,' was the reply--and the rosy lips that "To be sure we did ; and he walked along with us uttered it scarcely reached the hero's massy shoulder quite civilly, until we got to our own door ; only saying - even the ocean, you know, appears small when now and then: “Do you think, ma'am, the police will Leviathan taketh liis pastime therein.' Thanks to the take me up ?” And we used to say: "O no; make your extremely compressed dimensions of the quadrille, this mind easy, we'll protect you!” So he thanked us, retort of little Miss Davies was heard by every one and got into the ferry-boat, and I hope the men in it engaged in it; and the captain was ever afterwards took good care of him, and did not let him fall known at mess by the sobriquet of 'Leviathan.' overboard.'
There was a capital supper; plenty of good things "Good-night, Mrs Bennett,' I said, cordially pressing were eaten, and plenty of good things were said during hier hand; “I'm glad we did not meet any drunken its progress. And then came more dancing, and the men, whether civil or uncivil, to-night.'
mirth grew fast and furious ; nor was it until long
after daybreak that the young ladies and the officers It was duly announced one day in Ballygarriffe that found themselves restored to their respective quarters. Miss Saunders was going to give a large party, a real It was rather late the following day when the undeniable ball; and in order to furnish the necessary military gentlemen discovered the fair ones' cards quota of partners for the young ladies, our village lying snugly concealed in their pockets. A council contingent being quite inadequate, and the demand of war, or rather of courtesy, was held, and it was far exceeding the supply, the hostess was obliged to decided nem. con., that it must be the custom among have recourse to the nearest garrison-town.
the wild Irish, when they wish to make the acquaintThe officers then stationed there were all English, ance of strangers, for the ladies to take the initiative and being quite fresh arrivals, they knew nothing after this singular fashion. whatever of our village or its society; but finding Hang it, there were some smart, pretty girls among their quarters extremely dull, they were delighted to them,' said one gay lieutenant; and I vote we go accept Miss Saunders’s invitation; and, accordingly, down in the next train, and pay a round of visits at five gay military heroes made their appearance at the Ballygarriffe. It would be a pity to disappoint the appointed time.
dear creatures.' It happened that amongst the native guests invited The proposition was carried by acclamation; the were Mr Taylor, his wife and sister; and it so chanced ladies both young and elderly, quite innocent of foregone that they arrived rather fashionably late, some time conclusions, were charmed with the affable small-talk after the officers had made their appearance. Having, of their military visitors. Walking-parties, boatingaccording to our primitive custom, walked from their parties, dinners, and picnics, were speedily organised; home, the two ladies were shewn up-stairs by their papas, husbands, and brothers amiably consenting to hostess's neat maid, in order to have an opportunity of leave their cards at the barracks; and an inordinate bestowing a little mutual adjustment on their coiffures. quantity of flirtation was of course the natural and And this process proving of somewhat a lengthy nature, necessary result. Mr Taylor was left far longer than he approved of, to Two bonâ fide matches also, which, I am happy to stand in the hall and await, with what patience he say, are likely to turn out very well, trace their origin might, the tardy descent of his fair womankind. Being to Mr Taylor's idle five minutes in Miss Saunders’s naturally of an active disposition, he looked around | hall; and I have just lieard of a third as on the tapis.
Little Miss Davies has actually determined to tempt counties, Devon and Cornwall, it amounts to L.90,000 the perilous ocean of matrimony in company with per annum; and all the while the light is imperfect, Leviathan, who, she thinks, is likely to prove a better and the effect on the air of the mine highly deleterious. partner for life than he did in that memorable Mr Wright, the author of the paper, described an quadrille.
experiment made at Balleswidden Mine, which proved entirely successful. Gas was forced by pressure down
the shaft-a depth of 780 feet—and all the ladders and THE MONTH:
workings were lighted, to the satisfaction of all con
cerned. The annual cost of candles had been L.834 ; SCIENCE AND ARTS.
of gas, it was not more than L.487; and, besides, the BEFORE this goes before the public, the launch of the ventilation was better, there was an entire absence Great Eastern or Leviathan will probably have been of the sickening smoke and bad odour previously accomplished. The disappointment in the first attempts pervading the mine, arising probably from some parwas the greater, that the company are in want of ticular compounds of hydrogen and carbon, given off money, and hoped to raise L.100,000 on mortgage of the during the imperfect combustion of the candles.' big ship, when once she should be in the water. The Indeed, the introduction of gas appears to be advandelay revived the question as to the economy of such risk of explosion in the Cornish mines, Mr Wright
tageous in every respect; and although there is no a monster. Certain shrewd shipowners say that 1500 sees no reason why the system should not be extended tons is the largest size that pays, and they ask saga to mines generally, and under certain precautionary ciously, whether any government will risk ten thousand measures, to coal-mines.' troops at once in one vessel ? Only let the Leviathan Mr Peter Barlow is busy with the subject he take her plunge, and these and other interesting brought before the British Association at Dublin,
‘On the Mechanical Effect of Girders and Suspensionquestions will be answered. Nothing came of the electric light, which we were do so by experiment, that the most economical bearer
chains;' he demonstrates by reasoning, and seeks to told was to be used on the same occasion. It has been of a railway bridge is a suspended iron girder. He tried, however, a few miles higher up the Thames, to proves, what Mr Fairbairn admits, that the Britannia light the workmen employed on the new Westminster Bridge over the Menai is five times as heavy as it Bridge, and with a result which appears fatally objec- ought to be, and might have been with perfect safety. tionable. Its intensity produces shadows so very The people at Montreal might perhaps save a million black, that the workmen were continually betrayed or two of dollars were they to adopt Mr Barlow's in their movements, and fell off the stages into the method. But of all the projects recently initiated or water. Something yet remains to be done to make direct between France and England are the most
revived, those for effecting railway communication the electric light practically available: for operations astonishing. M. de Gamond proposes a tunnel to under water it answers well.
run under the bed of the Channel, with shafts rising Some years ago we noticed a series of promising at intervals as towers above the water, to insure venelectrical experiments made by Mr Baggs at the tilation; and an artificial island to be formed midway, Polytechnic Institution; and we are glad to find that as a convenient station and universal port. He has he continued his researches. He has now a scheme published a quarto volume, with map and plans on the for accelerating the transmission of messages by the for building a bridge, to rest on great piers erected
subject. An English engineer, on the other hand, is electric telegraph—a useless scheme, as some will think. at intervals of about 500 feet all across from Dover But although the signals fly fast enough along the cliffs to Cape Grisnez. We mention these schemes wire, the manipulation by which they are produced is as characteristics of the age; not that we think them comparatively slow. A clerk cannot by any possibility likely to be carried out, or that it would be desirable spell more than a certain number of words in a minute, to attempt by any such means to abolish the 'narrow and Mr Baggs purposes to get over the inconvenience seas.' Less magnificent, but more useful, is the proby employing steam. He takes a band of gutta-percha posal—which at last seems to be made in earnest-to which is pierced with holes ; into these holes, pins are along some of our principal metropolitan thoroughfares.
get parliamentary sanction for omnibus - tramways inserted, which represent the message, and the bands
When the calculating-machine, invented by Mr being set in motion by the steam-engine, the pins Scheutz of Stockholm, was exhibited at Somerset make contact in passing with the signal apparatus, House and in other places, we more than once drev and thus deliver the message to the wire with all attention to its merits. We rejoice for the inventors' desirable rapidity. This application of power to sakes— father and son-to hear that our government telegraphy, if it can be realised in practice, involves have bespoken one of their machines for the use of the important consequences, especially with a sub-Atlantic registrar-general. That useful and industrious funccable in prospect, and the under-sea lines to the Levant. tionary will employ it to calculate the tables, and It may be necessary to remind our readers that Mr arrive at the data which add so materially to the value ' Baggs employs frictional and not galvanic electricity, of his periodical Reports. Another kind of machine, finding it better suited to the required work. The talked about by Mr Mechi, at an agricultural meeting lines of telegraph across the Mediterranean are coming in Essex, seems to foretoken a marked change in the into operation, and Paris has been brought into com- cultivation of farms. It is described as an implement munication with Africa. The first messages were sent combining a railway, adapted for agricultural purfrom Algiers to Bon; thence by way of Sardinia, poses, patented by Mr Halkett, by which he promises Corsica, Spezzia, Piedmont, Savoy, Chambéry to to plough land at 1s. 7d. the acre; hoe it at 1s. 3d.; Marseille.
get in the harvest at 1s. the acre; and carry the The Institution of Civil Engineers opened their manure, &c., of the farm at 1d. per ton per mile. If session with papers on practical subjects : On Light- all this can be realised, it will be interesting to watch ing Mines by Gas,' for example, the importance of the effect of such an implement on the condition of the which may be inferred from the fact that the esti- rural labourers. mated cost of the oil and tallow burnt in the mines Mr Wyatt Papworth's paper, read at the Institute of of England is L.500,000 a year. In one of the Cornish British Architects, entitled . An Attempt to determine mines the expense is L.7000; and taking the two the Periods, in England, when Fir, Deal, and House
Painting were First Introduced,' is worth attention, commendable practice of ignoring nationalities, and of and as likely to be acceptable to the general reader as seeking only to encourage science in the award of their to the profession. Mr Papworth shews that deal boards honourable distinctions. were imported from Norway at the early date of 1272. Dr Livingstone has set off on his return to Africa, In Elizabeth's reign, fir was largely used; hence it is a rich in fame and fortune, but not beyond his deserts. popular error to believe that our ancient houses were We hear that the sale of his book has produced built exclusively of oak timber. Painting of wood him not less a sum than L.5000. He goes first work begins to be mentioned in the thirteenth century; to Lisbon, to confer with the Portuguese government but in that and the fourteenth, whitewash was the on the question he has so much at heart; and in the favourite mask of walls inside as well as outside course of a few months we may hope to hear of his the house, and in London, the thatch even was doing great things towards the introduction of trade whitened - perhaps as protection against fire. Mr among the natives of Africa. He is now independent; Papworth concludes his paper with some excellent and being so thoroughly self-reliant, he will not be practical remarks on house-painting, which explain one to shrink from any labours which may seem to wherein consists the difference between good work and him a duty. Apart from the story of his adventures, bad work, and reveals some of the tricks of the trade; his book is valuable for the incidental glimpses of but as this is a part of the subject we have heretofore character it affords, for its plain dealing with the noticed, further mention of it here may be dispensed faults and blunders of the Cape government, and with with.
the want of moral conscience among the Boers. We The first meeting of the Royal Society-the first of may mention here that Lord Clarendon has promised a session as important to science as that of parliament that a vessel shall be despatched forthwith to explore is to the nation-was made attractive by General the Zambesi. Good news this for cutlers and cottonSabine's viva voce exposition of his paper on the spinners. magnetic observations made by the captain and officers Mr Fortune, who has come home, and written a third of the Plover, while they lay for three years at Point book about China, has had an offer from the United Barrow during the search for Franklin. To an States government of the agency for the introduction outsider there may not appear anything very astonish- and culture of Chinese productions within the States. ing in such a work; but these observations are of -We are to have now a weekly mail to India, and especial interest, inasmuch as they shew that what are there is some talk of introducing our alphabet for called magnetic storms'—that is, unusual disturb- native use into that country.–At Irkutsk--far away ances of the magnets—take place simultaneously at within the Arctic Circle--the Russians have a gymnaPoint Barrow, and at Toronto in Canada, but in pre- sium or college, in which German was one of the cisely opposite directions. In this opposition General languages taught. By a recent ukase, German is to Sabine believes a clue may be found to one of the be dropped in favour of English, or, as the imperial causes of terrestrial magnetism, and that if observa- document has it, the American language.' The tions were made in a spot about midway between Russians have a settlement at the mouth of the the two, a neutral point would in all probability be Amoor, to which the Americans trade; hence, to discovered; and this point once clearly made out, facilitate intercourse, this language is to be studied in the way, full of promise, would be open for further the schools. A few years ago, we gave a brief sumdiscoveries. The question is considered to be of such mary of an American's project for an exploration of importance that government have been asked to send the Amoor, and to penetrate to the interior of Tatary out an expedition to the arctic coast to make observa- along the great stream. tions about the mouth of Mackenzie River, in which News has been received from Mr Palliser, who, as latitude it is thought the neutral point will be found. we mentioned some months ago, started with an Three years of observations would be required to expedition to explore unknown parts of British North furnish trustworthy data, and to admit of the neces- America, between the head-waters of the Missouri and sary comparison with those made in other places. the Saskatchewan. The region comprehends 112,000
St Andrew's Day brought, as usual, the anniversary square miles, inhabited partly by Indians. A primary meeting of the Royal Society-their first in Burling- object of the expedition is, to find a practicable paston House. Lord Wrottesley, the president, shewed in sage across the Rocky Mountains in that latitude, by his address from the chair, that science has not been which safe communication may be established between idle of late: he summed up her achievements, spoke Canada and Vancouver's Island -a matter likely to confidently of the future, and then distributed the become of great importance. At the date of bis disrewards by which the Society mark their appreciation patches, Mr Palliser was at Red River settlement-a of meritorious achievements. He gave a royal medal place of which it is said that it has been helped into to Professor E. Frankland of St Bartholomew's helplessness; and he intended to winter at Carlton Hospital for his valuable chemical researches, particu- House Fort, and to get across to the Pacific in the larly on the constitution of the alcohols ; another to course of 1858. He had visited the Kakabaka Falls Dr Lindley, the well-known botanist and author of on White Fish River, which plunge down a height of works on botany ; and the Copley medal to Michel- 171 feet, and he considers that they form a grander Eugène Chevreul, a French savant to whom chemistry spectacle than Niagara. and art are largely indebted. By his investigations We learn from Norway, that the last winter in and experiments upon saponaceous compounds, he Greenland was so unusually severe, that five hundred determined the true cause and nature of saponification, persons died of hunger, owing to their ordinary supand opened thereby the way for a new branch of plies being cut off by the terrible weather. Let us industry, now highly appreciated by thousands in the hope that the present winter is merciful to Captain form of stearine and composite candles. But for M'Clintock and his little band of adventurers who Chevreul's experiments, the obtaining of hard and are out to search for relics of Franklin.—We add to valuable fats from coarse low-priced oils would prob- this a fact about our own weather. On that wet ably not yet have been possible, nor would organic Thursday, October 22, which broke up the dry season, chemistry have become the master-science it now is. two and a half inches of rain fell, thus giving in Although aged, Chevreul still pursues his researches one day more than a tenth of the whole annual rainwith enthusiasm. His recent work on the Law of the fall. The London districts included in the RegistrarContrast of Colours, has made his name familiar to a general's Reports comprise 78,000 acres, and it has large class of students who are not chemists. We are been computed that twenty million tons of water fell glad to observe that the Royal Society maintain their within that area on the day in question.
They could give only one answer—No.' Let the next
question be-'When you extended your transactions BANKS AS THEY WERE, ARE, AND OUGHT TO BE.
beyond the limits of your own resources, was it currency BANKERS used to consider themselves (some still do]
as a medium of exchange that you wanted, or capital ?' bound to have a positive knowledge of the soundness of | Only one answer could be returned to this questionthe parties upon whose bills they advanced the money of It was capital. Then let them be asked : Do banks their customers. They discounted, in fact, within the supply capital to manufacturers and merchants ? They circle of their own acquaintance; they gave legitimate would probably answer, 'Yes; that is one of the objects of help to legitimate trading, they distributed the help fairly; the capital which they lend ? From their shareholders
their institution.' •Whence, then, do the banks derive and they kept, besides, a sufficient reserve to make them easy about the demands of their depositors. Of course, deficient, do you mean that all the gold and convertible
and depositors.' • When you say that the currency is on this system no large interest, if any interest at all
, bank-notes in the United Kingdom are not sufficient to could be allowed upon deposits; and fortunes were not to enable merchants to buy goods and pay debts in any part be made in a few years.
Gradually, however, has grown up a totally different of the world, provided they possess a legitimate command system, and, under stress of unhealthy competition, bank- over these by having deposits or balances at their credit ing has been driven from its safe and honest course. The with their bankers ?' We should like to hear their answer banks and bill-brokers have become the upholders of to this question. It could not, consistently with reason, fictitious credit, and the finders of capital for the conduct be in the negative. We should follow it up by asking : 'Or, of enormous businesses by men of no means. Instead of do you mean that persons who are carrying on trade discounts belonging to real trade, they keep afloat millions greatly beyond the limits of their own resources, and have upon millions of bills that represent no value whatever ;
no balances of their own with their bankers, find it diffiand uphold a rotten competition, that robs fair traders of cult, especially when their solvency comes to be doubted, their rightful profits, and involves honest men in the ruin to obtain gold and bank-notes, on easy terms, to serve of rogues. The joint-stock banks keep little or no reserve them as capital in sustaining their overgrown transacof their customers' money: it is out on mortgage, out on
tions ?' The answer to this question would, we think, ships, out on loans at fixed periods, out on bills, out on call bring out the fact, that currency has never been wanting with the bill-brokers. By these shifts, they pay large to those who hold balances with their bankers; and that dividends, and run large risks, at the peril of their share it has been gold and bank-notes to officiate as capital that holders and depositors.
embarrassed traders have really been demanding. Surely no one imagines that the Liverpool Borough
We should then proceed: When the banks have Bank, the Western of Scotland, the Staffordshire and advanced, in loans and discounts to merchants, all their Wolverhampton, or the Northumberland and Durham subscribed capital, and as large a portion of their deposits district bank, have been compelled to close their doors suffice to supply the wants of men who are trading on
as they should, in prudence, part with—if these do not from losses in the true business of banking. It is not as borrowed capital—is it the duty of government to come bankers, but as traders, as money-lenders, as builders of ships and warehouses, as pushers of trade and stampers issue notes for their accommodation, without reference to
to the aid of such borrowers, and permit the banks to of worthless bills for bankrupts or penniless men, that they their ability to convert them into specie on demand?' have failed. The closing of their doors comes of a career deserving exposure and punishment, and the non-exposure The answer to this question would, in our opinion, shew of which, more than the failure of the banks, is a public that the opponents of the Bank Restriction Act, under the calamity.-R.' in the Leader. The remedy proposed is, equivoque that the currency is deficient, really demand an that the Bank of England shall charge 1 per cent unlimited supply of inconvertible bank-notes, which may additional on re-discounts.
serve them as capital in maintaining their speculations.
NEW ROMANCE BY MAYNE REID. once as capital and currency, has led the public mind into inextricable confusion on the subject of restriction, of On the 2d of January 1858 will appear in this Journal which the advocates of unrestricted issues have largely
the commencement of availed themselves. The mystery may be cleared up by calling the managers and directors of the Western
OÇ EOLA: Bank, and others in similar circumstances, and the A STORY OF THE SEMINOLE WAR. insolvent merchants to whom they have advanced the capital and deposits of their confiding customers, before a
BY CAPTAIN MAYNE REID, committee of the House of Commons, and examining them
AUTHOR OF THE 'WAR-TRAIL &c. as to the causes of the present commercial embarrass
To be continued weekly till completed. ments. Let the merchants be asked— When you had funds of your own in any of the banks of your district,
The present number of the Journal completes the Eighth did you find a difficulty in obtaining currency with which Volume, for which a title-page and index have been prepared, to conduct your exchanges both at home and abroad ? ) and may be had of the publishers and their agents.
END OF EIGHTH VOLUME.
Printed and Published by W. and R. Chambers,